|Program name||Package id||Status||Status date|
|Package ID||Orig. computer||Test computer|
|NEA-1833/12||Linux-based PC,UNIX W.S.|
FLUKA is a Fortran 77 (f77) Monte Carlo computer code.
It is a general purpose tool for calculations of particle transport and interactions with matter, covering an extended range of applications spanning from proton and electron accelerator shielding to target design, calorimetry, activation, dosimetry, detector design, Accelerator Driven Systems, cosmic rays, neutrino physics, radiotherapy etc.
For details, see:
"Overview of the FLUKA code"
G. Battistoni et al., Annals of Nuclear Energy 82, 10-18 (2015)
"The FLUKA Code: Developments and Challenges for High Energy and Medical Applications"
T.T. Bohlen et al., Nuclear Data Sheets, 120, 211-214 (2014)
"FLUKA: a multi-particle transport code"
A. Ferrari et al., CERN-2005-10 (2005), INFN/TC_05/11, SLAC-R-773
FLUKA is a general purpose Monte Carlo radiation transport code that tracks nearly all particles over an extended energy range. Various generations of FLUKA can be distinguished. Initially (1962-1987) the code, originated at Leipzig University and later modified in collaboration with CERN and Helsinki University of Technology, was transporting exclusively hadrons of energies larger than 50 MeV. The present multi-particle, extended energy code started in 1989 as an effort mainly of INFN (Italy) and has been in continuous development since then, eventually in the frame of a collaboration between INFN and CERN which was formalized in 2003. A complete history is reported on the FLUKA manual, distributed with the code and available on line on the FLUKA web site.
The physical models of FLUKA include hadron-hadron and hadron-nucleus interactions and transport up to 10 PeV, nucleus-nucleus interactions and transport between 10 MeV/n and 10 PeV/n, electron, positron and photon interactions and transport between 100 eV (photons) or 1 keV (electrons and positrons) and 10 PeV, neutrino interactions, neutron multigroup transport and interactions up to 20 MeV, charged particle transport including all relevant processes and transport in magnetic fields.
The program can be run in analogue mode or with several variance reduction options. Geometry description can be done with an advanced version of Combinatorial Geometry allowing lattice capabilities and voxel description.
The code has been extensively benchmarked and has found a large number of applications, such as cosmic ray physics, neutrino physics, accelerator design, calorimetry and particle detector simulation, shielding design, dosimetry and radiation protection, space radiation, hadron therapy, neutronics, ADS systems, waste transmutation, etc.
Information about FLUKA development can be found on the website http://www.fluka.org/
The FLUKA package for LINUX platforms is distributed as two separated files. The release of the FLUKA source code is available under the licence established by the FLUKA Coordination Committee.
The distribution consists in a package containing a compiled library, user routines in source form, INCLUDE files, various unformatted and formatted data files and a number of scripts for compiling, linking and running the program on a given platform. A list of the contents is provided in a README file, and information on the current version, possibly overriding parts of the current manual, may be contained in a file RELEASE-NOTES.
A second package contains the source files.
No external library routines are required. The timing and other necessary service routines are already included.
The latest version is FLUKA 2011.2x.4, November 17th 2018 (last respin November 2018) and flair-2.3-0 28-Apr-2017.
Changes in FLUKA2011.2x compared to previous versions:
A new version of Dpmjet-3 is now included. This version is a highly improved model for very high energy interactions, whose improvements has been extensively validate against data taken at the CERN LHC experiments at centre-of-mass energies up to 13 TeV.
The PEANUT hadron-nucleus event generator is now the default from threshold up to 10-20 TeV laboratory energy.
A few protections against common user mistakes have been introduced into the code.
Changes in FLUKA2011.2 compared to previous versions:
Fluka2011.2 contains several new features and additions with respect to Fluka2008.3 (b,c,d):
Stopping power models have been thoroughly reworked, and are now more precise particularly for heavy ions. In particular, the Barkas (Z^3), Bloch (Z^4), and Mott corrections have been implemented.
Nuclear stopping power is now calculated and taken into account. It matters only for heavy ions at low energies, however it is an essential prerequisite for NIEL and DPA calculations (see next point).
Radiation damage (Non Ionizing Energy Loss, NIEL, and Displacements Per Atom, DPA) can now be computed and scored. The electromagnetic part is still under refinement, in particular the contribution of bremsstrahlung and pair production has to be implemented, as well as the effect of using the Mott cross section rather than the Rutherford one. The DPA-SCO, NIEL-DEP, and RES-NIEL generalized particles have been added for this purpose.
The LPM (Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal) effect has been extended to pair production (it was already active for bremsstrahlung).
The lower limit for photon transport has been lowered to 100 eV. Macroscopic surface effects (refraction/reflection) are not treated.
Several improvements in the hadron-nucleus event generators have been implemented.
Nuclear deexcitation by photon emission makes use of an extended database of known levels and transitions. The evaporation stage is also consistent with this database.
The Boltzmann Master Equation, BME, model for heavy ion interactions at low-medium energies is now included in the distributed version. It can handle all projectiles with A>=4 on all targets, with the exception of systems lighter than (alpha, 6Li). BME is invoked for projectile energies lower than 125 MeV/A, however its limit of validity is 150 MeV/A.
The BME is still in a developing phase, it has been extended and improved very recently. Therefore the authors would like to warn users about possible bugs, and would be very grateful to receive feedback about possible problems.
A new card, IONTRANS has been added to control the transport/interaction of heavy ions. As a consequence, the EVENTYPE card is now obsolete.
Several new options are now available in order to define spatially distributed sources. Check the manual for the description of the FLOOD, CART-VOL, SPHE-VOL, and CYLI-VOL option in the BEAMPOS card.
Pre-built source routines for special cases are now supported under the SPECSOUR card. The first one allows an easy setup of colliding beam interactions.
A pre-built source routine, also available under SPECSOUR, and related auxiliary files and examples, can simulate atmospheric showers from cosmic rays and Solar Particle Events (see the manual for details).
A new body, a generic quadric QUA, has been introduced in the geometry
Geometry transformations: directives allowing roto-translations and expansions for sets of bodies are now available in geometry. They can be applied also to the voxel part, when existing.
The "sophisticated" Compton scattering, including electron binding and Doppler effects is now activated by default for "defaults" CALORIME, PRECISIO, EM-CASCA, or HADROTHE
A few compounds of dosimetric interest are now available as pre-defined materials, see the manual for details.
Additional material has been included in the low energy neutron library, some materials have been reworked from newer evaluations, and several materials are now available at 430 K.
The old 72-group neutron library has been declared obsolete and is no longer distributed.
It is now possible to use a different material assignment for the transport of prompt and radioactive decay radiations. Only switching to vacuum or black hole is supported, through the ASSIGNMAT card. WARNING for user routines: the array MEDIUM has changed:
MEDIUM (MREG) MEDFLK (I, MREG) I=1 or I=2 for prompt and decay radiation respectively.
Time scoring has been added for USRYIELD.
A generalized estimator, NET-CHRG, of net charge (algebraic sum of positive and negative charge) is now available.
A new dose equivalent estimator, DOSEQLET, based on convolution with the Q(LET) relation as defined in ICRP60 is now available.
The #include directive is now supported in the input file.
There is no longer a default material assignment. Previously BLACKHOLE was assigned to all regions, except for region 2 which was assigned COPPER. Now the program stops whenever a region has no material assigned.
Most of the physics improvements are brand new and still unpublished.
This version should not be used to publish results about individual model validation/benchmarking (see the license), in particular but not only when the new features are concerned. In case of doubt please contact the FLUKA Collaboration Committee, through fcc(at)fluka.org.
FLUKA treats an arbitrary three-dimensional configuration of materials in geometric regions bounded by first- and second-degree surfaces. Derived from the Combinatorial Geometry package, it has been entirely rewritten. A completely new, fast tracking strategy has been developed, with special attention to charged particle transport, especially in magnetic fields. New bodies have been introduced, resulting in increased rounding accuracy and speed. Input preparation has been made much easier by the possibility to use names instead of numbers, free format and nested parentheses. The distance to nearest boundary is taken into account for improved performance.
Repetitive structures (lattices) and voxel geometries can also be handled.
The FLUKA hadron-nucleon interaction models are based on resonance production and decay below a few GeV, and on the Dual Parton model above. Two models are used also in hadron-nucleus interactions. At momenta below 3-5 GeV/c the PEANUT package includes a very detailed Generalised Intra-Nuclear Cascade (GINC) and a preequilibrium stage, while at high energies the Gribov-Glauber multiple collision mechanism is included in a less refined GINC. Both modules are followed by equilibrium processes: evaporation, fission, Fermi break-up, gamma deexcitation. FLUKA can also simulate photonuclear interactions (described by Vector Meson Dominance, Delta Resonance, Quasi-Deuteron and Giant Dipole Resonance). The PEANUT model is set to become the default at all energies: please read the release notes for further details about this possibility.
Hadron elastic scattering is described by means of parameterised nucleon-nucleon cross sections, tabulated nucleon-nucleus cross sections and tabulated phase shift data for pion-proton and phase-shift analysis for kaon-proton scattering. Detailed kinematics of elastic scattering is performed on hydrogen nuclei and transport of proton recoils.
Nuclear interactions generated by ions are treated through interfaces to external event generators: DPMJET-2.5 or DPMJET-3, with a special initialisation procedure, above 5 GeV per nucleon, modified Rqmd-2.4 between 0.1 and 5 GeV per nucleon, and BME (Boltzmann Master Equation) below 0.1 GeV per nucleon. Pre-compiled libraries for these event generators are included in the distributed packages: the source code is not yet included, pending finalization of proper licensing.
Particle transport includes time-dependence.
Transport of charged particles is based on an original treatment of multiple Coulomb scattering and of ionisation fluctuations which allows the code to handle accurately some challenging problems such as electron backscattering and energy deposition in thin layers even in the few keV energy range.
Energy loss of charged particles is based on the Bethe-Bloch theory, with optional delta-ray production and transport with account for spin effects and ionisation fluctuations. Shell and other low-energy corrections are derived from Ziegler, the density effect is according to Sternheimer.
For all charged particles (hadrons and muons as well as electrons and positrons) a special transport algorithm, based on Moliere's theory of multiple Coulomb scattering improved by Bethe, accounts for correlations between lateral and longitudinal displacement and the deflection angle, between projected angles, and between projected step length and total deflection.
The algorithm includes an accurate treatment of boundaries and curved trajectories in magnetic fields, an automatic control of the step, a path length correction, spin-relativistic effects at the level of the second Born approximation, nuclear size effects (scattering suppression) on option, and a correction for cross section variation with energy over the step.
Bremsstrahlung and electron pair production at high energy by heavy charged particles are treated as a continuous energy loss and deposition or as discrete processes depending on user choice. Muon photonuclear interactions are simulated with or without transport of the produced secondaries.
Differences between positrons and electrons are taken into account concerning both stopping power and bremsstrahlung. The bremsstrahlung differential cross sections of Seltzer and Berger have been extended to include the finite value at "tip" energy, and the angular distribution of bremsstrahlung photons is sampled accurately. The Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal suppression effect and the Ter-Mikaelyan polarisation effect in the soft part of the bremsstrahlung spectrum are also implemented.
Positron annihilation is simulated both in flight and at rest. Delta-ray production by positrons and electrons is described via Bhabha and Moller scattering. The lowest transport limit for electrons is 1 keV. Although in high-Z materials the Moliere multiple scattering model becomes unreliable below 20-30 keV, a single-scattering option is available which allows obtaining satisfactory results in any material also in this low energy range.
Photon interactions include pair production with actual angular distribution of electrons and positrons, Compton effect with account for atomic bonds through use of inelastic Hartree-Fock form factors, photoelectric effect with actual photoelectron angular distribution, detailed interaction on six K and L single sub-shells, optional emission of fluorescence photons and an approximate treatment of Auger electrons, and Rayleigh effect. Photon polarisation can be taken into account for Compton, Rayleigh and photoelectric effects. Photohadron production is modelled according to the Vector Meson Dominance Model, modified and improved using PEANUT below 770 MeV, quasideuteron interactions and Giant Dipole Resonance. Photomuon production is described according to Tsai.
For neutrons with energy lower than 20 MeV, FLUKA uses its own neutron cross section libraries (P5 Legendre angular expansion, 260 or 72 neutron energy groups), containing more than 200 different materials, selected for their interest in physics, dosimetry and accelerator engineering and derived from the most recently evaluated data. Gamma-ray generation and different temperatures are available. Doppler broadening is applied for temperatures above 0 K.
The neutron transport is based on standard multigroup transport with photon and fission neutron generation, detailed kinematics of elastic scattering on hydrogen nuclei, transport of proton recoils and protons from 14-N(n,p)14-C reaction. Capture photons are generated according to the multigroup treatment, but transported with the more accurate electromagnetic package of FLUKA which performs continuous transport in energy and allows for secondary electron generation. The 2.226 MeV gamma line from capture in hydrogen is generated as an actual precise energy, and the whole gamma cascade is available for Xenon and Cadmium isotopes. For nuclei other than hydrogen, kerma factors are used to calculate energy deposition (including from low-energy fission). Pointwise cross section transport is available for a few nuclei and reactions.
Electron, muon, and tau (anti)neutrinos are produced and tracked on option, without interactions, but neutrino interactions are implemented, independently from tracking.
Generation and transport are available (on user's request) of Cherenkov and scintillation radiation. Transport of light of given wavelength in materials can be simulated with user-defined optical properties.
FLUKA has extended scoring capabilities, requiring in most cases no user-written code. Quantities which can be scored include star (hadron inelastic interaction) density by producing particle and region, energy density by region, total or from electrons/photons only, and energy and momentum transfer density in a geometry-independent binning structure (Cartesian or cylindrical), averaged over the run or event by event. The step size is independent of bin size. Energy deposition can be weighted by a quenching factor (Birks law). Scoring can be done in a time window. It is possible to simulate coincidences and anti-coincidences.
Fluence and current can be scored as a function of energy and angle, via boundary-crossing, collision and track-length estimators coincident with regions or region boundaries.
Track-length fluence can be scored in a binning structure (Cartesian or cylindrical) independent of geometry.
Particle yield from a target is available or differential cross section with respect to several different kinematic variables.
Other scoring possibilities include residual nuclei, fission density, momentum transfer density, neutron balance, unweighted energy deposition.
All quantities from radioactive decay of residual nuclei can be scored according to user-defined irradiation and cooling time profiles (decay radiation transport is provided on request).
FLUKA can be used in analogue mode or with a variety of variance reduction options. These include: Leading particle biasing for electrons and photons: region dependent, below user-defined energy threshold and for selected physical effects; Russian Roulette and splitting at boundary crossing based on region relative importance; region-dependent multiplicity tuning in high energy nuclear interactions; region-dependent biased down-scattering and non-analogue absorption of low-energy neutrons; biased decay length for increased daughter production, biased inelastic nuclear interaction length; biased interaction lengths for electron and photon electromagnetic interactions; biased angular distribution of decay secondary particles; region-dependent weight window in three energy ranges (and energy group dependent for low energy neutrons).
Neutrons in the FLUKA low energy libraries are available for about 200 materials or isotopes, temperature, and self-shielding combinations. All other particle interactions and transport are based on models and are not restricted by any material tabulation. The upper energy limit for hadron-hadron and hadron-nucleus interactions and transport is 10 PeV, for nucleus-nucleus interactions and transport 10 PeV/n when the interface with DPMJET-2.5 or DPMJET-3 is activated, 100 TeV otherwise. Electron, positron and photon interactions and transport are possible between 1 keV and 10 PeV.
RELATED DATA LIBRARIES
DATA LIBRARIES included in the distribution
DPMJET-3.1 library. rQMD-2.4 library.
Data files: Bremsstrahlung cross sections, Coherent atomic form factors, Fluorescence emission data, Photon cross sections, Low-energy neutron cross sections (260 groups), Nuclide masses, abundances and other data, Hadron elastic cross sections, Pion cross sections, Fission nuclide yields and neutron multiplicities, Silicon Damage tabulations.
Post-processing programs to analyse the user output.
|Package ID||Status date||Status|
G. Battistoni, S. Muraro, P.R. Sala, F. Cerutti, A. Ferrari, S. Roesler, A. Fasso', J. Ranft:
"FLUKA: a multi-particle transport code", Proceedings of the Hadronic Shower Simulation Workshop 2006, Fermilab 6-8 September 2006, M. Albrow, R. Raja eds., AIP Conference Proceeding 896, 31-49, (2007)
"Overview of the FLUKA code" G. Battistoni et al., Annals of Nuclear Energy 82, 10-18 (2015)
"The FLUKA Code: Developments and Challenges for High Energy and Medical Applications" T.T. Bohlen et al., Nuclear Data Sheets, 120, 211-214 (2014)
|Package ID||Computer language|
Users are bound to run the code only on the platforms and with the compilers, options included, approved by the authors: at present Linux operating systems with g77 or gfortran (version >= 4.5) (see the documentation for more details).
A self-contained image for running FLUKA in a virtual environment on Windows machines is available on the web site http://www.fluka.org/
CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research,
CH-1211, Geneva 23
INFN, the National Institute of Nuclear Physics,
P.za dei Caprettari 70
A. Fasso', SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, USA
A. Ferrari, CERN
P.R. Sala, INFN
J. Ranft, Siegen University, Siegen, Germany
Keywords: ADS, Monte Carlo method, activation, antiparticles, biasing, calorimetry, charged particles, coincidences, complex geometry, cosmic rays, dosimetry, electrons, gamma ray, hadrotherapy, high energy, kaon, magnetic fields, neutrino, neutron, optical photon, pion, protons, radiation transport, shielding, spallation, time dependence.