Nuclear Development Publications


List of titles sorted by date
Nuclear Energy Today (2012)
Second Edition
The Supply of Medical Radioisotopes (2012)
Market Impacts of Converting to Low-enriched Uranium Targets for Medical Isotope Production
Nuclear Energy and Renewables (2012)
System Effects in Low-carbon Electricity Systems
Nuclear Energy and Renewables – Executive Summary (2012)
System Effects in Low-carbon Electricity Systems
The Supply of Medical Radioisotopes (2011)
The Path to Reliability
The Supply of Medical Radioisotopes (2010)
An Economic Study of the Molybdenum-99 Supply Chain: Summary
The Supply of Medical Radioisotopes (2010)
An Economic Study of the Molybdenum-99 Supply Chain
French R&D on the Partitioning and Transmutation of Long-lived Radionuclides (2006)
An International Peer Review of the 2005 CEA Report
Uranium 2005: Resources, Production and Demand (2006)
A Joint Report by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency
Actinide and Fission Product Partitioning and Transmutation (2005)
Eighth Information Exchange Meeting, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA, 9-11 November 2004
Nuclear Competence Building (2004)
Summary Report
Uranium 2003: Resources, Production and Demand (2004)
A Joint Report by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency
Decommissioning Nuclear Power Plants (2003)
Policies, Strategies and Costs
Innovative Nuclear Reactor Development (2002)
Opportunities for International Co-operation
Externalities and Energy Policy: The Life Cycle Analysis Approach (2002)
Workshop Proceedings, Paris, France, 15-16 November 2001
Trends in the Nuclear Fuel Cycle (2002)
Economic, Environmental and Social Aspects
Actinide and Fission Product Partitioning and Transmutation (2001)
Sixth International Information Exchange Meeting, Madrid, Spain, 11-13 December 2000
Nuclear Power Plant Life Management in a Changing Business World (2000)
Workshop Proceedings, Washington DC, United States, 26-27 June 2000
Uranium 1999: Resources, Production and Demand (2000)
A Joint report by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency
Back-end of the Fuel Cycle in a 1 000 Gwe Nuclear Scenario (1999)
Workshop Proceedings, Avignon, France, 6-7 October 1998
Glossary of Nuclear Power Plant Ageing (1999)
(English-French-German-Spanish-Russian)
Actinide and Fission Product Partitioning and Transmutation (1999)
Status and Assessment Report Synthèse des travaux
Actinide and Fission Product Partitioning and Transmutation (1999)
Proceedings of the Fifth International Information Exchange Meeting, Mol, Belgium, 25-27 November 1998
Uranium 1997: Resources, Production and Demand (1998)
A Joint report by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency
Cost of High-Level Waste Disposal in Geological Repositories (The) (1993)
An Analysis of Factors Affecting Cost Estimates

Detailed publication list

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Perceptions and Realities in Modern Uranium Mining – Extended Summary
English, 19 pages, published: 08/14/14
NEA#7063
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/pubs/2014/7063-mehium-es.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: L'extraction d'uranium aujourd'hui : perceptions et réalités – Résumé détaillé 
- English: Managing Environmental and Health Impacts of Uranium Mining
Producing uranium in a safe and environmentally responsible manner is not only important to the producers and consumers of the product, but also to society at large. Given expectations of growth in nuclear generating capacity and associated uranium demand in the coming decades – particularly in the developing world – enhancing awareness of leading practice in uranium mining is important. This extended summary of the report Managing Environmental and Health Impacts of Uranium Mining provides a brief outline of the driving forces behind the significant evolution of uranium mining practices from the time that uranium was first mined for military purposes until today.
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Managing Environmental and Health Impacts of Uranium Mining
English, 140 pages, published: 06/04/14
NEA#7062
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/pubs/2014/7062-mehium.pdf

Other language(s):
- English: Perceptions and Realities in Modern Uranium Mining – Extended Summary
- Français: L'extraction d'uranium aujourd'hui : perceptions et réalités – Résumé détaillé 
Uranium mining and milling has evolved significantly over the years. By comparing currently leading approaches with outdated practices, this report demonstrates how uranium mining can be conducted in a way that protects workers, the public and the environment. Innovative, modern mining practices combined with strictly enforced regulatory standards are geared towards avoiding past mistakes committed primarily during the early history of the industry when maximising uranium production was the principal operating consideration. Today?s leading practices in uranium mining aim at producing uranium in an efficient and safe manner that limits environmental impacts to acceptable standards. As indicated in this report, the collection of baseline environmental data, environmental monitoring and public consultation throughout the life cycle of the mine enables verification that the facility is operating as planned, provides early warning of any potentially adverse impacts on the environment and keeps stakeholders informed of developments. Leading practice also supports planning for mine closure before mine production is licensed to ensure that the mining lease area is returned to an environmentally acceptable condition. The report highlights the importance of mine workers being properly trained and well equipped, as well as that of ensuring that their work environment is well ventilated so as to curtail exposure to radiation and hazardous materials and thereby minimise health impacts.

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Nuclear Energy Data 2013/Données sur l'énergie nucléaire 2013
Bilingual, 92 pages, published: 12/03/13
NEA#7162
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/pubs/2013/7162-bb-2013.pdf
Nuclear Energy Data is the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency's annual compilation of statistics and country reports documenting the status of nuclear power in the OECD area. Information provided by member country governments includes statistics on installed generating capacity, total electricity produced by all sources and by nuclear power, nuclear energy policies and fuel cycle developments, as well as projected generating capacity and electricity production to 2035, where available. Total electricity generation at nuclear power plants and the share of electricity production from nuclear power plants declined in 2012 as a result of operational issues at some facilities and suspended operation at all but two reactors in Japan. Nuclear safety was further strengthened in 2012 following safety reviews prompted by the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident. Governments committed to maintaining nuclear power in the energy mix pursued initiatives to increase nuclear generating capacity. In Turkey, plans were finalised for the construction of the first four reactors for commercial electricity production. Further details on these and other developments are provided in the publication's numerous tables, graphs and country reports.

This publication contains 'StatLinks'. For each StatLink, the reader will find a URL which leads to the corresponding spreadsheet. These links work in the same way as an Internet link.


Les Donnees sur l'energie nucleaire, compilation annuelle de statistiques et de rapports nationaux de l'Agence de l'OCDE pour l'energie nucleaire, presente la situation de l'energie nucleaire dans les pays de l'OCDE. Les informations communiquees par les pouvoirs publics des pays membres de l'OCDE comprennent des statistiques sur la puissance nucleaire installee, la production d'electricite totale et nucleaire, les politiques nucleaires, les evolutions du cycle du combustible ainsi que, lorsqu'elles sont disponibles, des projections jusqu'en 2035 de la puissance nucleaire et de la production d'electricite. En 2012, la production totale d'electricite des centrales nucleaires mais aussi la part du nucleaire dans la production d'electricite ont diminue en raison de problemes d'exploitation rencontres par certaines installations et de la mise a l'arret de tous les reacteurs japonais sauf deux. A l'issue des reexamens de la surete entrepris apres l'accident de Fukushima Daiichi, la surete nucleaire s'est renforcee en 2012. Les pays decides a conserver le nucleaire dans leur mix energetique ont avance dans leurs projets d'augmentation de la puissance nucleaire installee. La Turquie a mis la derniere main au projet de construction de ses quatre premiers reacteurs destines a la production d'electricite. Le lecteur trouvera de plus amples informations sur ces evolutions et d'autres developpements dans les nombreux tableaux, graphiques et rapports nationaux que contient cet ouvrage.

Cette publication contient des < StatLinks >. Fonctionnant comme un lien internet, un StatLink fournit l'acces a la feuille de calcul correspondante.
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The Economics of the Back End of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle
English, 188 pages, published: 10/23/13
NEA#7061
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/pubs/2013/7061-ebenfc.pdf

Other language(s):
- English: The Economics of the Back End of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle - Executive Summary
- Français: Economie de l'aval du cycle du combustible nucléaire - Synthèse 
The feasibility and costs of spent nuclear fuel management and the consequent disposal of ultimate waste continue to be the subject of public debate in many countries, with particular concern often expressed over the lack of progress in implementing final disposal. Uncertainties about back-end costs and the financial risks associated with management of the back end have also been singled out as possible deterrents to investment in new nuclear power plants.

This report offers an appraisal of economic issues and methodologies for the management of spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste from commercial power reactors. It includes a review of different back-end options and current policies and practices, with a focus on the cost estimates for these options and the funding mechanisms in place or under consideration in OECD/NEA countries. A generic economic assessment of high-level estimates of back-end cost impacts on fuel cycle costs is undertaken for selected idealised scenarios, by means of a simple static model. Sensitivity analyses are conducted for the evaluation of uncertainties in major components and the identification of cost drivers. Since factors other than economics are an important part of the decision-making process, an analysis of the influence of key qualitative parameters in the selection of back-end strategies is also presented in this report.
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The Economics of the Back End of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle - Executive Summary
English, 16 pages, published: 10/23/13
NEA#7193
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/pubs/2013/7061-ebenfc-execsum.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Economie de l'aval du cycle du combustible nucléaire - Synthèse 
- English: The Economics of the Back End of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle

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Nuclear Energy Today
Second Edition
English, 120 pages, published: 12/21/12
NEA#6885, ISBN: 978-92-64-99204-7
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/pub/nuclearenergytoday/6885-nuclear-energy-today.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: L'énergie nucléaire aujourd'hui 
Meeting the growing demand for energy, and electricity in particular, while addressing the need to curb greenhouse gas emissions and to ensure security of energy supply, is one of the most difficult challenges facing the world’s economies. No single technology can respond to this challenge, and the solution which policy-makers are seeking lies in the diversification of energy sources.

Although nuclear energy currently provides over 20% of electricity in the OECD area and does not emit any carbon dioxide during production, it continues to be seen by many as a controversial technology. Public concern remains over its safety and the management of radioactive waste, and financing such a capital-intensive technology is a complex issue. The role that nuclear power will play in the future depends on the answers to these questions, several of which are provided in this up-to-date review of the status of nuclear energy, as well as on the outcome of research and development on the nuclear fuel cycle and reactor technologies.
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The Economics of Long-term Operation of Nuclear Power Plants
English, 114 pages, published: 12/19/12
NEA#7054, ISBN: 978-92-64-99205-4
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/reports/2012/7054-long-term-operation-npps.pdf
Refurbishment and long-term operation (LTO) of existing nuclear power plants (NPPs) today are crucial to the competitiveness of the nuclear industry in OECD countries as existing nuclear power plants produce baseload power at a reliable cost. A number of nuclear power plants, most notably 73 units in the United States (up to 2012), have been granted lifetime extensions of up to 60 years, a development that is being keenly watched in other OECD countries. In many of these (e.g. France, Switzerland), there is no legal end to the operating licence, but continued operation is based on the outcomes of periodic safety reviews.
This study analyses technical and economic data on the upgrade and lifetime extension experience in OECD countries. A multi-criteria assessment methodology is used considering various factors and parameters reflecting current and future financial conditions of operation, political and regulatory risks, the state of the plants’ equipment and the general role of nuclear power in the country’s energy policy.
The report shows that long-term operation of nuclear power plants has significant economic advantages for most utilities envisaging LTO programmes. In most cases, the continued operation of NPPs for at least ten more years is profitable even taking into account the additional costs of post-Fukushima modifications, and remains cost-effective compared to alternative replacement sources.
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The Supply of Medical Radioisotopes
Market Impacts of Converting to Low-enriched Uranium Targets for Medical Isotope Production
English, 64 pages, published: 12/18/12
NEA#7129, ISBN: 978-92-64-99197-2
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/reports/2012/7129-leu.pdf
The reliable supply of molybdenum-99 (99Mo) and its decay product, technetium-99m (99mTc), is a vital component of modern medical diagnostic practices. At present, most of the global production of 99Mo is from highly enriched uranium (HEU) targets. However, all major 99Mo-producing countries have recently agreed to convert to using low-enriched uranium (LEU) targets to advance important non-proliferation goals, a decision that will have implications for the global supply chain of 99Mo/99mTc and the long-term supply reliability of these medical isotopes.
This study provides the findings and analysis from an extensive examination of the 99Mo/99mTc supply chain by the OECD/NEA High-level Group on the Security of Supply of Medical Radioisotopes (HLG-MR). It presents a comprehensive evaluation of the potential impacts of converting to the use of LEU targets for 99Mo production on the global 99Mo/99mTc market in terms of costs and available production capacity, and the corresponding implications for long-term supply reliability. In this context, the study also briefly discusses the need for policy action by governments in their efforts to ensure a stable and secure long-term supply of 99Mo/99mTc.
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Nuclear Energy and Renewables
System Effects in Low-carbon Electricity Systems
English, 252 pages, published: 11/09/12
NEA#7056, ISBN: 978-92-64-18851-8
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/pubs/2012/7056-system-effects.pdf
This report addresses the increasingly important interactions of variable renewables and dispatchable energy technologies, such as nuclear power, in terms of their effects on electricity systems. These effects add costs to the production of electricity, which are not usually transparent. The report recommends that decision-makers should take into account such system costs and internalise them according to a “generator pays” principle, which is currently not the case. Analysing data from six OECD/NEA countries, the study finds that including the system costs of variable renewables at the level of the electricity grid increases the total costs of electricity supply by up to one-third, depending on technology, country and penetration levels. In addition, it concludes that, unless the current market subsidies for renewables are altered, dispatchable technologies will increasingly not be replaced as they reach their end of life and consequently security of supply will suffer. This implies that significant changes in management and cost allocation will be needed to generate the flexibility required for an economically viable coexistence of nuclear energy and renewables in increasingly decarbonised electricity systems.
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Nuclear Energy and Renewables – Executive Summary
System Effects in Low-carbon Electricity Systems
English, 16 pages, published: 11/05/12
NEA#7066
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/reports/2012/system-effects-exec-sum.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Énergies nucléaire et renouvelables – Synthèse 
This report addresses the increasingly important interactions of variable renewables and dispatchable energy technologies, such as nuclear power, in terms of their effects on electricity systems. These effects add costs to the production of electricity, which are not usually transparent. The report recommends that decision-makers should take into account such system costs and internalise them according to a “generator pays” principle, which is currently not the case. Analysing data from six OECD/NEA countries, the study finds that including the system costs of variable renewables at the level of the electricity grid increases the total costs of electricity supply by up to one-third, depending on technology, country and penetration levels. In addition, it concludes that, unless the current market subsidies for renewables are altered, dispatchable technologies will increasingly not be replaced as they reach their end of life and consequently security of supply will suffer. This implies that significant changes in management and cost allocation will be needed to generate the flexibility required for an economically viable coexistence of nuclear energy and renewables in increasingly decarbonised electricity systems.
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Uranium 2011: Resources, Production and Demand – Executive Summary
English, 8 pages, published: 11/01/12
NEA#7123
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/reports/2012/uranium-2011-exec-summary.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Uranium 2011 : Ressources, production et demande – Synthèse 
- Russian: Yран 2011: запасы, добыча и спрос – Краткий обзор 
In the wake of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident, questions are being raised about the future of the uranium market, including as regards the number of reactors expected to be built in the coming years, the amount of uranium required to meet forward demand, the adequacy of identified uranium resources to meet that demand and the ability of the sector to meet reactor requirements in a challenging investment climate. This 24th edition of the “Red Book”, a recognised world reference on uranium jointly prepared by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency, provides analyses and information from 42 producing and consuming countries in order to address these and other questions. It offers a comprehensive review of world uranium supply and demand as well as data on global uranium exploration, resources, production and reactor-related requirements. It also provides substantive new information on established uranium production centres around the world and in countries developing production centres for the first time. Projections of nuclear generating capacity and reactor-related requirements through 2035, incorporating policy changes following the Fukushima accident, are also featured, along with an analysis of long-term uranium supply and demand issues.
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Nuclear Energy Data 2012/Données sur l'énergie nucléaire 2012
Bilingual, 84 pages, published: 09/24/12
NEA#7058, ISBN: 978-92-64-17785-7
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/pubs/2012/7058-BB-2012.pdf
Nuclear Energy Data is the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency’s annual compilation of statistics and country reports documenting the status of nuclear power in the OECD area. Information provided by member country governments includes statistics on installed generating capacity, total electricity produced by all sources and by nuclear power, nuclear energy policies, fuel cycle developments, and projected generating capacity and electricity production to 2035, where available. Following the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in March 2011, total nuclear generating capacity and electricity generation declined, principally because of the permanent shutdown of 12 reactors (8 in Germany and 4 in Japan) and the prolonged shutdown of reactors in Japan. The Fukushima Daiichi accident also prompted safety reviews of existing nuclear facilities and led some governments to adopt nuclear phase-out plans. Other governments remained committed to maintaining nuclear power in the energy mix, in some cases pursuing plans to either increase nuclear generating capacity or, as in the cases of Poland and Turkey, to add nuclear generating capacity for the first time. Further details on these and other developments are provided in the publication’s numerous tables, graphs and country reports.
This publication contains “Statlinks”. For each StatLink the reader will find a url which leads to the corresponding spreadsheet. These links work in the same way as an Internet link.

Les Données sur l'énergie nucléaire, la compilation annuelle de statistiques et de rapports nationaux de l’Agence de l’OCDE pour l’énergie nucléaire, présentent des informations communiquées par les gouvernements des pays membres de l'OCDE sur la puissance nucléaire installée, la production d’électricité totale et nucléaire, les politiques nucléaires, les évolutions du cycle du combustible ainsi que, quand elles sont disponibles, des projections jusqu'en 2035 de la puissance nucléaire et de la production d'électricité. Au lendemain de l’accident survenu dans la centrale de Fukushima Daiichi en mars 2011, la puissance installée et la production du parc nucléaire global ont décliné, principalement du fait de la mise hors service de 12 réacteurs (8 en Allemagne et 4 au Japon) et de l’arrêt prolongé d’autres réacteurs au Japon. Cet accident a conduit à réaliser des évaluations de la sûreté des installations et incité certains pays à adopter des plans de sortie du nucléaire. D’autres, en revanche, restent déterminés à conserver le nucléaire dans leur bouquet énergétique, voire à s’équiper de tranches supplémentaires ou, comme la Pologne et la Turquie, de leur premier réacteur de puissance. Le lecteur trouvera de plus amples informations sur ces évolutions et d’autres développements dans les nombreux tableaux, graphiques et rapports nationaux que contient cet ouvrage.
Cette publication contient des « StatLinks ». Fonctionnant comme un lien internet, un StatLink fournit l'accès à la feuille de calcul correspondante.
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Uranium 2011: Resources, Production and Demand
English, 488 pages, published: 07/26/12
NEA#7059, ISBN: 978-92-64-17803-8
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/pubs/2012/7059-uranium-2011.pdf
In the wake of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident, questions are being raised about the future of the uranium market, including as regards the number of reactors expected to be built in the coming years, the amount of uranium required to meet forward demand, the adequacy of identified uranium resources to meet that demand and the ability of the sector to meet reactor requirements in a challenging investment climate. This 24th edition of the ?Red Book?, a recognised world reference on uranium jointly prepared by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency, provides analyses and information from 42 producing and consuming countries in order to address these and other questions. It offers a comprehensive review of world uranium supply and demand as well as data on global uranium exploration, resources, production and reactor-related requirements. It also provides substantive new information on established uranium production centres around the world and in countries developing production centres for the first time. Projections of nuclear generating capacity and reactor-related requirements through 2035, incorporating policy changes following the Fukushima accident, are also featured, along with an analysis of long-term uranium supply and demand issues.
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The Role of Nuclear Energy in a Low-carbon Energy Future
English, 92 pages, published: 06/18/12
NEA#6887, ISBN: 978-92-64-99189-7
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/nsd/reports/2012/nea6887-role-nuclear-low-carbon.pdf
This report assesses the role that nuclear energy can play in supporting the transition to a low-carbon energy system. It begins by considering the greenhouse gas emissions from the full nuclear fuel cycle, reviewing recent studies on indirect emissions and assessing the impact that nuclear power could make in reducing greenhouse gas emissions.
The report provides estimates of the construction rates that would be needed to meet the projected expansion of nuclear power foreseen by many energy scenarios published by international organisations. It then assesses the economic, technical, societal and institutional challenges represented by such an expansion to identify the most significant barriers. The capacity of nuclear power plants to operate in an electricity system with a large share of renewables, and the impact of smart grid technologies are also examined. Finally, long-term prospects for nuclear energy are discussed in terms of development of new reactor and fuel cycle technologies, non-electric applications and new operational and regulatory constraints that could arise as a consequence of climate change.
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Nuclear Education and Training: From Concern to Capability
English, 200 pages, published: 04/12/12
NEA#6979, ISBN: 978-92-64-17637-9
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/pubs/2012/6979-nuclear-education.pdf
The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) first published in 2000 Nuclear Education and Training: Cause for Concern?, which highlighted significant issues in the availability of human resources for the nuclear industry. Ten years on, Nuclear Education and Training: From Concern to Capability considers what has changed in that time and finds that, while some countries have taken positive actions, in a number of others human resources could soon be facing serious challenges in coping with existing and potential new nuclear facilities. This is exacerbated by the increasing rate of retirement as the workforce ages. This report provides a qualitative characterisation of human resource needs and appraises instruments and programmes in nuclear education and training initiated by various stakeholders in different countries. In this context, it also examines the current and future uses of nuclear research facilities for education and training purposes. Regarding the nuclear training component of workforce competence, it outlines a job taxonomy which could be a basis for addressing the needs of workers across this sector. It presents the taxonomy as a way of enhancing mutual recognition and increasing consistency of education and training for both developed and developing countries.
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Nuclear Education and Training: From Concern to Capability – Executive Summary
English, 12 pages, published: 04/04/12
NEA#7112
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/reports/2012/nuclear-edu-training-ex.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Enseignement et formation dans le domaine nucléaire : moins d'inquiétudes, plus de compétences – Synthèse 
The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) first published in 2000 Nuclear Education and Training: Cause for Concern?, which highlighted significant issues in the availability of human resources for the nuclear industry. Ten years on, Nuclear Education and Training: From Concern to Capability considers what has changed in that time and finds that, while some countries have taken positive actions, in a number of others human resources could soon be facing serious challenges in coping with existing and potential new nuclear facilities. This is exacerbated by the increasing rate of retirement as the workforce ages. This report provides a qualitative characterisation of human resource needs and appraises instruments and programmes in nuclear education and training initiated by various stakeholders in different countries. In this context, it also examines the current and future uses of nuclear research facilities for education and training purposes. Regarding the nuclear training component of workforce competence, it outlines a job taxonomy which could be a basis for addressing the needs of workers across this sector. It presents the taxonomy as a way of enhancing mutual recognition and increasing consistency of education and training for both developed and developing countries.

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Trends towards Sustainability in the Nuclear Fuel Cycle
English, 184 pages, published: 12/21/11
NEA#6980, ISBN: 978-92-64-16810-7
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/pubs/2011/6980-trends-fuel-cycle.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Vers un cycle du combustible nucléaire durable : Évolution et tendances 
Interest in expanding nuclear power to cope with rising demand for energy and potential climate change places increased attention on the nuclear fuel cycle and whether significant moves are being taken towards ensuring sustainability over the long term. Future nuclear power programme decisions will be increasingly based on strategic considerations involving the complete nuclear fuel cycle, as illustrated by the international joint projects for Generation IV reactors. Currently, 90% of installed reactors worldwide operate on a once-through nuclear fuel cycle using uranium-oxide fuel. While closing the fuel cycle has been a general aim for several decades, progress towards that goal has been slow. This report reviews developments in the fuel cycle over the past ten years, potential developments over the next decade and the outlook for the longer term. It analyses technological developments and government actions (both nationally and internationally) related to the fuel cycle, and examines these within a set of sustainability parameters in order to identify trends and to make recommendations for further actions.
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Nuclear Energy Data 2011/Données sur l'énergie nucléaire 2011
Bilingual, 140 pages, published: 10/05/11
NEA#6978, ISBN: 978-92-64-12187-4
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/pubs/2011/6978-BB-2011.pdf
Nuclear Energy Data, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency’s annual compilation of statistics and country reports on nuclear energy, contains official information provided by OECD member country governments on plans for new nuclear plant construction, nuclear fuel cycle developments as well as current and projected nuclear generating capacity to 2035. For the first time, it includes data for Chile, Estonia, Israel and Slovenia, which recently became OECD members. Key elements of this edition show a 2% increase in nuclear and total electricity production and a 0.5% increase in nuclear generating capacity. They also show excess conversion and enrichment capacities in OECD Europe, and insufficient capacity to meet requirements in the North American and Pacific regions. Further details are provided in the publication’s numerous tables, graphs and reports.
This publication contains “Statlinks”. For each StatLink the reader will find a url which leads to the corresponding spreadsheet. These links work in the same way as an Internet link.

Les Données sur l'énergie nucléaire, la compilation annuelle de statistiques et de rapports nationaux de l'Agence de l'OCDE pour l'énergie nucléaire, présentent des informations communiquées par les gouvernements des pays membres de l'OCDE sur les projets de construction de centrales nucléaires, les évolutions du cycle du combustible ainsi que la puissance nucléaire installée actuelle et projetée jusqu'en 2035. Cette édition comprend pour la première fois des données sur le Chili, l'Estonie, Israël et la Slovénie qui sont récemment devenus membres de l'OCDE. Des données clés de cette édition montrent une progression de 2 % de la production d'électricité totale et nucléaire et de 0,5 % de la puissance nucléaire installée. Les capacités de conversion et d'enrichissement de l'uranium sont excédentaires dans les pays européens de l'OCDE et insuffisantes dans les pays d'Amérique du Nord et la région Pacifique. Le lecteur trouvera de plus amples détails dans les nombreux tableaux, graphiques et rapports que contient cet ouvrage.
Cette publication inclut des « Statlinks ». Pour chaque StatLink, une adresse internet pointe vers la feuille de calcul correspondante. Cela fonctionne de la même manière qu’un lien internet.
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The Security of Energy Supply and the Contribution of Nuclear Energy: Executive Summary
English, 12 pages, published: 08/03/11
NEA#7029
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/pub/security-energy-exec-summary.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: La sécurité d'approvisionnement énergétique et le rôle du nucléaire (Résumé) 
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Carbon Pricing, Power Markets and the Competitiveness of Nuclear Power: Executive Summary
English, 12 pages, published: 08/03/11
NEA#7030
Volume of the series: Nuclear Development
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/reports/2011/carbon-pricing-exec-sum-2011.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: La tarification du carbone, les marchés de l'électricité et la compétitivité du nucléaire – Synthèse 
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Carbon Pricing, Power Markets and the Competitiveness of Nuclear Power
English, 108 pages, published: 07/12/11
NEA#6982, ISBN: 978-92-64-11887-4
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/pubs/2011/6982-carbon-pricing.pdf
This study assesses the competitiveness of nuclear power against coal- and gas-fired power generation in liberalised electricity markets with either CO2 trading or carbon taxes. It uses daily price data for electricity, gas, coal and carbon from 2005 to 2010, which encompasses the first years of the European Emissions Trading System (EU ETS), the world’s foremost carbon trading framework. The study shows that even with modest carbon pricing, competition for new investment in electricity markets will take place between nuclear energy and gas-fired power generation, with coal-fired power struggling to be profitable. The outcome of the competition between nuclear and gas-fired generation hinges, in addition to carbon pricing, on the capital costs for new nuclear power plant construction, gas prices and the profit margins applied. Strong competition in electricity markets reinforces the attractiveness of nuclear energy, as does carbon pricing, in particular when the latter ranges between USD 40 and USD 70 per tonne of CO2. The data and analyses contained in this study provide a robust framework for assessing cost and investment issues in liberalised electricity markets with carbon pricing.
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The Supply of Medical Radioisotopes
The Path to Reliability
English, 170 pages, published: 06/23/11
NEA#6985, ISBN: 978-92-64-99164-4
Volume of the series: Nuclear Development
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/med-radio/reports/med-radio-reliability.pdf
The reliable supply of molybdenum-99 (99Mo) and its decay product, technetium-99m (99mTc), is a vital component of modern medical diagnostic practices. Disruptions in the supply chain of these radioisotopes can delay or prevent important medical testing services. Unfortunately, supply reliability has declined over the past decade, due to unexpected or extended shutdowns at the few ageing, 99Mo-producing, research reactors and processing facilities. These shutdowns have recently created global supply shortages.

This report provides the findings and analysis of two years of extensive examination of the 99Mo/99mTc supply chain by the OECD/NEA High-level Group on the Security of Supply of Medical Radioisotopes (HLG-MR). It puts forth a comprehensive policy approach that would help ensure long-term supply security of 99Mo/99mTc, detailing the essential steps to be taken by governments, industry and the health community to address the vulnerabilities of the supply chain, including its economic structure.
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Nuclear Energy in Perspective: The Path to a Reliable Supply of Medical Radioisotopes
English, 12 pages, published: 06/17/11
NEA#7022
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/press/in-perspective/2011-reliable-supply-medical-radioisotopes.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Perspectives de l'énergie nucléaire : Vers un approvisionnement fiable en radioisotopes à usage médical 

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The Security of Energy Supply and the Contribution of Nuclear Energy
English, 168 pages, published: 12/13/10
NEA#6358, ISBN: 978-92-64-09634-9
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/pubs/2010/6358-security-energy-sup.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: La sécurité d'approvisionnement énergétique et le rôle du nucléaire 
What contribution can nuclear energy make to improve the security of energy supply? This study, which examines a selection of OECD member countries, qualitatively and quantitatively validates the often intuitive assumption that, as a largely domestic source of electricity with stable costs and no greenhouse gas emissions during production, nuclear energy can make a positive contribution. Following an analysis of the meaning and context of security of supply, the study uses transparent and policy-relevant indicators to show that, together with improvements in energy efficiency, nuclear energy has indeed contributed significantly to enhanced energy supply security in OECD countries over the past 40 years.
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Radioactive Waste in Perspective
English, 204 pages, published: 09/16/10
NEA#6350, ISBN: 978-92-64-09261-7
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/pubs/2010/6350-waste-perspective.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Les déchets radioactifs - Mise en perspective 
Large volumes of hazardous wastes are produced each year, however only a small proportion of them are radioactive. While disposal options for hazardous wastes are generally well established, some types of hazardous waste face issues similar to those for radioactive waste and also require long-term disposal arrangements. The objective of this NEA study is to put the management of radioactive waste into perspective, firstly by contrasting features of radioactive and hazardous wastes, together with their management policies and strategies, and secondly by examining the specific case of the wastes resulting from carbon capture and storage of fossil fuels. The study seeks to give policy makers and interested stakeholders a broad overview of the similarities and differences between radioactive and hazardous wastes and their management strategies.
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The Supply of Medical Radioisotopes
An Economic Study of the Molybdenum-99 Supply Chain: Summary
English, 36 pages, published: 09/16/10
NEA#6969, ISBN: 978-92-64-99150-7
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/reports/2010/nea6969-radioisotopes-summary.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: L’approvisionnement en radioisotopes médicaux 
The reliable supply of molybdenum-99 (Mo-99) and its decay product, technetium-99m (Tc-99m), is a vital component of modern medical diagnostic practices. Disruptions in the supply chain of these radioisotopes – which cannot be effectively stored – can suspend important medical testing services. Unfortunately, supply reliability has declined over the past decade, due to unexpected or extended shutdowns at the few ageing, Mo-99 producing, research reactors and processing facilities. These shutdowns have created global supply shortages.

The full study offers a unique analysis of the economic structure and present state of the Mo-99/Tc-99m supply chain. It finds that the shortages are a symptom of a longer-term problem linked to insufficient capital investment, which has been brought about by an economic structure that does not provide sufficient remuneration for producing Mo-99 or support for developing additional production and processing infrastructure. To assist governments and other decision makers in their efforts to ensure long-term, reliable supply of these important medical isotopes, the study presents options for creating a sustainable economic structure. The study will also enhance understanding amongst stakeholders of the costs of supplying Mo-99 and ultimately contribute to a better functioning market.
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The Supply of Medical Radioisotopes
An Economic Study of the Molybdenum-99 Supply Chain
English, 128 pages, published: 09/16/10
NEA#6967, ISBN: 978-92-64-99149-1
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/pubs/2010/6967-MO-99.pdf
The reliable supply of molybdenum-99 (Mo-99) and its decay product, technetium-99m (Tc-99m), is a vital component of modern medical diagnostic practices. Disruptions in the supply chain of these radioisotopes – which cannot be effectively stored – can suspend important medical testing services. Unfortunately, supply reliability has declined over the past decade, due to unexpected or extended shutdowns at the few ageing, Mo-99 producing, research reactors and processing facilities. These shutdowns have created global supply shortages.

This study offers a unique analysis of the economic structure and present state of the Mo-99/Tc-99m supply chain. It finds that the shortages are a symptom of a longer-term problem linked to insufficient capital investment, which has been brought about by an economic structure that does not provide sufficient remuneration for producing Mo-99 or support for developing additional production and processing infrastructure. To assist governments and other decision makers in their efforts to ensure long-term, reliable supply of these important medical isotopes, the study presents options for creating a sustainable economic structure. The study will also enhance understanding amongst stakeholders of the costs of supplying Mo-99 and ultimately contribute to a better functioning market.
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Nuclear Energy Data 2010/Données sur l'énergie nucléaire 2010
Bilingual, 138 pages, published: 09/15/10
NEA#6893, ISBN: 978-92-64-09198-6
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/pubs/2010/6893-BB-2010.pdf
This new edition of Nuclear Energy Data, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency’s annual compilation of official statistics and country reports on nuclear energy, provides key information on plans for new nuclear plant construction, nuclear fuel cycle developments as well as current and projected nuclear generating capacity to 2035 in OECD member countries. This comprehensive overview provides authoritative information for policy makers, experts and other interested stakeholders.

Cette nouvelle édition des Données sur l'énergie nucléaire, la compilation annuelle de l'Agence de l'OCDE pour l'énergie nucléaire contenant des statistiques officielles et des rapports nationaux sur l'énergie nucléaire, présente des informations clés concernant les projets de construction de centrales nucléaires, l'évolution du cycle du combustible ainsi que la puissance nucléaire installée et projetée dans les pays membres de l'OCDE jusqu'en 2035. Ce panorama complet constitue une source d'informations officielles pour les décideurs politiques, experts et le public intéressé
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Comparing Nuclear Accident Risks with Those from Other Energy Sources
English, 52 pages, published: 08/31/10
NEA#6861, ISBN: 978-92-64-99122-4
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/reports/2010/nea6861-comparing-risks.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Evaluation de risques d'accidents nucléaires comparés à ceux d'autres filières énergétiques 
Nuclear accident risks are raised frequently in discussions of the acceptability of nuclear power generation, often framed in the context of the Three Mile Island and Chernobyl accidents. In reality, the safety record of nuclear power plants, by comparison with other electricity generation sources, is very good. This report describes how safety has been enhanced in nuclear power plants over the years, as the designs have progressed from Generation I to Generation III, and why it is important that safety remain the highest priority. This is illustrated by considering core damage frequencies and large radioactive release frequencies for each generation of nuclear power plants. It also compares severe accident data (those resulting in five or more fatalities) between different energy sources, both for immediate fatalities and for delayed (latent) fatalities, recognising that the latter data are often more difficult to estimate. Finally, it uses results of opinion surveys to analyse public confidence in nuclear operations and how this is correlated with trust in legislation and regulatory systems. It has been written for a general audience.
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Uranium 2009: Resources, Production and Demand
English, 456 pages, published: 07/28/10
NEA#6891, ISBN: 978-92-64-04789-1
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/pubs/2010/6891-uranium-2009.pdf

Other language(s):
- Japanese: ウラニウム2009: 資源、生産、需給 
- Français: Uranium 2009 : Ressources, production et demande 
With several countries currently building nuclear power plants and planning the construction of more to meet long-term increases in electricity demand, uranium resources, production and demand remain topics of notable interest. In response to the projected growth in demand for uranium and declining inventories, the uranium industry – the first critical link in the fuel supply chain for nuclear reactors – is boosting production and developing plans for further increases in the near future. Strong market conditions will, however, be necessary to trigger the investments required to meet projected demand.

The “Red Book”, jointly prepared by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency, is a recognised world reference on uranium. It is based on information compiled in 40 countries, including those that are major producers and consumers of uranium. This 23rd edition provides a comprehensive review of world uranium supply and demand as of 1 January 2009, as well as data on global uranium exploration, resources, production and reactor-related requirements. It provides substantive new information from major uranium production centres around the world, as well as from countries developing production centres for the first time. Projections of nuclear generating capacity and reactor-related uranium requirements through 2035 are also featured, along with an analysis of long-term uranium supply and demand issues.
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Nuclear Energy Technology Roadmap
English, 48 pages, published: 06/16/10
NEA#6962
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/reports/2010/nea6962-nuclear-roadmap.pdf

Other language(s):
- Chinese: 技术路线图: 核能 
This nuclear energy roadmap has been prepared jointly by the International Energy Agency (IEA) and the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA). Unlike most other low-carbon energy sources, nuclear energy is a mature technology that has been in use for more than 50 years. The latest designs for nuclear power plants build on this experience to offer enhanced safety and performance, and are ready for wider deployment over the next few years. Several countries are reactivating dormant nuclear programmes, while others are considering nuclear for the first time. In the longer term, there is great potential for new developments in nuclear energy technology to enhance the role of nuclear power in a sustainable energy future.
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Projected Costs of Generating Electricity
2010 Edition
English, 216 pages, published: 03/25/10
NEA#6819, ISBN: 978-92-64-08430-8
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/pubs/2010/6819-projected-costs.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Coûts prévisionnels de production de l'électricité 
This joint report by the International Energy Agency (IEA) and the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) is the seventh in a series of studies on electricity generating costs. It presents the latest data available for a wide variety of fuels and technologies, including coal and gas (with and without carbon capture), nuclear, hydro, onshore and offshore wind, biomass, solar, wave and tidal as well as combined heat and power (CHP). It provides levelised costs of electricity (LCOE) per MWh for almost 200 plants, based on data covering 21 countries (including four major non-OECD countries), and several industrial companies and organisations. For the first time, the report contains an extensive sensitivity analysis of the impact of variations in key parameters such as discount rates, fuel prices and carbon costs on LCOE. Additional issues affecting power generation choices are also examined.

The study shows that the cost competitiveness of electricity generating technologies depends on a number of factors which may vary nationally and regionally. Readers will find full details and analyses, supported by over 130 figures and tables, in this report which is expected to constitute a valuable tool for decision makers and researchers concerned with energy policies and climate change.
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Public Attitudes to Nuclear Power
English, 56 pages, published: 03/22/10
NEA#6859, ISBN: 978-92-64-99111-8
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/reports/2010/nea6859-public-attitudes.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: L'opinion publique et l'énergie nucléaire 
Public attitudes to nuclear power are critical in shaping nuclear policies in OECD/NEA countries and the latter will only be able to make use of this energy source if a well-informed public considers that its benefits outweigh its risks. This report provides a number of insights into public attitudes towards nuclear power. Support for nuclear energy is generally correlated with the level of experience of and knowledge about nuclear power. Interestingly, while the public is generally aware of the contribution of nuclear power to ensuring security of energy supply, its potential contribution to combating climate change is less well recognised. Solving the waste disposal issue would also significantly increase the level of public support. Furthermore, OECD/NEA governments may wish to reflect carefully on how to react to these results as, according to the surveys, they are the least trusted source on energy issues, far behind regulators, non-governmental organisations and scientists.

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The Financing of Nuclear Power Plants
English, 74 pages, published: 11/30/09
NEA#6360, ISBN: 978-92-64-07921-2
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/reports/2009/financing-plants.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Le financement des centrales nucléaires 
Many countries have recognised that greater use of nuclear power could play a valuable role in reducing carbon dioxide emissions. However, given the high capital cost and complexity of nuclear power plants, financing their construction often remains a challenge. This is especially true where such financing is left to the private sector in the context of competitive electricity markets.

This study examines the financial risks involved in investing in a new nuclear power plant, how these can be mitigated, and how projects can be structured so that residual risks are taken by those best able to manage them. Given that expansion of nuclear power programmes will require strong and sustained government support, the study highlights the role of governments in facilitating and encouraging investment in new nuclear generating capacity.
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Nuclear Energy Data 2009/Données sur l'énergie nucléaire 2009
Bilingual, 120 pages, published: 09/04/09
NEA#6816, ISBN: 978-92-64-04772-3
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/pubs/2009/6816-BB-2009.pdf
This new edition of Nuclear Energy Data, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency’s annual compilation of essential statistics on nuclear energy in OECD countries, provides information on plans for new nuclear construction, nuclear fuel cycle developments and projections of installed nuclear capacity to 2035 in OECD member countries. This comprehensive overview of the current situation and expected trends in various sectors of the nuclear fuel cycle provides authoritative information for policy makers, experts and academics working in the nuclear energy field.

Cette nouvelle édition des Données sur l'énergie nucléaire de l'Agence de l'OCDE pour l’énergie nucléaire, une compilation annuelle de statistiques essentielles sur l'énergie nucléaire, décrit les projets de construction de centrales nucléaires et les développements dans le cycle du combustible et présente des projections de la puissance nucléaire installée dans les pays membres de l'OCDE jusqu'en 2035. Ce panorama complet de la situation actuelle et des tendances qui se dessinent dans divers secteurs du cycle du combustible nucléaire constitue l'ouvrage de référence pour les décideurs, les spécialistes et les chercheurs qui travaillent dans ce domaine.
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Strategic and Policy Issues Raised by the Transition from Thermal to Fast Nuclear Systems
English, 84 pages, published: 03/13/09
NEA#6352, ISBN: 978-92-64-06064-7
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/pubs/2009/6352-strategic-policy-issues.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Questions stratégiques et politiques liées à la transition des systèmes nucléaires thermiques aux systèmes rapides 
The renewed interest in nuclear energy triggered by concerns about global climate change and security of supply, which could lead to substantial growth in nuclear electricity generation, enhances the attractiveness of fast neutron reactors with closed fuel cycles. Moving from the current fleet of thermal neutron reactors to fast neutron systems will require many decades and extensive RD&D efforts. This book identifies and analyses key strategic and policy issues raised by such a transition, aiming at providing guidance to decision makers on the best approaches for implementing transition scenarios.

The topics covered in this book will be of interest to government and nuclear industry policy makers as well as to specialists working on nuclear energy system analyses and advanced fuel cycle issues.

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Nuclear Energy Outlook (NEO)
English, 460 pages, published: 11/13/08
NEA#6436, ISBN: 978-92-64-05410-3
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/pub/2008/6436-nuclear-energy-outlook-2008.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Perspectives de l'énergie nucléaire 
- Japanese: Nuclear Energy Outlook - 2008 (Japanese version) 
This Nuclear Energy Outlook (NEO) is the first of its kind and responds to the renewed interest in nuclear energy by many OECD member countries. World energy demand continues to grow unabated and is leading to very serious concerns about security of supply, soaring energy prices and climate change stemming from fossil fuel consumption. Nuclear energy is being increasingly seen as having a role to play in addressing these concerns.

This Outlook uses the most current data and statistics available and provides projections up to 2050 to consider growth scenarios and potential implications on the future use of nuclear energy. It also offers unique analyses and recommendations on the possible challenges that lie ahead.

Topics covered by the NEO include nuclear power’s current status and projected trends, environmental impacts, uranium resources and security of supply, costs, safety and regulation, radioactive waste management and decommissioning, non-proliferation and security, legal frameworks, infrastructure, stakeholder engagement, advanced reactors and advanced fuel cycles.
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Market Competition in the Nuclear Industry
English, 124 pages, published: 09/05/08
NEA#6246, ISBN: 978-92-64-05406-6
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/pubs/2008/6246-market-competition.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: La concurrence sur les marchés de l'industrie nucléaire 
Nuclear power plants require a wide variety of specialised equipment, materials and services for their construction, operation and fuelling. There has been much consolidation and retrenchment in the nuclear industry since the 1980s, with the emergence of some large global nuclear companies. Electricity market liberalisation in many OECD countries has meanwhile placed nuclear plant operators under increased competitive pressure.

These structural changes in both the producer and consumer sides of the nuclear industry have had implications for the level of competition in the nuclear engineering and fuel cycle markets. With renewed expansion of nuclear power now anticipated, this study examines competition in the major nuclear industry sectors at present, and how this may change with a significant upturn in demand.
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Nuclear Energy Data 2008/Données sur l'énergie nucléaire 2008
Bilingual, 116 pages, published: 07/11/08
NEA#6347, ISBN: 978-92-64-04796-9
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/pubs/2008/6347-BB-2008.pdf
This new edition of Nuclear Energy Data, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency’s annual compilation of essential statistics on nuclear energy in OECD countries, provides information on the latest plans for new nuclear construction, nuclear fuel cycle developments and projections of installed nuclear capacity to 2030 in member countries. This comprehensive overview of the current situation and expected trends in various sectors of the nuclear fuel cycle is an authoritative reference for policy makers, experts and academics working in the nuclear energy field.

Cette nouvelle édition des Données sur l'énergie nucléaire de l'Agence de l'OCDE pour l’énergie nucléaire, une compilation annuelle de statistiques essentielles sur l'énergie nucléaire, décrit les derniers développements dans les projets de construction de centrales nucléaires et le cycle du combustible et présente des projections de la puissance nucléaire installée dans les pays membres jusqu'en 2030. Ce panorama complet de la situation actuelle et des tendances qui se dessinent dans divers secteurs du cycle du combustible nucléaire constitue l'ouvrage de référence pour les décideurs, les spécialistes et les chercheurs qui travaillent dans ce domaine.
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Uranium 2007: Resources, Production and Demand
English, 420 pages, published: 06/10/08
NEA#6345, ISBN: 978-92-64-78978-9
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/pubs/2008/6345-uranium-2007.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Uranium 2007 : Ressources, production et demande 
With several countries building nuclear power plants and many more considering the use of nuclear power to produce electricity in order to meet rising demand, the uranium industry has become the focus of considerable attention. In response to rising demand and declining inventories, uranium prices have increased dramatically in recent years. As a result, the uranium industry is undergoing a significant revival, bringing to an end a period of over 20 years of underinvestment.

The “Red Book”, jointly prepared by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency, is a recognised world reference on uranium. It is based on official information received from 40 countries. This 22nd edition provides a comprehensive review of world uranium supply and demand as of 1st January 2007, as well as data on global uranium exploration, resources, production and reactor-related requirements. It provides substantive new information from major uranium production centres in Africa, Australia, Central Asia, Eastern Europe and North America. Projections of nuclear generating capacity and reactor-related uranium requirements through 2030 are also featured, along with an analysis of long-term uranium supply and demand issues.
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Timing of High-level Waste Disposal
English, 132 pages, published: 05/15/08
NEA#6244, ISBN: 978-92-64-04625-2
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/pubs/2008/6244-timing-waste-disposal.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Stockage définitif des déchets de haute activité : calendrier de mise en œuvre 
This study identifies key factors influencing the timing of high-level waste (HLW) disposal and examines how social acceptability, technical soundness, environmental responsibility and economic feasibility impact on national strategies for HLW management and disposal. Based on case study analyses, it also presents the strategic approaches adopted in a number of national policies to address public concerns and civil society requirements regarding long-term stewardship of high-level radioactive waste.

The findings and conclusions of the study confirm the importance of informing all stakeholders and involving them in the decision-making process in order to implement HLW disposal strategies successfully. This study will be of considerable interest to nuclear energy policy makers and analysts as well as to experts in the area of radioactive waste management and disposal.

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Risks and Benefits of Nuclear Energy
English, 88 pages, published: 06/20/07
NEA#6242, ISBN: 978-92-64-03551-5
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/pubs/2007/6242-risks-benefits.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Risques et avantages de l'énergie nucléaire 
In the context of sustainable development policies, decision making in the energy sector should be based on carefully designed trade-offs which take into account, insofar as feasible, all of the alternative options' advantages and drawbacks from the economic, environmental and social viewpoints. This report examines various aspects of nuclear and other energy chains for generating electricity, and provides illustrative examples of quantitative and qualitative indicators for those chains with regard to economic competitiveness, environmental burdens (such as air emissions and solid waste streams) and social aspects (including employment and health impacts).

This report will be of interest to policy makers and analysts in the energy and electricity sectors. It offers authoritative data and references to published literature on energy chain analysis which can be used in support of decision making.
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Nuclear Energy Data 2007/Données sur l'énergie nucléaire 2007
Bilingual, 100 pages, published: 06/14/07
NEA#6248, ISBN: 978-92-64-03453-2
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/pubs/2007/6248-BB-2007.pdf
This new edition of Nuclear Energy Data, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency’s annual compilation of essential statistics on nuclear energy in OECD countries, offers projections lengthened to 2030 for the first time and information on the development of new centrifuge enrichment capacity in member countries. The compilation gives readers a comprehensive and easy-to-access overview of the current situation and expected trends in various sectors of the nuclear fuel cycle, providing authoritative information to policy makers, experts and academics working in the nuclear energy field.

Cette nouvelle édition des Données sur l’énergie nucléaire, publication annuelle de l’Agence de l’OCDE pour l’énergie nucléaire qui rassemble les données statistiques essentielles de ce secteur dans les pays de l’OCDE, présente des prévisions qui pour la première fois vont jusqu’en 2030, ainsi que des informations sur la mise en œuvre de capacités d’enrichissement par centrifugation dans les pays membres. Cet ouvrage offre au lecteur un tour d’horizon complet et facile à consulter de la situation et des tendances dans les divers secteurs du cycle du combustible nucléaire, et notamment des informations qui font autorité à l’intention des décideurs publics, des experts et des chercheurs travaillant dans le domaine de l’énergie nucléaire.
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Management of Recyclable Fissile and Fertile Materials
English, 84 pages, published: 04/27/07
NEA#6107, ISBN: 978-92-64-03255-2
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/pubs/2007/6107-manage-recyclable.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Gestion des matières fissiles et fertiles recyclables 
Interest in nuclear energy continues to grow in many countries as a means to ensure security of energy supply and to limit greenhouse gas emissions from the power sector. In this context, recyclable materials constitute an asset for broadening the resource base for nuclear fuel supply, especially in medium- and long-term perspectives.

This report provides an overview of recyclable fissile and fertile materials inventories which can be reused as nuclear fuel. It reviews the options available for managing those materials, through recycling and/or disposal. The potential energetic value of recyclable materials is assessed, taking into account the variability of retrievable energy contents of various materials according to technology and strategy choices made by the owners of the materials.

The analyses contained in this report will be of particular interest to energy policy makers and to nuclear fuel cycle experts.
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Innovation in Nuclear Energy Technology
English, 118 pages, published: 02/21/07
NEA#6103, ISBN: 978-92-64-00644-7
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/pubs/2007/6103-innovation-technology.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Innovation dans la technologie nucléaire 
Innovation has been a driving force in the successful deployment of nuclear energy and remains essential today for its sustainable future. As nuclear energy is an attractive option for ensuring diversity and security of energy supply, as well as lower global climate change risks, the way to continue this innovation is a key issue for industry and interested governments. For greater innovation in the nuclear area to be realised, more in-depth discussions on ways and means for promoting nuclear innovation are crucial, and enhanced knowledge of nuclear innovation systems is required.

This report provides an overview of the state of the art in nuclear innovation systems, including their driving forces, main actors, institutional and legal frameworks, and infrastructure for knowledge and programme management. It also offers policy recommendations based on country reports and case studies supplied by participating member countries.

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Nuclear Power Plant Life Management and Longer-term Operation
English, 60 pages, published: 10/24/06
NEA#6105, ISBN: 92-64-02924-9
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/pubs/2006/6105-npp-life-management.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Gestion et prolongation de la durée de vie des centrales nucléaires 
This book, prepared by NEA member country experts, contains data and analyses relevant to nuclear power plant life management and the plants' extended, longer-term operation (LTO). It addresses technical, economic and environmental aspects and provides insights into the benefits and challenges of plant life management and LTO.

It will be of interest to policy makers and senior managers in the nuclear power sector and governmental bodies involved in nuclear power programme design and management. The data and information on current trends in nuclear power plant life management will be useful to researchers and analysts working in the field of nuclear energy system assessment.
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Forty Years of Uranium Resources, Production and Demand in Perspective
"The Red Book Retrospective"
English, 278 pages, published: 09/13/06
NEA#6096, ISBN: 92-64-02806-4
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/pubs/2006/6096-40-years-uranium.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Ressources, production et demande de l'uranium : un bilan de quarante ans 
The "Red Book", jointly prepared by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), was first published in 1965 and has since grown to be a recognised world reference on uranium. Over the 40 years of its existence, the Red Book has collected an impressive quantity of official data supplied by governments.

The Red Book Retrospective was undertaken to collect, collate, analyse and publish all of the key information collected in the 20 editions of the Red Book published between 1965 and 2004. Additionally, every effort has been made to fill in gaps in the record to provide the most complete and exhaustive information possible. As a result, the Red Book Retrospective gives a full historical profile of the world uranium industry in the areas of exploration, resources, production, reactor-related requirements, inventories and price. It provides in-depth information relating to the histories of the major uranium-producing countries including Australia, Canada, France, Germany (including the former German Democratic Republic), the Russian Federation (including the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics) and the United States. For the first time, for example, a comprehensive look at annual and cumulative production and demand of uranium since the inception of the atomic age is possible. Besides reporting and documenting the historical data, expert analyses provide fresh insights into important aspects of the industry including: the cost of discovery, resources to production ratios and the time to reach production after discovery, among others.

Taken together, the Red Book Retrospective provides the most complete record of the uranium industry publicly available, dating from the birth of civilian nuclear energy through to the dawn of the 21st century.
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Nuclear Energy Data 2006/Données sur l'énergie nucléaire 2006
Bilingual, 100 pages, published: 06/13/06
NEA#6100, ISBN: 92-64-02489-1
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/pubs/2006/6100-BB-2006.pdf
2005 was a year of major activity within the nuclear sector. Interest in nuclear energy is growing significantly in many OECD member countries with the construction of new plants, new plans for nuclear futures along with innovations in enrichment and reprocessing. This and other insights related to nuclear energy can be found in Nuclear Energy Data, the Nuclear Energy Agency's annual compilation of essential statistics to 2025 on nuclear energy in OECD countries. The compilation provides readers with a comprehensive and easy-to-access overview of the current situation and expected trends in the various sectors of the nuclear fuel cycle.

L'année 2005 a été marquée par une intense activité dans le secteur nucléaire. De nombreux pays membres de l'OCDE manifestent un intérêt de plus en plus vif pour l'énergie nucléaire, qui se traduit par la construction de nouvelles centrales, des plans pour des installations futures, ainsi que des innovations visant l'enrichissement et le retraitement. Toutes ces informations et d'autres aperçus figurent dans les Données sur l'énergie nucléaire, publication annuelle de l'Agence pour l'énergie nucléaire qui présente les données statistiques essentielles sur le nucléaire dans les pays de l'OCDE jusqu'en 2025. Cet ouvrage offre au lecteur un tour d'horizon complet et facile à consulter de la situation et des tendances dans les divers secteurs du cycle du combustible nucléaire.
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French R&D on the Partitioning and Transmutation of Long-lived Radionuclides
An International Peer Review of the 2005 CEA Report
English, 88 pages, published: 05/29/06
NEA#6210, ISBN: 92-64-02296-1
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/reports/2006/nea6210-french-research.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: La R-D en France sur la séparation et la transmutation des radionucléides à vie longue 
For many politicians and members of the public, the very long life of some of the radio-nuclides in radioactive waste is an issue of particular importance in terms of its ultimate disposal. The developing techniques of partitioning (isolating specific radioactive elements) and transmutation (re-irradiating them in order to convert them to shorter-lived or stable elements) hold the promise of eliminating or greatly reducing the long-lived radioactivity, bringing with it other technical benefits.

In France, the 1991 Waste Act required inter alia a research and development programme on partitioning and transmutation, with a milestone for review in 2006. The French authorities requested the OECD/NEA to organise an independent, international peer review of the results of this extensive research and development programme, with a view to help inform the parliamentary decision-making process on the way forward for radioactive waste disposal in France. This report presents the findings from that review, which was conducted by ten of the foremost international experts in the field.
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Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles and Radioactive Waste Management
English, 248 pages, published: 05/26/06
NEA#5990, ISBN: 92-64-02485-9
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/pubs/2006/5990-advanced-nfc-rwm.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Cycles du combustible nucléaire avancés et gestion des déchets radioactifs 
This study analyses a range of advanced nuclear fuel cycle options from the perspective of their effect on radioactive waste management policies. It presents various fuel cycle options which illustrate differences between alternative technologies, but does not purport to cover all foreseeable future fuel cycles. The analysis extends the work carried out in previous studies, assesses the fuel cycles as a whole, including all radioactive waste generated at each step of the cycles, and covers high-level waste repository performance for the different fuel cycles considered.

The estimates of quantities and types of waste arising from advanced fuel cycles are based on best available data and experts' judgement. The effects of various advanced fuel cycles on the management of radioactive waste are assessed relative to current technologies and options, using tools such as repository performance analysis and cost studies.
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Uranium 2005: Resources, Production and Demand
A Joint Report by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency
English, 388 pages, published: 05/23/06
NEA#6098, ISBN: 92-64-02425-5
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/pubs/2006/6098-uranium-2005.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Uranium 2005 : Ressources, production et demande 
Since 2001 the price of uranium has steadily climbed over five-fold, at a rate and reaching heights not seen since the 1970s. As a result, the uranium industry has seen a surge of activity, ending a period of over 20 years of relative stagnation. Worldwide exploration expenditures in 2004 increased almost 40% over 2002 figures. Overall, resource totals have increased over the past two years, indicating that increased uranium prices have begun to have an impact. Based on patterns observed following previous periods of heightened exploration efforts, further additions to the uranium resource base are anticipated given the recent dramatic increase in exploration expenditures. In 2004, significant production increases (>30%) were recorded in Australia, Kazakhstan and Namibia, while more modest increases (between 5% and 15%) were recorded for Brazil, Niger, the Russian Federation and Uzbekistan. Significant expansions are also planned in future production capacity in Australia, Canada and Kazakhstan. This very dynamic and major expansion of production capability could significantly alter the supply and demand relationship of recent years, provided planned centres are constructed on schedule and successfully reach full production capacity. Clearly, major changes in the uranium industry are under way, driven by recent uranium price increases.

The "Red Book", jointly prepared by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency, is a recognised world reference on uranium. It is based on official information received from 43 countries. This 21st edition presents the results of a thorough review of world uranium supplies and demand as of 1st January 2005 and provides a statistical profile of the world uranium industry in the areas of exploration, resource estimates, production and reactor-related requirements. It provides substantial new information from all major uranium production centres in Africa, Australia, Central Asia, Eastern Europe and North America. Projections of nuclear generating capacity and reactor-related uranium requirements through 2025 are provided as well as a discussion of long-term uranium supply and demand issues.

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Actinide and Fission Product Partitioning and Transmutation
Eighth Information Exchange Meeting, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA, 9-11 November 2004
English, 160 pages, published: 11/04/05
NEA#6024, ISBN: 92-64-01071-8
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/pt/docs/iem/lasvegas04/welcome.html
In response to the interest expressed by its member countries, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) has regularly organised biennial information exchange meetings on actinide and fission product partitioning an transmutation (P&T) since 1990, in order to provide experts with a forum to present and discuss the latest developments in the field. This book and its enclosed CD-ROM contain the proceedings of the 8th Information Exchange Meeting held in Las Vegas, Nevada, USA on 9-11 November 2004. The meeting covered the broad spectrum of developments in the field, including the potential impact of P&T on radioactive waste management, new partitioning technologies, fuels for transmuation devices, as well as critical and accelerator-driven transmuting devices. More than 80 papers were presented during the meeting and have been reproduced for the reader herein.
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Nuclear Energy Data 2005/Données sur l'énergie nucléaire 2005
Bilingual, 102 pages, published: 05/31/05
NEA#5989, ISBN: 92-64-01100-5
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/pubs/2005/5989-BB-2005.pdf
This new edition of Nuclear Energy Data, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency's annual compilation of essential statistics on nuclear energy in OECD countries, offers a projection horizon lengthened to 2025 for the first time. It presents the reader with a comprehensive and easy-to-access overview on the status and trends in nuclear energy in OECD countries and in the various sectors of the nuclear fuel cycle. This publication provides authoritative information to policy makers, experts and academics involved in the nuclear energy field.

Cette nouvelle édition des Données sur l'énergie nucléaire, une publication annuelle de l'Agence de l'OCDE pour l'énergie nucléaire, présente des données statistiques essentielles sur l'énergie nucléaire dans les pays de l'OCDE et, pour la première fois, des projections jusqu'en 2025. Cet ouvrage offre un aperçu complet et facile à consulter de la situation et des tendances dans le secteur électronucléaire, y compris le cycle du combustible. Il constitue une source de données de référence qui intéressera les décideurs, les experts et les chercheurs dans le domaine de l'énergie nucléaire.
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Projected Costs of Generating Electricity
2005 Update
English, 232 pages, published: 03/18/05
NEA#5968, ISBN: 92-64-00826-8
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/pubs/2005/5968-projected-costs.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Coûts prévisionnels de production de l'électricité 
This sixth study in a series on projected costs of generating electricity presents and analyses cost estimates for some 130 power and co-generation (heat and power) plants using coal, gas, nuclear and renewable energy sources. Experts from 19 member countries, 2 international organisations and 3 non-OECD countries contributed to the study.

Levelised lifetime costs were calculated with input data from participating experts and commonly agreed generic assumptions, using a uniform methodology. The study shows that the competitiveness of alternative generation sources and technologies depends on many factors and that there is no absolute winner. Key issues related to generation costs are addressed in the report including methodologies to incorporate risk in cost assessments, impact of carbon emission trading and integration of wind power into electricity grids. The projected costs presented are generic and do not reflect the full range of factors (e.g., security of supply, risks and carbon emissions) that investors and other decision makers need to take into account. This report will be, however, a reference for energy policy makers, electricity system analysts and energy economists.
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Beneficial Uses and Production of Isotopes
2004 Update
English, 64 pages, published: 02/25/05
NEA#5293, ISBN: 92-64-00880-2
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/pubs/2005/5293-beneficial-use.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Usages bénéfiques et production des isotopes 
Radioactive isotopes continue to play an increasingly important role in medical diagnosis and therapy, key industrial applications and scientific research. They can be vital to the health and well-being of citizens, and contribute to the world economy. It is therefore important to understand their production and use.

This report provides a solid basis for understanding the production and use of radioisotopes in the world today. It will be of interest not only to government policy makers, but also to scientists, medical practitioners, students and industrial users.

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Nuclear Competence Building
English, 100 pages, published: 10/28/04
NEA#5288, ISBN: 92-64-10850-5
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/reports/2004/nea5288-competence-building.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Développement des compétences dans le domaine de l'énergie nucléaire 
In many countries, government R&D funding in the area of nuclear energy has been dramatically reduced or has disappeared altogether. At the same time, the profit margins of electricity generators have been severely squeezed. The combined effect has led to a reduction in technical innovation and the danger of the loss of technical competencies and skills in the area.

However, because different countries are at different stages of the nuclear technology life cycle, these losses are not common to all countries, either in their nature or their extent. A competence that may have declined or been lost in one country may be strong in another. Therein lies one solution to the problems the sector faces: international collaboration.

This report presents the results of an international survey on initiatives launched during recent years in the area of nuclear education and training. Key human resource issues are discussed and many good practices regarding international collaboration are identified.

The report includes an executive summary along with conclusions and recommendations aimed at policy makers and other stakeholders. It also contains an in-depth analysis of the factual information collected.
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Nuclear Competence Building
Summary Report
English, 32 pages, published: 08/16/04
NEA#5588, ISBN: 92-64-02073-X
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/reports/2004/nea5588-competence.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Développement des compétences dans le domaine de l'énergie nucléaire 
This booklet, a summary of the full report, presents the main results of an international survey on initiatives launched during recent years in the area of nuclear education and training. Key human resource issues are discussed and good practices regarding international collaboration are identified.
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Uranium 2003: Resources, Production and Demand
A Joint Report by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency
English, 302 pages, published: 06/24/04
NEA#5291, ISBN: 92-64-01673-2
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/pubs/2004/5291-uranium-2003.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Uranium 2003 : Ressources, production et demande 
The "Red Book", jointly prepared by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency, is a recognised world reference on uranium. This edition, the 20th, presents the results of a thorough review of world uranium supplies and demand as of 1 January 2003 based on official information received from 43 countries.

Uranium 2003: Resources, Production and Demand paints a statistical profile of the world uranium industry in the areas of exploration, resource estimates, production and reactor-related requirements. It provides substantial new information from all major uranium production centres in Africa, Australia, Eastern Europe and North America and for the first time, a report for Turkmenistan. Also included are international expert analyses and projections of nuclear generating capacity and reactor-related uranium requirements through 2020. The long lead times required to bring resources into production underscore the importance of making timely decisions to pursue production capability well in advance of any supply shortfall.
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Nuclear Energy Data 2004/Données sur l'énergie nucléaire 2004
Bilingual, 100 pages, published: 06/08/04
NEA#5290, ISBN: 92-64-01632-5
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/pubs/2004/5290-BB-2004.pdf
This new edition of Nuclear Energy Data, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency's annual compilation of essential statistics on nuclear energy in OECD countries, offers additional graphical information as compared with previous editions allowing a rapid comparison between capacity and requirements in the various phases of the nuclear fuel cycle. It provides the reader with a comprehensive but easy-to-access overview on the status of and trends in the nuclear power and fuel cycle sector. This publication is an authoritative information source of interest to policy makers, experts and academics involved in the nuclear energy field.

Les Données sur l'énergie nucléaire, publiées tous les ans par l'Agence de l'OCDE pour l'énergie nucléaire, présentent des statistiques essentielles sur l'énergie nucléaire dans les pays de l'OCDE, ainsi que des informations graphiques nouvelles par rapport aux éditions précédentes permettant une comparaison rapide entre la capacité et les besoins aux différentes étapes du cycle du combustible nucléaire. Cet ouvrage offre un aperçu complet et facile à consulter de la situation et des tendances dans le secteur électronucléaire, y compris le cycle du combustible. Il constitue une source de données de référence qui intéressera les décideurs, les experts et les chercheurs dans le domaine de l'énergie nucléaire.
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Government and Nuclear Energy
English, 96 pages, published: 03/31/04
NEA#5270, ISBN: 92-64-01538-8
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/pubs/2004/5270-government-nuclear-energy.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Gouvernement et énergie nucléaire 
The main objective of national energy policies in OECD countries is to ensure the availability of secure and economic supplies with minimal environmental impact. The means of achieving security and competitiveness in the supply of electricity differ between countries. Some governments resort to competitive markets while others maintain ownership and apply strict economic regulation. Environmental goals are pursued by direct regulation and sometimes, for example in the case of carbon dioxide emissions from power plants, by adopting market-based approaches.

This publication addresses the roles and responsibilities of governments in the field of nuclear energy, within the context of broad national policy goals, and reviews the tools available to achieve those goals. It will be of particular interest to decision makers in government and the industry, as well as to energy policy analysts and journalists.

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Nuclear Electricity Generation: What Are the External Costs?
English, 88 pages, published: 11/10/03
NEA#4372, ISBN: 92-64-02153-1
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/reports/2003/nea4372-generation.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Electricité nucléaire : quels sont les coûts externes ? 
Broad economic analysis becomes increasingly important in the context of market deregulation and integration of environmental and social aspects in policy making. External costs will remain a challenge for policy makers as long as they are not assessed and recognised in a reliable and fair way across all sectors of the economy. This report provides insights into the internalised and external costs of nuclear-generated electricity and alternative sources.

This book will be of interest to policy makers and analysts in the field of energy and electricity systems. It contains authoritative information and data that could assist in their decision-making processes as well as support more in-depth analyses and academic research.
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Decommissioning Nuclear Power Plants
Policies, Strategies and Costs
English, 108 pages, published: 08/11/03
NEA#3590, ISBN: 92-64-10431-3
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/pubs/2003/3590-decommissiong-npps.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Démantèlement des centrales nucléaires 
The decommissioning of nuclear power plants is a topic of increasing interest to governments and the industry as many nuclear units approach retirement. It is important in this context to assess decommissioning costs and to ensure that adequate funds are set aside to meet future financial liabilities arising after nuclear power plants are shut down. Furthermore, understanding how national policies and industrial strategies affect those costs is essential for ensuring the overall economic effectiveness of the nuclear energy sector.

This report, based upon data provided by 26 countries and analysed by government and industry experts, covers a variety of reactor types and sizes. The findings on decommissioning cost elements and driving factors in their variance will be of interest to analysts and policy makers in the nuclear energy field.
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Nuclear Energy Today
English, 112 pages, published: 06/06/03
NEA#3595, ISBN: 92-64-10328-7
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/pub/nuclearenergytoday/3595-nuclear-energy-today.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: L'énergie nucléaire aujourd'hui 
- German: Kernenergie Heute 
Energy is the power of the world's economies, whose appetite for this commodity is increasing as the leading economies expand and developing economies grow. How to provide the energy demanded while protecting our environment and conserving natural resources is a vital question facing us today. Many parts of our society are debating how to power the future and whether nuclear energy should play a role.

Nuclear energy is a complex technology with serious issues and a controversial past. Yet it also has the potential to provide considerable benefits. In pondering the future of this imposing technology, people want to know:

- How safe is nuclear energy?
- Is nuclear energy economically competititive?
- What role can nuclear energy play in meeting greenhouse gas reduction targets?
- What can be done with the radioactive waste it generates?
- Does its use increase the risk of proliferation of nuclear weapons?
- Are there sufficient and secure resources to permit its prolonged exploitation?
- Can tomorrow's nuclear energy be better than today's?

This publication provides authoritative and factual replies to the questions. Written primarily to inform policy makers, it will also serve interested members of the public, academics, journalists and industry leaders.
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Nuclear Energy Data 2003/Données sur l'énergie nucléaire 2003
Bilingual, 102 pages, published: 06/03/03
NEA#4288, ISBN: 92-64-10326-0
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/pubs/2003/4288-BB-2003.pdf
This new edition of Nuclear Energy Data, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency's annual compilation of essential statistics on nuclear energy in OECD countries, offers additional textual and graphical information as compared with previous editions. It provides the reader with a comprehensive but easy-to-access overview on the status of and trends in the nuclear power and fuel cycle sector. This publication is an authoritative information source of interest to policy makers, experts and academics involved in the nuclear energy field.

Les Données sur l'énergie nucléaire, publiées annuellement par l'Agence de l'OCDE pour l'énergie nucléaire, présentent des statistiques de base sur le nucléaire dans l'OCDE, ainsi que des informations graphiques et textuelles nouvelles par rapport aux éditions précédentes. Cet ouvrage offre un aperçu complet et facile à consulter de la situation et des tendances dans le secteur électronucléaire, y compris le cycle du combustible. Il constitue une source de données de référence qui intéressera les décideurs, les experts et les chercheurs dans le domaine de l'énergie nucléaire.

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Society and Nuclear Energy: Towards a Better Understanding
English, 128 pages, published: 11/15/02
NEA#3677, ISBN: 92-64-18494-5
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/reports/2002/nea3677.html

Other language(s):
- Korean: Society and Nuclear Energy: Towards a Better Understanding (Korean Version) 
- Français: Société et énergie nucléaire : vers une meilleure compréhension 
While signs of a possible nuclear energy renaissance are visible worldwide, it is highly important to understand better the views of civil society on nuclear technologies, how their risks are perceived, and how to establish effective communication between all stakeholders aiming at enhancing consensus building prior to decision making.

This report is based upon an in-depth analysis of research work and published literature on risk perception and communication, public participation in policy and decision making and the evolution of public opinion on nuclear energy. It will be of interest to policy makers, governmental agencies and industry. Additionally, members of civil society and various stakeholders eager to learn more about social issues related to the development of nuclear energy will find relevant information in this report.
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Nuclear Energy Data 2002
Bilingual, 85 pages, published: 09/13/02
NEA#3592, ISBN: 92-64-09899-2
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/pubs/2002/3592-BB-2002.pdf
This new edition of Nuclear Energy Data, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency's annual compilation of essential statistics on nuclear energy in OECD countries, offers additional textual and graphical information as compared with previous editions. It provides the reader with a comprehensive but easy-to-access overview on the status of and trends in the nuclear power and fuel cycle sector. This publication is an authoritative information source of interest to policy makers, experts and academics invovled in the nuclear energy field.

Les Données sur l'énergie nucléaire, publiées annuellement par l'Agence de l'OCDE pour l'énergie nucléaire, présentent des statistiques de base sur le nucléaire dans l'OCDE, ainsi que des informations graphiques et textuelles nouvelles par rapport aux éditions précédentes. Cet ouvrage offre un aperçu complet et facile à consulter de la situation et des tendances dans le secteur électronucléaire, y compris le cycle du combustible. Il constitute une source de données de référence qui intéressera les décideurs, les experts et les chercheurs dans le domaine de l'énergie nucléaire.
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Innovative Nuclear Reactor Development
Opportunities for International Co-operation
English, 96 pages, published: 08/13/02
NEA#3969
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/reports/2002/nea3969.html
A number of countries wish to keep open the option of expanding their use of nuclear power in the future. What new technologies will they have to choose from? How will these technologies overcome the many challenges - among them safety, economics, waste disposal and nonproliferation - facing nuclear power today? Can collaboration in developing new technologies reduce the time and cost required to make them available to the market?

This book begins to answer these questions. It is a valuable guide for those wishing to understand the innovations characterising the new nuclear-fission technologies that are on their way, and for those involved in research and development who seek information on fruitful areas for collaboration.
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Uranium 2001: Resources, Production and Demand
Joint NEA/IAEA Report
English, 340 pages, published: 08/09/02
NEA#3593, ISBN: 92-64-19823-7
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/pubs/2002/3593-Uranium-2001.pdf
The "Red Book", jointly prepared by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency, is a recognised world reference on uranium. Its contents are based on official information received from 45 countries, supplemented by unofficial information for two others.

This edition, the 19th, presents the results of a thorough review of world uranium supply and demand as of 1 January 2001 and provides a statistical profile of the world uranium industry in the areas of exploration, resource estimates, production and reactor-related requirements. It provides substantial new information from all major uranium production centres in Africa, Australia, Eastern Europe and North America and, for the first time, includes a report on Tajikistan. This edition also features international expert analyses and projections of nuclear generating capacity and reactor-related uranium requirements through 2020.
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Nuclear Energy and the Kyoto Protocol
English, 52 pages, published: 07/26/02
NEA#3808, ISBN: 92-64-18486-4
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/reports/2002/nea3808.html
The implementation of the Kyoto Protocol and the application of its "flexible mechanisms" are at the forefront of energy policy debates in most OECD countries. The potential role of nuclear energy in this context is viewed very differently and assessed against various criteria by the range of stakeholders in governments and civil society according to their interests and priorities.

This book provides key facts concerning nuclear energy and the Kyoto Protocol. It highlights the challenges and opportunities for the future development of nuclear energy in the context of implementing the Kyoto Protocol, and more broadly in alleviating the risks of global climate change.

The report will be of interest to energy policy makers and senior experts in the field as well as to members of civil society eager to better understand the issues raised within the debate on the role of nuclear energy in sustainable development. It will assist in making the necessary trade-offs involved in addressing global climate change concerns.
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Accelerator-driven Systems (ADS) and Fast Reactors (FR) in Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles
A Comparative Study
English, 352 pages, published: 05/07/02
NEA#3109, ISBN: 92-64-18482-1
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/reports/2002/nea3109.html
The long-term hazard of radioactive waste arising from nuclear energy production is a matter of continued discussion and public concern in many countries. Through partitioning and transmutation (P&T) of the actinides and some of the long-lived fission products, the radiotoxicity of high-level waste (HLW) can be reduced by a factor of 100 compared with the current once-through fuel cycle. This requires very effective reactor and fuel cycle strategies, including fast reactors (FR) and/or accelerator-driven, sub-critical systems (ADS).

The present study compares FR- and ADS-based actinide transmutation systems with respect to reactor properties, fuel cycle requirements, safety, economic aspects and R&D needs. Several advanced fuel cycle strategies are analysed in a consistent manner to provide insight into the essential differences between the various systems in which the role of ADS is emphasised.

The report includes a summary aimed at policy makers and research managers as well as a detailed technical section for experts in this domain.
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Externalities and Energy Policy: The Life Cycle Analysis Approach
Workshop Proceedings, Paris, France, 15-16 November 2001
English, 240 pages, published: 03/08/02
NEA#3676, ISBN: 92-64-18481-3
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/reports/2002/nea3676-externalities.pdf
Getting the prices right is a prerequisite for energy market mechanisms to work effectively towards the development of sustainable energy mixes. External costs of energy have been recognised and assessed in many studies, and the life cycle analysis (LCA) approach provides a conceptual framework for a detailed and comprehensive, comparative evaluation of alternative technology options. Despite this, results from analytical work on externalities and LCA studies are seldom used in policy making.

The International Energy Agency (IEA) and the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) organised a workshop on "Externalities and Energy Policy: The Life Cycle Analysis Approach" to bring together policy makers and experts from governmental agencies and the industry to discuss key issues regarding the role and limitations of external cost evaluations and LCA results. The presentations and discussions reported in these proceedings will be of interest to senior analysts, policy makers and other stakeholders concerned with the sustainable development of the energy sector.
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Environmental Remediation of Uranium Production Facilities
A Joint NEA/IAEA Report
English, 350 pages, published: 02/14/02
NEA#3033, ISBN: 92-64-19509-2
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/pubs/2002/3033-environmental-remediation.pdf
Environmental remediation activities in uranium mines and mills have become increasingly important in the last few decades due to the large number of facilities which have been taken out of operation, the growing interest in remediating previously abandoned sites and the increasingly strict environmental regulations that are being put in place. Remediation programmes are being implemented to ensure the return of affected areas to previously existing environmental conditions or to a land use that will be sustainable in the long term and acceptable to all stakeholders.

This report provides a summary of the most relevant issues and practices in remediation programmes or uranium production facilities and an overview of activities and plans in reporting countries. It covers the areas of site characterisation, dismantling and decommissioning, waste management facilities, water remediation, long-term stewardship and monitoring, policies and regulations, and costs. The country profiles of remediation activities and plans include information considered to be important by the country and are based on survey responses provided by 22 countries (12 OECD and 10 non-OECD countries).
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Trends in the Nuclear Fuel Cycle
Economic, Environmental and Social Aspects
English, 160 pages, published: 01/01/02
NEA#3030, ISBN: 92-64-19664-1
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/pubs/2002/3030-trends-nuclear-fuel-cycle.pdf
The role of nuclear energy in a sustainable development context has multiple facets, a significant number of which relate to the nuclear fuel cycle. This report provides a description of the developments and trends in the nuclear fuel cycle that may improve the competitiveness and sustainability of nuclear generating systems over the medium and long term. It also presents criteria and indicators for future nuclear energy systems.

Prepared by experts from the nuclear industry, government agencies and research organisations, this report will be of interest to those involved in nuclear energy policy and decision making.

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Management of Depleted Uranium
English, 68 pages, published: 08/22/01
NEA#3035, ISBN: 92-64-19525-4
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/pubs/2001/3035-management-depleted-uranium.pdf
Large stocks of depleted uranium have arisen as a result of enrichment operations, especially in the United States and the Russian Federation. Countries with depleted uranium stocks are interested in assessing strategies for the use and management of depleted uranium. The choice of strategu depends on several factors, including government and business policy, alternative uses available, the economic value of the material, regulatory aspects and disposal options, and international market developments in the nuclear fuel cycle.

This report presents the results of a depleted uranium study conducted by an expert group organised jointly by the OECd Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency. It contains information on current inventories of depleted uranium, potential future arisings, long-term management alternatives, peaceful use options and country programmes. In addition, it explores ideas for international collaboration and identifies key issues for governments and policy makers to consider.
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Actinide and Fission Product Partitioning and Transmutation
Sixth International Information Exchange Meeting, Madrid, Spain, 11-13 December 2000
English, 128 pages, published: 06/19/01
NEA#3108, ISBN: 92-64-18466-X
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/docs/2001/nea3108-actinide.pdf
The objective of the OECD/NEA Information Exchange Programme on Actinide and Fission Product Partitioning and Transmutation (P&T), established in 1989, is to enhance the value of basic research in this area by facilitating the exchange of information and discussions of programmes, experimental procedures and results. The Information Exchange Meetings form an integral part of the Programme and are intended to provide a biennial review of the state of the art in P&T.

This book and its enclosed CD-ROM contain the proceedings of the 6th Information Exchange Meeting held in Madrid (Spain) on 11-13 December 2000. Recent developments and achievements and the new challenges in P&T are reported in four overview papers. Details are provided in the 79 papers that were presented during the meeting. The conclusions highlight some of the main aspects to take into consideration when planning future research and development on P&T.
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Nuclear Energy Data 2001
Bilingual, 50 pages, published: 05/30/01
NEA#3032, ISBN: 92-64-08707-9
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/pubs/2001/3032-BB-2001.pdf
Nuclear Energy Data is the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency's annual compilation of basic statistics on electricity generation and nuclear power in OECD countries. The reader will have quick and easy reference to the status of and projected trends in total electricity generating capacity, nuclear generating capacity, and actual electricity production, as well as to supply and demand for nuclear fuel cycle services.


Les Données sur l'énergie nucléaire rassemblent chaque année toutes les statistiques de base compilées par l'Agence de l'OCDE pour l'énergie nucléaire sur la production d'électricité et d'énergie nucléaire dans les pays de l'OCDE. Le lecteur trouvera dans cette publication une source de référence d'accès facile et pratique sur la situation actuelle et les tendances de la puissance totale installée d'électricité, de la puissance nucléaire installée et de la production d'électricité. Des informations chiffrées sur l'offre et la demande de services liés au cycle du combustible nucléaire sont également présentées.

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Beneficial Uses and Production of Isotopes
2000 Update
English, 78 pages, published: 12/31/00
NEA#2908, ISBN: 92-64-18417-1
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/pubs/2000/2908-beneficial-uses.pdf
Isotopes, radioactive and stable, are used worldwide in various applications related to medical diagnosis or care, industry and scientific research. More than fifty countries have isotope production or separation facilities operated for domestic supply, and sometimes for international markets.

This publication provides up-to-date information on the current status of, and trends in, isotope uses and production. It also presents key issues, conclusions and recommendations, which will be of interest to policy makers in governmental bodies, scientists and industrial actors in this field.
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Nuclear Power Plant Life Management in a Changing Business World
Workshop Proceedings, Washington DC, United States, 26-27 June 2000
English, 148 pages, published: 12/31/00
NEA#2888, ISBN: 92-64-18429-5
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/pubs/2000/2888-npp-life-management.pdf
Nuclear power plant life management (PLIM) has become an important issue in the context of changing business circumstances caused by regulatory reform of the electricity market. Specifically, the economic aspect of PLIM is being closely investigated as part of the search for greater competitiveness.

It was in this light that the NEA organised an international workshop on "Nuclear Power Plant Life Management in a Changing Business World". The objective of the workshop was to examine the status of PLIM activities in OECD Member countries and to develop a set of recommendations through separate working groups focusing on technology, regulation and business. The workshop also provided an opportunity to exchange information on lessons learned from past successes and failures. These proceedings will be of particular interest to those playing a policy role in the nuclear industry and those in a position to shape future PLIM strategies.
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Nuclear Energy in a Sustainable Development Perspective
English, 62 pages, published: 12/07/00
NEA#2811, ISBN: 92-64-18278-0
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/docs/2000/nddsustdev.pdf
The concept of sustainable development, which emerged from the report of the 1987 World Commission on Environment and Development (the Brundtland report), is of increasing interest to policy makers and the public. In the energy sector, sustainable development policies need to rely on a comparative assessment of alternative options, taking into account their economic, health, environmental and social aspects, at local, regional and global levels.

This publication by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency investigates nuclear energy from a sustainable development perspective, and highlights the opportunities and challenges that lie ahead in this respect. It provides data and analyses that may help in making trade-offs and choices in the energy and electricity sectors at the national level, taking into account country-specific circumstances and priorities. It will be of special interest to policy makers in the nuclear and energy fields.
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OECD Nuclear Energy Data 2000
Bilingual, 48 pages, published: 01/01/00
NEA#2368, ISBN: 92-64-05913-X
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/pubs/2000/2368-BB-2000.pdf
Nuclear Energy Data is the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency's annual compilation of basic statistics on electricity generation and nuclear power in OECD countries. The reader will have quick and easy reference to the status of and projected trends in total electricity generating capacity, nuclear generating capacity, and actual electricity production, as well as to supply and demand for nuclear fuel cycle services.

Les Données sur l'énergie nucléaire rassemblent chaque année toutes les statistiques de base compilées par l'Agence de l'OCDE pour l'énergie nucléaire sur la production d'électricité et d'énergie nucléaire dans les pays de l'OCDE. Le lecteur trouvera dans cette publication une source de référence d'accès facile et pratique sur la situation actuelle et les tendances de la puissance totale installée d'électricité, de la puissance nucléaire installée et de la production d'électricité. Des informations chiffrées sur l'offre et la demande de services liés au cycle du combustible nucléaire sont également présentées.
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Nuclear Education and Training: Cause for Concern?
A summary Report
English, 35 pages, published: 01/01/00
NEA#2428, ISBN: 92-64-18260-8
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/reports/2000/nea2428-education.pdf
Mankind now enjoys many benefits from nuclear-related technologies. There is, however, growing concern in many OECD countries that nuclear education and training is decreasing, perhaps to problematic levels.

This booklet, a summary of the full report, conveys the results of a pioneering survey on nuclear education and training in almost 200 organisations in 16 countries. The current situation is presented and causes for concern are examined. Recommendations are made as to the actions governments, academia and industry must take in order to assure that crucial present requirements are met and future options are not precluded.
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Uranium 1999: Resources, Production and Demand
A Joint report by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency
English, 340 pages, published: 01/01/00
NEA#2369, ISBN: 92-64-17198-3
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/pubs/2000/2369-uranium-1999.pdf
In recent years, the world uranium market has been characterised by an imbalance between demand and supply and persistently depressed uranium prices. World uranium production currently satisfies between 55 and 60 per cent of the total reactor-related requirements, while the rest of the demand is met by secondary sources including the conversion of excess defence material and stockpiles, primarily from Eastern Europe. Although the future availability of these secondary sources remains unclear, projected low-cost production capability is expected to satisfy a considerable part of demand through to 2015. Information in this report provides insights into changes expected in uranium supply and demand over the next 15 years.

The "Red Book", jointly prepared by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency, is the foremost world reference on uranium. It is based on official information from 49 countries and includes compilations of statistics on resources, exploration, production and demand as of 1 January 1999. It provides substantial new information from all of the major uranium producing centres in Africa, Australia, Eastern Europe, North America and the New Independent States. It also contains an international expert analysis of industry statistics and world-wide projections of nuclear energy growth, uranium requirements and uranium supply.
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Nuclear Power in Competitive Electricity Markets
English, 62 pages, published: 01/01/00
NEA#2569, ISBN: 92-64-18262-4
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/reports/2000/nea2569-dereg-2.pdf
Economic deregulation in the power sector raises new challenges for the prospects of nuclear power. A key issue is to assess whether nuclear power can be competitive in a deregulated electricity market. Other important considerations include safety, nuclear liability and insurance, the nuclear power infrastructure, and health and environmental protection.

This study, conducted by a group of experts from twelve OECD Member countries and three international organisations, provides a review and analysis of these issues, as related to both existing and future nuclear power plants. It will be of particular interest to energy analysts, as well as to policy makers in the nuclear and government sectors.
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Business as Usual and Nuclear Power
English, 162 pages, published: 01/01/00
NEA#2168, ISBN: 92-64-17175-4
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/pubs/2000/2168-business-as-usual.pdf
Energy and nuclear policy makers face many challenges as they evaluate options to ensure an adequate supply of electricity while pursuing environmental, economic and energy security goals. Many analysts suggest that nuclear's share of global energy supply could decrease in coming decades. If energy markets and national energy policies continue along "business as usual" lines, what are the issues that arise? What are the consequences for the long-term availability of nuclear technology and expertise. This book identifies the issues in a series of papers presented at a recent meeting jointly organised by the International Energy Agency and the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency.

Senior energy policy makers and industry executives from OECD Member countries contributed these analyses. They offer a realistic assessment of nuclear's potential contribution, and the major challenges awaiting nuclear energy and energy supply in general. For those seeking a review of the current issues facing nuclear power within the broad context of energy policy, this is an essential report.
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Reduction of Capital Costs of Nuclear Power Plants
English, 106 pages, published: 01/01/00
NEA#2088, ISBN: 92-64-17144-4
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/pubs/2000/2088-reduction-capital-costs.pdf
The competitiveness of nuclear power plants depends largely on their capital costs that represent some 60 per cent of their total generation costs. Reviewing and analysing ways and means to reduce capital costs of nuclear power plants are essential to enhance the economic viability of the nuclear option.

The report is based upon cost information and data provided by experts from NEA Member countries. It investigates the efficiency of alternative methods for reducting capital costs of nuclear units. It will provide stakeholders from the industry and governmental agencies with relevant elements in support of policy making.
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Nuclear Education and Training: Cause for Concern?
English, 120 pages, published: 01/01/00
NEA#2529, ISBN: 92-64-18521-6
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/reports/2000/nea2529-educationtraining.pdf
Mankind now enjoys many benefits from nuclear-related technologies. There is, however, growing concern in many OECD countries that nuclear education and training is decreasing, perhaps to problematic levels.

This publication conveys the results of a pioneering survey on nuclear education and training in almost 200 organisations in 16 countries. It presents the current situation and examines causes for concern. It also provides recommendations as to the actions governments, academia and industry must take in order to ensure that crucial present requirements are met and future options are not precluded.

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Back-end of the Fuel Cycle in a 1 000 Gwe Nuclear Scenario
Workshop Proceedings, Avignon, France, 6-7 October 1998
English, 120 pages, published: 01/01/99
NEA#1767, ISBN: 92-64-17116-9
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/pubs/1999/1767-Back-end-fuel-cycle.pdf
The optimisation of the nuclear fuel cycle is a key issue for the sustainability of nuclear energy. This book presents the papers from a workshop which investigated alternative nuclear energy futures, with emphasis on back-end of the fuel cycle options that could enhance the sustainability of nuclear energy in the long term, to 2050 and beyond. The papers lay out the conditions that need to be fulfilled for nuclear energy to remain a viable option and highlight the technological and strategic developments underway to address those issues.

Subjects covered include natural resource management, radioactive was minimisation, cost reduction and proliferation resistance aspects of alternative reactor and fuel cycle technologies.
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Glossary of Nuclear Power Plant Ageing
(English-French-German-Spanish-Russian)
English, published: 01/01/99
NEA#12, ISBN: 92-64-05842-7
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/pubs/1999/12-glossary-npp-ageing.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Glossaire international du vieillissement des centrales nucléaires 
Plant life management is becoming an increasingly important topic both in nuclear power plant operations and in international discussions on the role of nuclear energy. As in many other aspects of nuclear power plants operations there is much to be learned by international comparisons of practices. This five-language glossary of terminology is intended to assist utility operators and regulators in OECD countries, and more generally to help readers benefit as much as possible from international experience.

La gestion de la durée de vie des centrales, vitale pour l'exploitation des centrales nucléaires, se trouve en outre au coeur du débat international sur le rôle de l'énergie nucléaire. Comme souvent en matière d'exploitation de centrales nucléaires, les comparaisons internationales sont riches d'enseignements. Ce glossaire en cinq langues s'adresse principalement aux exploitants et aux organismes de réglementation des pays del 'OCDE et, en général, à tout lecteur désireux de profiter des leçons d'une expérience internationale.

Das Alterungsmanagement von Kraftwerken gewinnt immer mehr Bedeutung sowohl für den Betrieb von Kernkraftwerken als auch in der internationalen Diskussion über die Rolle der Kernenergie. Wie bei vielen anderen Fragen des Betriebes von Kernkraftwerken kann auch hier viel durch internationalen Vergleich der Erfahrungen gelernt werden. Die vorliegende fünfsprachige Begriffe-Sammlung soll Betreiber und Aufsichtbehörden in den OECD-Ländern unterstützen und es ganz allgemein allen Lesern erleichtern, die internationalen Erfahrungen zu nutzen.

Spanish blurb

La gestión de la vida de las centrales es un tema cada vez más importante tanto en la operación de las centrales nucleares como en los debates internacionales sobre el papel de la energía nuclear. Como en muchos otros aspectos de operación de centrales nucleares hay mucho que aprender de la comparación internacional de métodos de funcionamiento. Este glosario de terminología en cinco idiomas trata de ayudar a los operadores de centrales y a los reguladores de los países de la OCDE, y en general a toda persona interesada, de aprovechar la experiencia internacional.
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Low-Level Radioactive Waste Repositories: An Analysis of Costs
English, 179 pages, published: 01/01/99
NEA#1347, ISBN: 92-64-16154-2
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/1999/low-level-waste-repository-costs.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Dépôts de déchets radioactifs de faible activité : Une analyse des coûts 
Low-level radioactive waste (LLW) arises in the normal operation of nuclear power plants and fuel cycle facilities, as well as from the use of radioactive isotopes in medicine, industry and agriculture. This report sets out the costs of operating disposal sites for LLW in OECD countries, as well as the factors that may affect the costs of sites being developed. This publication will be of special interest to experts in the field of radioactive waste management and economics of the nuclear fuel cycle.
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Environmental Activities in Uranium Mining and Milling
A Joint NEA/IAEA Report
English, 174 pages, published: 01/01/99
NEA#766, ISBN: 92-64-17064-2
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/pubs/1999/766-environmental-activities.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Aspects environnementaux de la production d'uranium 

Environmental activities in uranium mining and milling are becoming increasingly important owing to:

- the stricter requirements for new facilities being imposed by many countries in the form of environmental clearance approvals;
- the large number of uranium production facilities which have been taken out of operation recently; and
- the restoration and reclamation measures that are being considered for many old sites which have been closed permanently.

This book provides an overview of environmental activities related to uranium production based on survey responses from 29 countries. It discusses environmental and safety activities related to the closure and remediation of formerly utilised sites; the operation, monitoring and control of producing sites; and the planning, licensing and authorisation of new facilities. It provides an overview of the reported interests of specialists working in the field, including sensitivity of ecosystems, environmental impact assessment, emissions to air and water, work environment, radiation safety, waste handling and disposal, mine and mill decommissioning and site restoration, and the regulation of these activities.
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Actinide and Fission Product Partitioning and Transmutation
Status and Assessment Report Synthèse des travaux
English, 325 pages, published: 01/01/99
NEA#1507
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/trw/docs/neastatus99/
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Actinide and Fission Product Partitioning and Transmutation
Proceedings of the Fifth International Information Exchange Meeting, Mol, Belgium, 25-27 November 1998
English, 543 pages, published: 01/01/99
NEA#1488
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/trw/docs/mol98/
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OECD Nuclear Energy Data 1999
Bilingual, 47 pages, published: 01/01/99
NEA#1487, ISBN: 92-64-05856-7
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/pubs/1999/1487-BB-1999.pdf
Nuclear Energy Data is the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency's annual compilation of basic statistics on electricity generation and nuclear power in OECD countries. The reader will have quick and easy reference to the status of an projected trends in total electricity generating capacity, nuclear generating capacity, and actual electricity production, as well as to supply and demand for nuclear fuel cycle services.

Les Données sur l'énergie nucléaire rassemblent chaque année toutes les statistiques de base compilées par l'Agence de l'OCDE pour l'énergie nucléaire sur la production d'électricité et d'énergie nucléaire dans les pays de l'OCDE. Le lecteur trouvera dans cette publication une source de référence d'accès facile et pratique sur la situation actuelle et les tendances de la puissance d'électricité totale, de la puissance nucléaire installée, de la production d'électricité et de l'offre et de la demande de services du cycle du combustible nucléaire.

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Beneficial Uses and Production of Isotopes
English, 60 pages, published: 12/06/99
NEA#787, ISBN: 92-64-16953-9
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/pubs/1999/787-beneficial-uses-isotopes.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Usages bénéfiques et production des isotopes 
Radioactive and stable isotopes are used throughout the world and in many sectors, including medicine, industry, agriculture and research. In many applications isotopes have no substitute, and in most others they are more effective and cheaper than alternative techniques or processes.

This publication is the first international survey on the beneficial uses and production of isotopes. It provides an overview of their main uses, and detailed information on the facilities that produce them world-wide. Trends in isotope supply and demand are analysed, and the conclusions and recommendations presented point to key issues to be considered by governments.

This publication will be of special interest to policy makers from governmental bodies involved in the production and uses of isotopes, as well as to scientists and experts in the field.
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Nuclear Power and Climate Change
English, 28 pages, published: 01/01/98
NEA#846
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/climate/climate.html

Other language(s):
- Français: L'énergie nucléaire et le changement climatique 
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Projected Costs of Generating Electricity - Update 1998
English, 240 pages, published: 01/01/98
NEA#768, ISBN: 92-64-16162-7
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/pubs/1998/768-projected-costs.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Prévisions des coûts de production de l'électricité - Mise à jour 1998 
This is the fifth study in a series on the future costs of generating electricity. It reviews cost estimates for power plants using nuclear, coal, gas and renewable energy sources. Experts from fourteen OECD countries and five non-OECD countries provided estimated costs for investment, for operations and maintenance, and for fuel for more than 70 power plants. A uniform, consistent method of analysis produces comparable, levelised costs of electricity (cents/kWh). The study also analyses the effects on generation costs of variations in economic lifetime, plant load, and fossil fuel price escalation.

An authoritative reference in the field, this publication will be especially useful to electricity system analysts and experts in electric power economics.
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Uranium 1997: Resources, Production and Demand
A Joint report by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency
English, 430 pages, published: 01/01/98
NEA#726, ISBN: 92-64-16050-7
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/pubs/1998/726-uranium-1997.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Uranium 1997 - Ressources, production et demande 
The events characterizing the world uranium market in the last several years illustrate the persistent uncertainty faced by uranium producers and consumers worldwide. With world nuclear capacity expanding and uranium production satisfying only about 60 per cent of demand, uranium stockpiles continue to be depleted at a high rate. The uncertainty related to the remaining levels of world uranium stockpiles and to the amount of surplus defence material that will be entering the maket makes it difficult to determine when a closer balance between uranium supply and demand will be reached. Information in this report provides insights into changes expected in uranium supply and demand until well into the next century.

The "Red Book", jointly prepared by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency, is the foremost reference on uranium. This world report is based on official information from 59 countries and include compilations of statistics on resources, exploration, production and demand as of 1 January 1997. It provides substantial new information from all of the major uranium producing centres in Africa, Australia, Eastern Europe, North America and New Independent States, including the first-ever official reports on uranium production in Estonia, Mongolia, Russian Federation and Uzbekistan. It also contains an international expert ananlysis of industry statistics and worldwide projections of nuclear energy growth, uranium requirements and uranium supply.

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Management of Separated Plutonium : The Technical Options
English, 160 pages, published: 01/01/97
NEA#4, ISBN: 92-64-15410-8
Ex-sale now free

Other language(s):
- Français: Gestion du plutonium séparé (La) : Les options techniques 
Stocks of separated plutonium in the civil nuclear fuel cycle are currently increasing. The technologies available to handle, use and dispose of it are of considerable current interest. This report presents a consensus view of experts on current and possible future technologies, based on over two decades of industrial experience of using plutonium.

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Future Financial Liabilities of Nuclear Activities
English, 97 pages, published: 01/01/96
NEA#14, ISBN: 92-64-14795-0
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/reports/1996/future_financial_liabilities.PDF

Other language(s):
- Français: Charges financières futures liées aux activités nucléaires (Les) 
This publication is the first comprehensive international review of the policies and schemes in place in NEA countries for recognising, reporting and funding financial liabilities arising from the operation and decommissioning of nuclear facilities. The nuclear activities considered include uranium mining and milling, fuel-cycle service supply, power generation, reprocessing, waste management, research centres and isotope production.

Policy makers from governmental agencies and electricity utilities, in particular, will find results, conclusions and recommendations which will be useful to them given the current trend towards privatising and liberalising the electricity sector.

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Methods of Projecting Operations and Maintenance Costs for Nuclear Power Plants
English, published: 01/01/95
NEA#11, ISBN: 92-64-14413-7
Ex-sale now free

Other language(s):
- Français: Méthodes de projection des coûts d'exploitation et d'entretien des centrales nucléaires (Les) 

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Economics of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle (The)
English, 177 pages, published: 01/01/94
NEA#386
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/reports/efc/
This study updates the 1985 NEA report and presents a comprehensive analysis of the individual and total costs of the nuclear fuel cycle for a pressurised water reactor (PWR) to be commissioned in the year 2000 for both direct disposal and reprocessing routes. Sensitivity cases are discussed and fuel cycles of other reactor types are also considered.

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Cost of High-Level Waste Disposal in Geological Repositories (The)
An Analysis of Factors Affecting Cost Estimates
English, published: 01/01/93
NEA#16, ISBN: 92-64-13913-3
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/1992/nea16-cost-waste-disposal.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Coûts de l'évacuation des déchets hautement radioactifs dans des formations géologiques (Les) : Analyse des facteurs influant sur les estimations des coûts 
Many different estimates for the cost of radioactive waste disposal in geological repositories have been published. This study, aimed at the general reader, illustrates why the published cost estimates for packaging and geological disposal of spent fuel or reprocessing wastes vary so widely, and examines to what extent various political, institutional, technical and economic factors could explain the variation.

The study shows that despite the differences in the various systems being considered, there is a surprisingly good agreement between the estimates when compared to total electricity production costs.