Publications


Alphabetical list of titles
Actinide and Fission Product Partitioning and Transmutation (2012)
Eleventh Information Exchange Meeting, San Francisco, California, USA, 1-4 November 2010
Burn-up Credit Criticality Safety Benchmark – Phase VII (2012)
UO2 Fuel: Study of Spent Fuel Compositions for Long-term Disposal
CSNI Technical Opinion Papers No. 14 (2012)
Nuclear Licensee Organisational Structures, Resources and Competencies: Determining Their Suitability
CSNI Technical Opinion Papers No. 15 (2012)
Ageing Management of Nuclear Fuel Cycle Facilities
CSNI Technical Opinion Papers No. 16 (2013)
Defence in Depth of Electrical Systems
CSNI Technical Opinion Papers – No. 13 (2011)
LOCA Criteria Basis and Test Methodology
Challenges in Long-term Operation of Nuclear Power Plants (2012)
Implications for Regulatory Bodies
Chemical Thermodynamics of Tin (2012)
Chemical Thermodynamics Volume 12
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) for Nuclear Reactor Safety Applications (2012)
Workshop Proceedings, CFD4NRS-3, Bethesda, Maryland, USA, 14-16 September 2010
Covariance Data in the Fast Neutron Region (2011)
International Evaluation Co-operation, Volume 24
Crisis Communication: Facing the Challenges - Proceedings (2013)
Workshop Proceedings, Madrid, Spain, 9-10 May 2012
Five Years after the Fukushima Daiichi Accident (2016)
Nuclear Safety Improvements and Lessons Learnt
Five Years after the Fukushima Daiichi Accident (Executive summary) (2016)
Nuclear Safety Improvements and Lessons Learnt
Fostering a Durable Relationship Between a Waste Management Facility and its Host Community (2015)
Adding Value Through Design and Process - 2015 Edition
Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste: National Commitment, Local and Regional Involvement (2012)
A Collective Statement of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency Radioactive Waste Management Committee Adopted March 2012
Implementation of Defence in Depth at Nuclear Power Plants (2016)
Lessons Learnt from the Fukushima Daiichi Accident
International Evaluation Co-operation (Vol. 33) (2013)
Methods and Issues for the Combined Use of Integral Experiments and Covariance Data (Volume 33)
Introduction of Thorium in the Nuclear Fuel Cycle (2015)
Short- to long-term considerations
JEFF 3.1.2 (2012)
Joint Evaluated Nuclear Data Library for Fission and Fusion Applications February 2012
Janis 3.4 (2012)
A Java-based Nuclear Data Display Program
Japan's Compensation System for Nuclear Damage (2012)
As Related to the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident
Minor Actinide Burning in Thermal Reactors (2013)
A Report by the Working Party on Scientific Issues of Reactor Systems
Nuclear Energy Today (2012)
Second Edition
Nuclear Energy and Renewables (2012)
System Effects in Low-carbon Electricity Systems
Nuclear Energy and Renewables – Executive Summary (2012)
System Effects in Low-carbon Electricity Systems
Nuclear Law Bulletin No. 89 (2012)
Volume 2012/1
Nuclear Law Bulletin No. 90 (2012)
Volume 2012/2
Nuclear Law Bulletin No. 91 (2013)
Volume 2013/1
Nuclear Law Bulletin No. 92 (2014)
Volume 2013/2
Nuclear Power Plant Operating Experience (2012)
from the IAEA/NEA International Reporting System for Operating Experience: 2009-2011
Quality Improvement of the EXFOR Database (2011)
International Evaluation Co-operation, Volume 30
Radioactive Waste Management and Constructing Memory for Future Generations (2015)
Proceedings of the International Conference and Debate, 15-17 September 2015, Verdun, France
Reversibility and Retrievability in Planning for Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste (2012)
Proceedings of the "R&R" International Conference and Dialogue, 14-17 December 2010, Reims, France
Reversibility of Decisions and Retrievability of Radioactive Waste (2012)
Considerations for National Geological Disposal Programmes
Shielding Aspects of Accelerators, Targets and Irradiation Facilities -- SATIF-11 (2013)
Workshop Proceedings, Tsukuba, Japan, 11-13 September 2012
Stakeholder Confidence in Radioactive Waste Management (2013)
An Annotated Glossary of Key Terms
Structural Materials for Innovative Nuclear Systems (SMINS-2) (2012)
Workshop Proceedings, Daejon, Republic of Korea, 31 August-3 September 2010
Summary of the Fourth International Nuclear Emergency Exercise (INEX-4) (2013)
Exercise Conduct and Evaluation Questionnaires
The Long-term Radiological Safety of a Surface Disposal Facility for Low-level Waste in Belgium (2012)
An International Peer Review of Key Aspects of ONDRAF/NIRAS' Safety Report of November 2011 in Preparation for the License Application
The Post-closure Radiological Safety Case for a Spent Fuel Repository in Sweden (2012)
An International Peer Review of the SKB License-application Study of March 2011
The Supply of Medical Radioisotopes (2012)
Market Impacts of Converting to Low-enriched Uranium Targets for Medical Isotope Production
Uranium-235 Capture Cross-section in the keV to MeV Energy Region (2011)
International Evaluation Co-operation, Volume 29

Detailed publication list

2016 | 2015 | 2014 | 2013 | 2012 | 2011 | page top

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Annual Report 2015
English, 60 pages, published: 04/21/16
NEA#7293
Volume of the series: General information
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/pub/activities/ar2015/ar2015.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Rapport Annuel 2015 
The NEA Annual Report of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) for the year ending on 31 December 2015 provides an overview of the status of nuclear power in OECD countries and illustrative descriptions of the Agency’s activities and international joint projects.

At the end of 2015, there were 442 reactors in operation in 33 countries worldwide, representing over 380 GWe of capacity, with NEA member countries operating 348 of these reactors (319 GWe, or 84% of the world total). Ten reactors were connected to the grid in 2015. Construction began on 4 reactors, bringing the total number under construction to 67.

The Annual Report also provides a full list of the NEA publications produced during the year. All NEA publications can be downloaded free of charge from the NEA website at www.oecd-nea.oreg/pub. The reports address key issues in relation to nuclear development and the fuel cycle, nuclear safety and regulation, radioactive waste management, radiological protection, nuclear science, nuclear data and nuclear law.
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Costs of Decommissioning Nuclear Power Plants
English, 256 pages, published: 03/02/16
NEA#7201
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/pubs/2016/7201-costs-decom-npp.pdf

Other language(s):
- English: Costs of Decommissioning - Executive Summary 
- Français: Coûts de démantèlement - Synthèse 
While refurbishments for the long-term operation of nuclear power plants and for the lifetime extension of such plants have been widely pursued in recent years, the number of plants to be decommissioned is nonetheless expected to increase in future, particularly in the United States and Europe. It is thus important to understand the costs of decommissioning so as to develop coherent and cost-effective strategies, realistic cost estimates based on decommissioning plans from the outset of operations and mechanisms to ensure that future decommissioning expenses can be adequately covered.
This study presents the results of an NEA review of the costs of decommissioning nuclear power plants and of overall funding practices adopted across NEA member countries. The study is based on the results of this NEA questionnaire, on actual decommissioning costs or estimates, and on plans for the establishment and management of decommissioning funds. Case studies are included to provide insight into decommissioning practices in a number of countries.
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Financing the Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities
English, 21 pages, published: 08/18/16
NEA#7326
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/pubs/2016/7326-fin-decom-nf.pdf
Decommissioning of both commercial and R&D nuclear facilities is expected to increase significantly in the coming years, and the largest of such industrial decommissioning projects could command considerable budgets. It is important to understand the costs of decommissioning projects in order to develop realistic cost estimates as early as possible based on preliminary decommissioning plans, but also to develop funding mechanisms to ensure that future decommissioning expenses can be adequately covered. Sound financial provisions need to be accumulated early on to reduce the potential risk for residual, unfunded liabilities and the burden on future generations, while ensuring environmental protection.

Decommissioning planning can be subject to considerable uncertainties, particularly in relation to potential changes in financial markets, in energy policies or in the conditions and requirements for decommissioning individual nuclear installations, and such uncertainties need to be reflected in regularly updated cost estimates.

This booklet offers a useful overview of the relevant aspects of financing the decommissioning of nuclear facilities. It provides information on cost estimation for decommissioning, as well as details about funding mechanisms and the management of funds based on current practice in NEA member countries.
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Five Years after the Fukushima Daiichi Accident
Nuclear Safety Improvements and Lessons Learnt
English, 76 pages, published: 02/29/16
NEA#7284
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/nsd/pubs/2016/7284-five-years-fukushima.pdf

Other language(s):
- English: Five Years after the Fukushima Daiichi Accident (Executive summary)
- Japanese: 福島第一原子力発電所事故後の5年:原子力安全の改善と教訓 
Countries around the world continue to implement safety improvements and corrective actions based on lessons learnt from the 11 March 2011 accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. This report provides a high-level summary and update on these activities, and outlines further lessons learnt and challenges identified for future consideration. It focuses on actions taken by NEA committees and NEA member countries, and as such is complementary to reports produced by other international organisations.

It is in a spirit of openness and transparency that NEA member countries share this information to illustrate that appropriate actions are being taken to maintain and enhance the level of safety at their nuclear facilities. Nuclear power plants are safer today because of these actions. High priority follow-on items identified by NEA committees are provided to assist countries in continuously benchmarking and improving their nuclear safety practices.
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Five Years after the Fukushima Daiichi Accident (Executive summary)
Nuclear Safety Improvements and Lessons Learnt
English, 11 pages, published: 02/29/16
NEA#7285
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/nsd/pubs/2016/7285-five-years-fukushima-es.pdf

Other language(s):
- English: Five Years after the Fukushima Daiichi Accident
- Japanese: 福島第一原子力発電所事故後の5年:原子力安全の改善と教訓 
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GIF Annual Report 2015
English, 138 pages, published: 06/15/16
NEA#7303
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.orghttps://www.gen-4.org/gif/upload/docs/application/pdf/2016-06/gif_2015_annual_report_-_final_e-book.pdf
This ninth edition of the Generation IV International Forum (GIF) Annual Report highlights the main achievements of the Forum in 2015. On 26 February 2015, the Framework Agreement for International Collaboration on Research and Development of Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems was extended for another ten years, thereby paving the way for continued collaboration among participating countries. GIF organised the 3rd Symposium in Makuhari Messe, Japan in May 2015 to present progress made in the development of the six generation IV systems: the gas-cooled fast reactor, the sodium-cooled fast reactor, the supercritical-water-cooled reactor, the very-high-temperature reactor, the lead-cooled fast reactor and the molten salt reactor. The report gives a detailed description of progress made in the 11 existing project arrangements. It also describes the development of safety design criteria and guidelines for the sodium-cooled fast reactor, in addition to the outcome of GIF engagement with regulators on safety approaches for generation IV systems.
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Implementation of Defence in Depth at Nuclear Power Plants
Lessons Learnt from the Fukushima Daiichi Accident
English, 45 pages, published: 01/28/16
NEA#7248
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/nsd/pubs/2016/7248-did-npp.pdf
Defence in depth (DiD) is a concept that has been used for many years alongside tools to optimise nuclear safety in reactor design, assessment and regulation. The 2011 Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident provided unique insight into nuclear safety issues and raised questions about the tools used at nuclear power plants, including the effectiveness of the DiD concept, and whether DiD can be enhanced and its implementation improved.

This regulatory guidance booklet examines and provides advice on the implementation of DiD. A key observation is that the use of the DiD concept remains valid after the Fukushima Daiichi accident. Indeed, lessons learnt from the accident, and the accident?s impact on the use of DiD, have reinforced the fundamental importance of DiD in ensuring adequate safety.

This report is intended primarily for nuclear regulatory bodies, although information included herein is expected to be of interest to licensees, nuclear industry organisations and the general public.
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Japan's Siting Process for the Geological Disposal of High-level Radioactive Waste
An International Peer Review
English, 32 pages, published: 08/04/16
NEA#7331
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/pubs/2016/7331-japan-peer-review-gdrw.pdf
The Nuclear Energy Agency carried out an independent peer review of Japan's siting process and criteria for the geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste in May 2016. The review concluded that Japan's site screening process is generally in accordance with international practices. As the goal of the siting process is to locate a site -- that is both appropriate and accepted by the community -- to host a geological disposal facility for high-level radioactive waste, the international review team emphasises in this report the importance of maintaining an open dialogue and interaction between the regulator, the implementer and the public. Dialogue should begin in the early phases and continue throughout the siting process. The international review team also underlines the importance of taking into account feasibility aspects when selecting a site for preliminary investigations, but suggests that it would be inappropriate to set detailed scientific criteria for nationwide screening at this stage. The team has provided extensive advisory remarks in the report as opportunities for improvement, including the recommendation to use clear and consistent terminology in defining the site screening criteria as it is a critical factor in a successful siting process.
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Multinational Design Evaluation Programme Annual Report
English, 60 pages, published: 06/07/16
NEA#7304
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/mdep/annual-reports/mdep-annual-report-2015.pdf
The eighth Annual Report of the Multinational Design Evaluation Programme (MDEP) highlights achievements of the programme from April 2015 to April 2016. MDEP was established in 2006 as a multinational initiative to develop innovative approaches to leverage the resources and knowledge of the national regulatory authorities that are currently or will be tasked with the review of new nuclear power reactor designs. The nuclear regulatory authorities of 15 countries participate in MDEP, which includes 5 design-specific working groups and 3 issue-specific working groups. The Nuclear Energy Agency facilitates MDEP activities by providing technical secretariat services for the programme.
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Nuclear Law Bulletin No. 97
English, 120 pages, published: 08/22/16
NEA#7311
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/law/nlb/nlb97.pdf
The Nuclear Law Bulletin is a unique international publication for both professionals and academics in the field of nuclear law. It provides readers with authoritative and comprehensive information on nuclear law developments. Published free online twice a year in both English and French, it features topical articles written by renowned legal experts, covers legislative developments worldwide and reports on relevant case law, bilateral and international agreements as well as regulatory activities of international organisations.

Feature articles in this issue include "Nuclear Third Party Liability in Germany" and "Towards Nuclear Disarmament: State of Affairs in the International Legal Framework".
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Radiological Protection Science and Application
English, 111 pages, published: 03/03/16
NEA#7265
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rp/pubs/2016/7265-rp-science-application.pdf
Since the discovery of radiation at the end of the 19th century, the health effects of exposure to radiation have been studied more than almost any other factor with potential effects on human health. The NEA has long been involved in discussions on the effects of radiation exposure, releasing two reports in 1994 and 2007 on radiological protection science.

This report is the third in this state-of-the-art series, examining recent advances in the understanding of radiation risks and effects, particularly at low doses. It focuses on radiobiology and epidemiology, and also addresses the social science aspects of stakeholder involvement in radiological protection decision making. The report summarises the status of, and issues arising from, the application of the International System of Radiological Protection to different types of prevailing circumstances.
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Strategic Considerations for the Sustainable Remediation of Nuclear Installations
English, 110 pages, published: 05/23/16
NEA#7290
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/pubs/2016/7290-strategic-considerations.pdf
Nuclear sites around the world are being decommissioned and remedial actions are being undertaken to enable sites, or parts of sites, to be reused. Although such activities are relatively straightforward for most sites, experience has suggested that preventative action is needed to minimise the impact of remediation activities on the environment and the potential burden to future generations. Removing all contamination in order to make a site suitable for any use generates waste and has associated environmental, social and economic drawbacks and benefits. Site remediation should thus be sustainable and result in an overall net benefit.

This report draws on recent experience of NEA member countries in nuclear site remediation during decommissioning in order to identify strategic considerations for the sustainable remediation of subsurface contamination – predominantly contaminated soil and groundwater – to describe good practice, and to make recommendations for further research and development. It provides insights for the decision makers, regulators, implementers and stakeholders involved in nuclear site decommissioning so as to ensure the sustainable remediation of nuclear sites, now and in the future.
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The Safety Culture of an Effective Nuclear Regulatory Body
English, 32 pages, published: 02/04/16
NEA#7247
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/nsd/pubs/2016/7247-scrb2016.pdf
The fundamental objective of all nuclear safety regulatory bodies is to ensure that activities related to the peaceful use of nuclear energy are carried out in a safe manner within their respective countries. In order to effectively achieve this objective, the nuclear regulatory body requires specific characteristics, one of which is a healthy safety culture.

This regulatory guidance report describes five principles that support the safety culture of an effective nuclear regulatory body. These principles concern leadership for safety, individual responsibility and accountability, co-operation and open communication, a holistic approach, and continuous improvement, learning and self-assessment.

The report also addresses some of the challenges to a regulatory body's safety culture that must be recognised, understood and overcome. It provides a unique resource to countries with existing, mature regulators and can be used for benchmarking as well as for training and developing staff. It will also be useful for new entrant countries in the process of developing and maintaining an effective nuclear safety regulator.

2016 | 2015 | 2014 | 2013 | 2012 | 2011 | page top

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Annual Report 2014
English, 60 pages, published: 06/10/15
NEA#7238
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/pub/activities/ar2014/ar2014.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Rapport Annuel 2014 
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Fostering a Durable Relationship Between a Waste Management Facility and its Host Community
Adding Value Through Design and Process - 2015 Edition
English, 66 pages, published: 12/01/15
NEA#7264
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/pubs/2015/7264-fostering-durable-relationship-2015.pdf
In the field of long-term radioactive waste management, projects to construct repositories normally last from decades to centuries. Such projects will inevitably have an effect on the host community from the planning stage to the end of construction and beyond. The key to a long-lasting and positive relationship between a site and its host community is ensuring that solutions are reached together throughout the entire process. The sustainability of radioactive waste management solutions can potentially be achieved through design and implementation of a facility that provides added cultural and amenity value, as well as economic opportunities, to the local community.

This second edition of Fostering a Durable Relationship Between a Waste Management Facility and its Host Community: Adding Value Through Design and Process highlights new innovations in siting processes and in facility design – functional, cultural and physical – from different countries, which could be of added value to host communities and their sites in the short to long term. These new features are examined from the perspective of sustainability, with a focus on increasing the likelihood that people will both understand the facility and its functions, and remember what is located at the site.

This 2015 update by the NEA Forum on Stakeholder Confidence will be beneficial in designing paths forward for local or regional communities, as well as for national radioactive waste management programmes.
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Handbook on Lead-bismuth Eutectic Alloy and Lead Properties, Materials Compatibility, Thermal-hydraulics and Technologies
English, 954 pages, published: 08/11/15
NEA#7268
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/science/pubs/2015/7268-lead-bismuth-2015.pdf
Heavy liquid metals such as lead or lead-bismuth have been proposed and investigated as coolants for fast reactors since the 1950s. More recently, there has been renewed interest worldwide in the use of these materials to support the development of systems for the transmutation of radioactive waste. Heavy liquid metals are also under evaluation as a reactor core coolant and accelerator-driven system neutron spallation source. Several national and international R&D programmes are ongoing for the development of liquid lead-alloy technology and the design of liquid-lead alloy-cooled reactor systems.

In 2007, a first edition of the handbook was published to provide deeper insight into the properties and experimental results in relation to lead and lead-bismuth eutectic technology and establish a common database. This handbook remains a reference and is a valuable tool for designers and researchers with an interest in heavy liquid metals.

The 2015 edition includes updated data resulting from various national and international R&D programmes and contains new experimental data to help understand some important phenomena such as liquid metal embrittlement and turbulent heat transfer in a fuel bundle. The handbook provides an overview of liquid lead and lead-bismuth eutectic properties, materials compatibility and testing issues, key aspects of thermal-hydraulics and existing facilities, as well as perspectives for future R&D.
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International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments
English, published: 12/09/15
NEA#7281
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/science/wpncs/icsbep/handbook.html
The Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (CSBEP) was initiated in October of 1992 by the United States Department of Energy (DOE). The project quickly became an international effort as scientists from other interested countries became involved. The International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) became an official activity of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) in 1995.

This handbook contains criticality safety benchmark specifications that have been derived from experiments performed at various critical facilities around the world. The benchmark specifications are intended for use by criticality safety engineers to validate calculation techniques used to establish minimum subcritical margins for operations with fissile material and to determine criticality alarm requirements and placement. Many of the specifications are also useful for nuclear data testing. Example calculations are presented; however, these calculations do not constitute a validation of the codes or cross-section data.

The evaluated criticality safety benchmark data are given in nine volumes. These volumes span approximately 69 000 pages and contain 567 evaluations with benchmark specifications for 4 874 critical, near-critical or subcritical configurations, 31 criticality alarm placement/shielding configurations with multiple dose points for each, and 207 configurations that have been categorised as fundamental physics measurements that are relevant to criticality safety applications.

New to the handbook are benchmark specifications for neutron activation foil and thermoluminescent dosimeter measurements performed at the SILENE critical assembly in Valduc, France as part of a joint venture in 2010 between the US DOE and the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA). A photograph of this experiment is shown on the front cover.
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International Handbook of Evaluated Reactor Physics Benchmark Experiments
English, published: 05/26/15
NEA#7258
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/science/wprs/irphe/
International Handbook of Evaluated Reactor Physics Benchmark Experiments

The International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation (IRPhE) Project was initiated as a pilot activity in 1999 by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.
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Introduction of Thorium in the Nuclear Fuel Cycle
Short- to long-term considerations
English, 136 pages, published: 06/10/15
NEA#7224
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/science/pubs/2015/7224-thorium.pdf

Other language(s):
- English: Perspectives on the Use of Thorium in the Nuclear Fuel Cycle – Extended Summary
- Français: Cycle de combustible nucléaire au thorium (TA provisoire) - Synthèse 
Since the beginning of the nuclear era, significant scientific attention has been given to thorium's potential as a nuclear fuel. Although the thorium fuel cycle has never been fully developed, the opportunities and challenges that might arise from the use of thorium in the nuclear fuel cycle are still being studied in many countries and in the context of diverse international programmes around the world. This report provides a scientific assessment of thorium's potential role in nuclear energy both in the short to longer term, addressing diverse options, potential drivers and current impediments to be considered if thorium fuel cycles are to be pursued.
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NEA News Vol. 33 No. 1
English, published: 07/29/15
NEA#7241
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/nea-news/2015/33-1/nea-news-33-1.pdf
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NEA News Vol. 33 No. 2
English, 40 pages, published: 02/22/16
NEA#7243
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/nea-news/2015/33-2/nea-news-33-2.pdf

Other language(s):
- : AEN Infos Vol. 33 n°2 
NEA News is the professional journal of the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA). It features articles on the latest nuclear energy issues concerning the economic and technical aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle, nuclear safety and regulation, radioactive waste management, radiological protection, nuclear science and nuclear legislation. Each issue provides facts and opinions on nuclear energy, an update of NEA activities, and a brief presentation of new NEA publications and other NEA news.

Topics covered in this special "green" issue of the NEA News include why the climate needs nuclear energy; a clean environment approach to uranium mining; the growing interrelationship between nuclear law and environmental law; radioactive waste management solutions; learning from stakeholders to enhance communication in nuclear regulatory organisations; the renewal of the NEA Thermochemical Database and NEA joint projects.

A special thank you to the many contributors to this edition of NEA News: Manuel Bossant, Pierre Bourdon, Davide Costa, Luminita Grancea, Jan Horst Keppler, Aurélie Lorin, Henri Paillère, Marilena Ragoussi and Michael Siemann.
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Nuclear Energy Data 2015/Données sur l'énergie nucléaire 2015
Bilingual, 106 pages, published: 10/21/15
NEA#7246
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/pubs/2015/7246-ned-2015.pdf
Nuclear Energy Data is the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency's annual compilation of statistics and country reports documenting nuclear power status in the OECD area. Information provided by member country governments includes statistics on installed generating capacity, total electricity produced by all sources and by nuclear power, nuclear energy policies and fuel cycle developments, as well as projected generating capacity and electricity production to 2035, where available. Total electricity generation at nuclear power plants and the share of electricity production from nuclear power plants increased slightly in 2014, by 1.4% and 0.3% respectively, despite Japan's nuclear fleet remaining offline throughout the year. No new reactor was connected to the grid in OECD countries and one, in the United States, was permanently shut down. Governments committed to having nuclear power in the energy mix advanced plans for developing or increasing nuclear generating capacity, with the preparation of new build projects making progress in Finland, Hungary, Turkey and the United Kingdom. Further details on these and other developments are provided in the publication's numerous tables, graphs and country reports.

This publication contains "StatLinks". For each StatLink, the reader will find a URL which leads to the corresponding spreadsheet. These links work in the same way as an Internet link.

Les Données sur l'énergie nucléaire, compilation annuelle de statistiques et de rapports nationaux de l'Agence de l'OCDE pour l'énergie nucléaire, présentent la situation de l'énergie nucléaire dans les pays de l'OCDE. Les informations communiquées par les pouvoirs publics des pays membres de l'OCDE comprennent des statistiques sur la puissance nucléaire installée, la production d'électricité totale et nucléaire, les politiques nucléaires, les évolutions du cycle du combustible ainsi que, lorsqu'elles sont disponibles, des projections jusqu'en 2035 de la puissance nucléaire et de la production d'électricité. En 2014, la production totale d'électricité des centrales nucléaires ainsi que la part du nucléaire dans la production d'électricité ont légèrement augmenté, de 1,4 % et 0,3 % respectivement, et cela même si la totalité des réacteurs japonais est restée à l'arrêt. Aucun nouveau réacteur n'a été connecté au reseau dans les pays de l'OCDE, et un réacteur, aux États-Unis, a été mis définitivement à l'arrêt. Les pays décidés à inclure le nucléaire dans leur bouquet énergétique ont poursuivi leurs projets de développer ou d'augmenter la puissance nucléaire installée, avec des avancées dans de futurs projets de construction en Finlande, en Hongrie, au Royaume-Uni et en Turquie. Le lecteur trouvera de plus amples informations sur ces évolutions et d'autres développements dans les nombreux tableaux, graphiques et rapports nationaux que contient cet ouvrage.

Cette publication contient des < StatLinks >. Fonctionnant comme un lien internet, un StatLink fournit l'accès à la feuille de calcul correspondante.
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Nuclear Energy: Combating Climate Change
English, 19 pages, published: 11/05/15
NEA#7208
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/pubs/2015/7208-climate-change-2015.pdf
The global response to address climate change is a key policy challenge of the 21st century. Many governments around the world have agreed that action should be taken to achieve large cuts in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions over the coming decades, to adapt to the impacts of climate change and to ensure the necessary financial and technical support for developing countries to take action.

There is a growing scientific consensus that global annual GHG emissions will need to be reduced by at least 50% from today’s levels by 2050 if the world is to limit the average temperature increase to 2°C by the end of the century and avoid the worst consequences of global warming. This brochure describes the role that nuclear energy can play in helping to combat climate change, and sets that role in the context of all low-carbon electricity sources, with specific references to renewables.
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Nuclear Law Bulletin No. 95
English, 157 pages, published: 06/15/15
NEA#7252
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/law/nlb/nlb95.pdf

Other language(s):
- : Bulletin de droit nucléaire n°95 
The Nuclear Law Bulletin is a unique international publication for both professionals and academics in the field of nuclear law. It provides readers with authoritative and comprehensive information on nuclear law developments. Published free online twice a year in both English and French, it features topical articles written by renowned legal experts, covers legislative developments worldwide and reports on relevant case law, bilateral and international agreements as well as regulatory activities of international organisations.
Feature articles in this issue include "Entry into force of the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage: Opening the umbrella"; "Towards a new international framework for nuclear safety: Developments from Fukushima to Vienna"; "Nuclear arbitration: Interpreting non-proliferation agreements".
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Nuclear Law Bulletin No. 96
English, 116 pages, published: 02/23/16
NEA#7254
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/law/nlb/nlb96.pdf

Other language(s):
- : Bulletin de droit nucléaire n°96 
The Nuclear Law Bulletin is a unique international publication for both professionals and academics in the field of nuclear law. It provides readers with authoritative and comprehensive information on nuclear law developments. Published free online twice a year in both English and French, it features topical articles written by renowned legal experts, covers legislative developments worldwide and reports on relevant case law, bilateral and international agreements as well as regulatory activities of international organisations.

Feature articles in this issue include ?Treaty implementation applied to conventions on nuclear safety? and ?Crisis, criticism, change: Regulatory reform in the wake of nuclear accidents?.
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Nuclear New Build: Insights into Financing and Project Management
English, 244 pages, published: 07/20/15
NEA#7195
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/pubs/2015/7195-nn-build-2015.pdf

Other language(s):
- English: Nuclear New Build: Insights into Financing and Project Management (Executive Summary)
Nuclear new build has been progressing steadily since the year 2000, with the construction of 94 new reactors initiated and 56 completed reactors connected to the grid. Among these new reactors are some of the first generation III/III+ reactors of their kind. Drawing on a combination of conceptual analysis, expert opinion and seven in-depth case studies, this report provides policymakers and stakeholders with an overview of the principal challenges facing nuclear new build today, as well as ways to address and overcome them.

It focuses on the most important challenges of building a new nuclear power plant, namely assembling the conditions necessary to successfully finance and manage highly complex construction processes and their supply chains. Different projects have chosen different paths, but they nonetheless share a number of features. Financing capital-intensive nuclear new build projects requires, for example, the long-term stabilisation of electricity prices whether through tariffs, power purchase agreements or contracts for difference. In construction, the global convergence of engineering codes and quality standards would also promote both competition and public confidence. In addition, change management, early supply chain planning and "soft issues" such as leadership, team building and trust have emerged over and again as key factors in the new build construction process. This report looks at ongoing trends in these areas and possible ways forward.
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Nuclear New Build: Insights into Financing and Project Management (Executive Summary)
Executive Summary
English, published: 09/07/15
NEA#7196
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/pubs/2015/7196-nn-build-2015-es.pdf

Other language(s):
- English: Nuclear New Build: Insights into Financing and Project Management
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Perspectives on the Use of Thorium in the Nuclear Fuel Cycle – Extended Summary
English, 20 pages, published: 09/10/15
NEA#7228
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/science/pubs/2015/7228-thorium-es.pdf

Other language(s):
- English: Introduction of Thorium in the Nuclear Fuel Cycle
- Français: Cycle de combustible nucléaire au thorium (TA provisoire) - Synthèse 
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Projected Costs of Generating Electricity - 2015 Edition
English, 212 pages, published: 08/31/15
NEA#7057
Cost:
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/documents/

Other language(s):
- Français: Coûts prévisionnels de production de l'électricité - Synthèse 
- English: Projected Costs of Generating Electricity - Executive Summary
This joint report by the International Energy Agency (IEA) and the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) is the eighth in a series of studies on electricity generating costs. As policy makers work to ensure that the power supply is reliable, secure and affordable, while making it increasingly clean and sustainable in the context of the debate on climate change, it is becoming more crucial that they understand what determines the relative cost of electricity generation using fossil fuel, nuclear or renewable sources of energy. A wide range of fuels and technologies are presented in the report, including natural gas, coal, nuclear, hydro, solar, onshore and offshore wind, biomass and biogas, geothermal, and combined heat and power, drawing on a database from surveys of investment and operating costs that include a larger number of countries than previous editions.

The analysis of more than 180 plants, based on data covering 22 countries, reveals several key trends, pointing, for example, to a significant decline in recent years in the cost of renewable generation. The report also reveals that nuclear energy costs remain in line with the cost of other baseload technologies, particularly in markets that value decarbonisation. Overall, cost drivers of the different generating technologies remain both market-specific and technology-specific.

Readers will find a wealth of details and analysis, supported by over 200 figures and tables, underlining this report's value as a tool for decision makers and researchers concerned with energy policies, climate change and the evolution of power sectors around the world.
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Projected Costs of Generating Electricity - Executive Summary
English, published: 08/31/15
NEA#7279
Volume of the series: Nuclear Development
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/pubs/2015/7279-proj-costs-electricity-2015-es.pdf
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Radioactive Waste Management and Constructing Memory for Future Generations
Proceedings of the International Conference and Debate, 15-17 September 2015, Verdun, France
English, 177 pages, published: 11/18/15
NEA#7259
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/pubs/2015/7259-constructing-memory-2015.pdf
The Preservation of Records, Knowledge and Memory (RK&M) across Generations initiative was launched by the Nuclear Energy Agency in 2011 to foster international reflection and progress towards this goal and to meet increasing demands by waste management specialists and other interested parties for viable and shared strategies. The RK&M initiative is now in its second phase, which is to last until 2017. Phase I culminated on 15-17 September 2014 with the organisation of an international conference and debate on “Constructing Memory" held in Verdun, France.

The conference was attended by approximately 200 participants from 17 countries and 3 international organisations. Participants included specialists from the radioactive waste management area and beyond, academics in the fields of archaeology, communications, cultural heritage, geography and history, as well as artists, archivists, representatives from local heritage societies and from communities that could host a radioactive waste repository.
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Review of Integral Experiments for Minor Actinide Management
English, 137 pages, published: 02/06/15
NEA#7222
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/science/pubs/2015/7222-review-minor-actinide-management.pdf
Spent nuclear fuel contains minor actinides (MAs) such as neptunium, americium and curium, which require careful management. This becomes even more important when mixed oxide (MOX) fuel is being used on a large scale since more MAs will accumulate in the spent fuel. One way to manage these MAs is to transmute them in nuclear reactors, including in light water reactors, fast reactors or accelerator-driven subcritical systems. The transmutation of MAs, however, is not straightforward, as the loading of MAs generally affects physics parameters, such as coolant void, Doppler and burn-up reactivity.

This report focuses on nuclear data requirements for minor actinide management, the review of existing integral data and the determination of required experimental work, the identification of bottlenecks and possible solutions, and the recommendation of an action programme for international co-operation.
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Stakeholder Involvement in Decision Making: A Short Guide to Issues, Approaches and Resources
English, 62 pages, published: 01/01/16
NEA#7189
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/pubs/2015/7189-stakeholder-involvement-2015.pdf
Radioactive waste management is embedded in broader societal issues such as the environment, risk management, energy, health policy and sustainability. In all these fields, there is an increasing demand for public involvement and engagement. This 2015 update of Stakeholder Involvement Techniques: Short Guide and Annotated Bibliography, assists practitioners and non-specialists by outlining the steps and issues associated with stakeholder involvement in decision making and by facilitating access to useful online resources (handbooks, toolboxes and case studies). The updated guide has been considerably enriched with experiences since 2004 and includes extensive references to the literature. It is published alongside the release of an online annotated bibliography that will be updated regularly.
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Technology Roadmap: Nuclear Energy - 2015 Edition
English, 64 pages, published: 01/19/15
NEA#7257
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/pubs/2015/7257-techroadmap-2015.pdf

Other language(s):
- : Technology Roadmap: Nuclear Energy - 2015 Edition (Chinese) 技术路线图 核能 
- : Nuclear Energy 2015 Edition - Roadmap Insights (foldout in publication) 
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The Practice of Cost Estimation for Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities
English, published: 06/01/15
NEA#7237
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/pubs/2015/7237-practice-cost-estimation.pdf
Decommissioning of both commercially used and R&D nuclear facilities is expected to increase significantly in the coming years, and the largest of such industrial decommissioning projects could command considerable budgets. Several approaches are currently being used for decommissioning cost estimations, with an international culture developing in the field. The present cost estimation practice guide was prepared in order to offer international actors specific guidance in preparing quality cost and schedule estimates to support detailed budgeting for decommissioning implementation, for the preparation of decommissioning plans and for the securing of funds. This guide is based on current practices and standards in a number of NEA member countries and aims to help consolidate the practice and process of decommissioning cost estimation so as to make it more widely understood. It offers a useful reference for the practitioner and for training programmes.

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Annual Report 2013
English, 60 pages, published: 06/04/14
NEA#7174
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/pub/activities/ar2013/ar2013.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Rapport annuel 2013 
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Guide for International Peer Reviews of Decommissioning Cost Studies for Nuclear Facilities
English, 49 pages, published: 10/27/14
NEA#7190
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/pubs/2014/7190-guide-peer-reviews.pdf
Peer reviews are a standard co-operative OECD working tool that offer member countries a framework to compare experiences and examine best practices in a host of areas. The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) has developed a proven methodology for conducting peer reviews in radioactive waste management and nuclear R&D. Using this methodology, the NEA Radioactive Waste Management Committee’s Working Party on Decommissioning and Dismantling (WPDD) developed the present guide as a framework for decommissioning cost reviewers and reviewees to prepare for and conduct international peer reviews of decommissioning cost estimate studies for nuclear facilities. It includes checklists that will help national programmes or relevant organisations to assess and improve decommissioning cost estimate practices in the future. This guide will act as the NEA reference for conducting such international peer reviews.
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International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments
English, published: 12/15/14
NEA#7231
Volume of the series: Data Bank
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/science/wpncs/icsbep/handbook.html
The Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (CSBEP) was initiated in October 1992 by the United States Department of Energy. The project quickly became an international effort as scientists from other interested countries became involved. The International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) became an official activity of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) in 1995.

This handbook contains criticality safety benchmark specifications that have been derived from experiments performed at various critical facilities around the world. The benchmark specifications are intended for use by criticality safety engineers to validate calculation techniques used to establish minimum subcritical margins for operations with fissile material and to determine criticality alarm requirements and placement. Many of the specifications are also useful for nuclear data testing. Example calculations are presented; however, these calculations do not constitute a validation of the codes or cross-section data.

The evaluated criticality safety benchmark data are given in nine volumes. These volumes span approximately 67?000 pages and contain 561 evaluations with benchmark specifications for 4?839 critical, near-critical or subcritical configurations, 24 criticality alarm placement/shielding configurations with multiple dose points for each and 207?configurations that have been categorised as fundamental physics measurements that are relevant to criticality safety applications.

New to the handbook are benchmark specifications for subcritical measurements of a nickel-reflected, plutonium-metal sphere performed at the National Criticality Experiments Research Center (NCERC) by experimenters at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in 2012. A photograph of this experiment is shown on the front cover.
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Managing Environmental and Health Impacts of Uranium Mining
English, 140 pages, published: 06/04/14
NEA#7062
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/pubs/2014/7062-mehium.pdf

Other language(s):
- English: Perceptions and Realities in Modern Uranium Mining – Extended Summary
- Français: L'extraction d'uranium aujourd'hui : perceptions et réalités – Résumé détaillé 
Uranium mining and milling has evolved significantly over the years. By comparing currently leading approaches with outdated practices, this report demonstrates how uranium mining can be conducted in a way that protects workers, the public and the environment. Innovative, modern mining practices combined with strictly enforced regulatory standards are geared towards avoiding past mistakes committed primarily during the early history of the industry when maximising uranium production was the principal operating consideration. Today?s leading practices in uranium mining aim at producing uranium in an efficient and safe manner that limits environmental impacts to acceptable standards. As indicated in this report, the collection of baseline environmental data, environmental monitoring and public consultation throughout the life cycle of the mine enables verification that the facility is operating as planned, provides early warning of any potentially adverse impacts on the environment and keeps stakeholders informed of developments. Leading practice also supports planning for mine closure before mine production is licensed to ensure that the mining lease area is returned to an environmentally acceptable condition. The report highlights the importance of mine workers being properly trained and well equipped, as well as that of ensuring that their work environment is well ventilated so as to curtail exposure to radiation and hazardous materials and thereby minimise health impacts.
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NEA News, No. 32-1/32-2
English, 40 pages, published: 12/19/14
NEA#7176
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/nea-news/2014/32-1-32-2/nea-news-32-1-32-2.pdf
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Nuclear Energy Data 2014/Données sur l'énergie nucléaire 2014
Bilingual, 93 pages, published: 12/08/14
NEA#7197
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/pubs/2014/7197-bb-2014.pdf
Nuclear Energy Data is the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency's annual compilation of statistics and country reports documenting the status of nuclear power in the OECD area. Information provided by member country governments includes statistics on installed generating capacity, total electricity produced by all sources and by nuclear power, nuclear energy policies and fuel cycle developments, as well as projected generating capacity and electricity production to 2035, where available. Total electricity generation at nuclear power plants and the share of electricity production from nuclear power plants remained steady in 2013 despite the progressive shutdown of all reactors in Japan leading up to September and the permanent closure of six reactors in the OECD area. Governments committed to maintaining nuclear power in the energy mix advanced plans for increasing nuclear generating capacity, and progress was made in the development of deep geological repositories for spent nuclear fuel, with Finland expected to have the first such facility in operation in the early 2020s. Further details on these and other developments are provided in the publication's numerous tables, graphs and country reports.

This publication contains "StatLinks". For each StatLink, the reader will find a URL which leads to the corresponding spreadsheet. These links work in the same way as an Internet link.

Les Donnees sur l'energie nucleaire, compilation annuelle de statistiques et de rapports nationaux de l'Agence de l'OCDE pour l'energie nucleaire, presente la situation de l'energie nucleaire dans les pays de l'OCDE. Les informations communiquees par les pouvoirs publics des pays membres de l'OCDE comprennent des statistiques sur la puissance nucleaire installee et sur la production d'electricite totale et nucleaire, les politiques nucleaires et les evolutions du cycle du combustible ainsi que, lorsqu'elles sont disponibles, des projections jusqu'en 2035 de la puissance nucleaire installee et de la production d'electricite. En 2013, la production totale d'electricite des centrales nucleaires ainsi que la part du nucleaire dans la production d'electricite sont restees stables malgre les mises a l'arret de tous les reacteurs japonais, intervenues progressivement jusqu'a septembre, et la mise a l'arret definitif de six reacteurs dans la zone de l'OCDE. Les pays decides a conserver le nucleaire dans leur mix energetique ont poursuivi leurs projets d'augmentation de la puissance nucleaire installee. Le developpement de centres de stockages en couche geologique profonde pour le combustible use a lui aussi progresse, la premiere installation de ce type devant entrer en exploitation en Finlande au debut des annees 2020. Le lecteur trouvera de plus amples informations sur ces evolutions et d'autres developpements dans les nombreux tableaux, graphiques et rapports nationaux que contient cet ouvrage.

Cette publication contient des " StatLinks ". Fonctionnant comme un lien internet, un StatLink fournit l'acces a la feuille de calcul correspondante.
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Nuclear Law Bulletin No. 92
Volume 2013/2
English, 220 pages, published: 04/11/14
NEA#7154, ISSN: 0304-341X
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/law/nlb/nlb92.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Bulletin de droit nucléaire n° 92 
The Nuclear Law Bulletin is a unique international publication for both professionals and academics in the field of nuclear law. It provides subscribers with authoritative and comprehensive information on nuclear law developments. Published twice a year in both English and French, it features topical articles written by renowned legal experts, covers legislative developments worldwide and reports on relevant case law, bilateral and international agreements as well as regulatory activities of international organisations.

Feature articles in this issue include: "Uranium mining and production: A legal perspective on regulating an important resource"; "Turkish nuclear legislation: Developments for a nuclear newcomer"; and "Nuclear law and environmental law in the licensing of nuclear installations".
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Nuclear Law Bulletin No. 93
English, published: 10/10/14
NEA#7181
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/law/nlb/nlb93.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Bulletin de droit nucléaire n° 93 
The Nuclear Law Bulletin is a unique international publication for both professionals and academics in the field of nuclear law. It provides authoritative and comprehensive information on nuclear law developments. Published free online twice a year in both English and French, it features topical articles written by renowned legal experts, covers legislative developments worldwide and reports on relevant case law, bilateral and international agreements as well as regulatory activities of international organisations.

Feature articles in this issue include: "Progress towards a global nuclear liability regime"; "The Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage and participation by developing countries: A South African perspective"; "Fusion energy and nuclear liability considerations"; and "Nuclear energy and Indian society: Public engagement, risk assessment and legal frameworks".
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Nuclear Law Bulletin No. 94
English, 185 pages, published: 03/04/15
NEA#7183
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/law/nlb/nlb94.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Bulletin de droit nucléaire n° 94 
The Nuclear Law Bulletin is a unique international publication for both professionals and academics in the field of nuclear law. It provides subscribers with authoritative and comprehensive information on nuclear law developments. Published twice a year in both English and French, it features topical articles written by renowned legal experts, covers legislative developments worldwide and reports on relevant case law, bilateral and international agreements as well as regulatory activities of international organisations.
Feature articles in this issue include "Facilitating the entry into force and implementation of the Amendment to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material: Observations, challenges and benefits"; "The legal status of nuclear power in Germany"; "Challenges facing the insurance industry since the modernisation of the international nuclear third party liability regime"; "Draft Federal Act of the Russian Federation, 'The Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage and its Financial Security'".
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Nuclear Site Remediation and Restoration during Decommissioning of Nuclear Installations
English, 244 pages, published: 08/18/14
NEA#7192
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/pubs/2014/7192-cpd-report.pdf
Decommissioning of nuclear facilities and related remedial actions are currently being undertaken around the world to enable sites or parts of sites to be reused for other purposes. Remediation has generally been considered as the last step in a sequence of decommissioning steps, but the values of prevention, long-term planning and parallel remediation are increasingly being recognised as important steps in the process. This report, prepared by the Task Group on Nuclear Site Restoration of the NEA Co-operative Programme on Decommissioning, highlights lessons learnt from remediation experiences of NEA member countries that may be particularly helpful to practitioners of nuclear site remediation, regulators and site operators. It provides observations and recommendations to consider in the development of strategies and plans for efficient nuclear site remediation that ensures protection of workers and the environment.
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Perceptions and Realities in Modern Uranium Mining – Extended Summary
English, 19 pages, published: 08/14/14
NEA#7063
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/pubs/2014/7063-mehium-es.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: L'extraction d'uranium aujourd'hui : perceptions et réalités – Résumé détaillé 
- English: Managing Environmental and Health Impacts of Uranium Mining
Producing uranium in a safe and environmentally responsible manner is not only important to the producers and consumers of the product, but also to society at large. Given expectations of growth in nuclear generating capacity and associated uranium demand in the coming decades &ndash; particularly in the developing world &ndash; enhancing awareness of leading practice in uranium mining is important. This extended summary of the report <em>Managing Environmental and Health Impacts of Uranium Mining</em> provides a brief outline of the driving forces behind the significant evolution of uranium mining practices from the time that uranium was first mined for military purposes until today.
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R&D and Innovation Needs for Decommissioning Nuclear Facilities
English, 314 pages, published: 07/21/14
NEA#7191
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/pubs/2014/7191-rd-innovation-needs.pdf
Nuclear decommissioning activities can greatly benefit from research and development (R&D) projects. This report examines applicable emergent technologies, current research efforts and innovation needs to build a base of knowledge regarding the status of decommissioning technology and R&D. This base knowledge can be used to obtain consensus on future R&D that is worth funding. It can also assist in deciding how to collaborate and optimise the limited pool of financial resources available among NEA member countries for nuclear decommissioning R&D.
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State-of-the-art Report on Innovative Fuels for Advanced Nuclear Systems
English, 193 pages, published: 12/12/14
NEA#6895
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/science/pubs/2014/6895-report-innovative-fuels.pdf
Development of innovative fuels such as homogeneous and heterogeneous fuels, ADS fuels, and oxide, metal, nitride and carbide fuels is an important stage in the implementation process of advanced nuclear systems. Several national and international R&D programmes are investigating minor actinide-bearing fuels due to their ability to help reduce the radiotoxicity of spent fuel and therefore decrease the burden on geological repositories. Minor actinides can be converted into a suitable fuel form for irradiation in reactor systems where they are transmuted into fission products with a significantly shorter half-life.

This report compares recent studies of fuels containing minor actinides for use in advanced nuclear systems. The studies review different fuels for several types of advanced reactors by examining various technical issues associated with fabrication, characterisation, irradiation performance, design and safety criteria, as well as technical maturity.
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The Characteristics of an Effective Nuclear Regulator
NEA/CNRA/R(2014)1
English, 32 pages, published: 07/04/14
NEA#7185
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/nsd/pubs/2014/7185-regulator.pdf
Both national and international organisations agree that the fundamental objective of all nuclear safety regulatory bodies -- the regulator's prime purpose -- is to ensure that nuclear licensees operate their facilities at all times in a safe manner. Much has been written about ways to improve regulatory processes or to improve the effectiveness of a regulatory body, including in previous OECD/NEA regulatory guidance booklets. But until now, none have focused on the characteristics of an effective nuclear safety regulator.

Effective organisations are those that have good leadership and are able to transform strategic direction into operational programmes. Effectiveness is about how well the organisation is achieving its fundamental purpose -- in the case of a nuclear safety regulator, ensuring that licensees operate their facilities and discharge their obligations in a safe manner.

This regulatory guidance booklet describes the characteristics of an effective nuclear safety regulator in terms of roles and responsibilities, principles and attributes. Each of the characteristics discussed in this report is a necessary feature of an effective nuclear safety regulator but no one characteristic is sufficient on its own. It is the combination of these characteristics that leads to the effectiveness of a nuclear regulatory body. The report provides a unique resource to countries with existing, mature regulators and can be used for benchmarking as well as training and developing staff. It will also be useful for new entrant countries in the process of developing and maintaining an effective nuclear safety regulator.
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Uranium 2014: Resources, Production and Demand
English, 504 pages, published: 09/09/14
NEA#7209
Volume of the series: Nuclear Development
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/pubs/2014/7209-uranium-2014.pdf

Other language(s):
- English: Uranium 2014: Resources, Production and Demand - Executive Summary
- Français: Uranium 2014 : Ressources, production et demande - Synthèse 
Uranium is the raw material used to fuel over 400 operational nuclear reactors around the world that produce large amounts of electricity and benefit from life cycle carbon emissions as low as renewable energy sources. Although a valuable commodity, declining market prices for uranium since the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident in 2011, driven by uncertainties concerning the future of nuclear power, have led to the postponement of mine development plans in a number of countries and raised questions about continued uranium supply. This 25th edition of the "Red Book", a recognised world reference on uranium jointly prepared by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency, provides analyses and information from 45 producing and consuming countries in order to address these and other questions. It includes data on global uranium exploration, resources, production and reactor-related requirements. It offers updated information on established uranium production centres and mine development plans, as well as projections of nuclear generating capacity and reactor-related requirements through 2035, incorporating policy changes following the Fukushima accident, in order to address long-term uranium supply and demand issues.
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Uranium 2014: Resources, Production and Demand - Executive Summary
English, 12 pages, published: 10/14/14
NEA#7210
Volume of the series: Nuclear Development
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/pubs/2014/7210-uranium-2014-es.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Uranium 2014 : Ressources, production et demande - Synthèse 
- English: Uranium 2014: Resources, Production and Demand
Uranium is the raw material used to fuel over 400 operational nuclear reactors around the world that produce large amounts of electricity and benefit from life cycle carbon emissions as low as renewable energy sources. Although a valuable commodity, declining market prices for uranium since the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident in 2011, driven by uncertainties concerning the future of nuclear power, have led to the postponement of mine development plans in a number of countries and raised questions about continued uranium supply. This 25th edition of the "Red Book", a recognised world reference on uranium jointly prepared by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency, provides analyses and information from 45 producing and consuming countries in order to address these and other questions. It includes data on global uranium exploration, resources, production and reactor-related requirements. It offers updated information on established uranium production centres and mine development plans, as well as projections of nuclear generating capacity and reactor-related requirements through 2035, incorporating policy changes following the Fukushima accident, in order to address long-term uranium supply and demand issues.

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Annual Report 2012
English, 60 pages, published: 04/19/13
NEA#7144
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/pub/activities/ar2012/ar2012.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Rapport annuel 2012 
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CSNI Technical Opinion Papers No. 16
Defence in Depth of Electrical Systems
English, 48 pages, published: 05/17/13
NEA#7070
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/nsd/docs/2013/7070-top-16.pdf
As all safety systems in the majority of existing nuclear power plants use the preferred power supply, any voltage surges in these systems could lead to common-cause failures. In the event of an unusual electrical system transient, it is essential that safety-related equipment be isolated or protected from the fault in order to ensure its ability to safely shut down the reactor and remove decay heat.
Based on the analysis of the voltage surges observed at Forsmark-1 in 2006 and Olkiluoto-1 in 2008, this technical opinion paper summarises the current state of knowledge of in-plant and external grid-related challenges to nuclear power plant safety-related electrical equipment. It will be of particular interest to nuclear safety regulators, nuclear power plant operators and grid system regulators and operators.
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Chemical Thermodynamics of Iron, Part I, Volume 13a
English, 1124 pages, published: 12/13/13
NEA#6355
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/dbtdb/pubs/6355-vol13a-iron.pdf
This volume is the 13th in the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) "Chemical Thermodynamics" series. It is the first part of a critical review of the thermodynamic properties of iron, its solid compounds and aqueous complexes, initiated as part of the NEA Thermochemical Database Project Phase III (TDB III). The database system developed at the OECD/NEA Data Bank ensures consistency not only within the recommended data sets of iron, but also among all the data sets published in the series. This volume will be of particular interest to scientists carrying out performance assessments of deep geological disposal sites for radioactive waste.
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Crisis Communication: Facing the Challenges - Proceedings
Workshop Proceedings, Madrid, Spain, 9-10 May 2012
English, 240 pages, published: 05/06/13
NEA#7067
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/nsd/docs/2013/7067-crisis-communication.pdf
As manifested by an increasingly globalised media, a nuclear accident anywhere quickly becomes a potential concern for people everywhere. It is therefore of prime importance that nuclear regulators’ communication strategies take into consideration the expectations and concerns of the public and provide sound information not only for the people of the affected country, but also for citizens worldwide. Public trust is a key element in being able to do so effectively and of particular importance when there are consequences for people or the environment. International co-operation can play a fundamental role in helping to improve crisis communication on national and global scales in the event of a nuclear accident or radiological emergency. These proceedings contain the papers, recommendations and conclusions of the workshop, which was attended by over 180 experts from 27 countries and 6 international organisations.
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International Evaluation Co-operation (Vol. 33)
Methods and Issues for the Combined Use of Integral Experiments and Covariance Data (Volume 33)
English, 178 pages, published: 12/20/13
NEA#7171
Volume of the series: Nuclear Science
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/science/wpec/volume33/volume33.pdf
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International Handbook of Evaluated Reactor Physics Benchmark Experiments (DVD)
March 2013
English, published: 05/13/13
NEA#7140
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/science/wprs/irphe/irphe-handbook/
The International Reactor Physics Experiments Evaluation Project (IRPhEP) was launched in 1999 by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) Nuclear Science Committee (NSC). While co-ordination and administration of the IRPhEP is managed at the international level by the NEA, each participating country is responsible for the administration, technical direction and priorities of the project within their respective countries. The information and data included in this handbook are available to NEA member countries, to all contributing countries and to others on a case-by-case basis.
This handbook contains reactor physics benchmark specifications that have been derived from experiments performed at various nuclear facilities around the world. The benchmark specifications are intended for use by reactor designers, safety analysts and nuclear data evaluators to validate calculation techniques and data. Example calculations are presented; they do not, however, constitute validation or endorsement of the codes or cross-section data.
The 2013 edition of the International Handbook of Evaluated Reactor Physics Benchmark Experiments contains data from 130 experimental series performed at 47 reactor facilities. One hundred twenty-six of the 130 evaluations are published as approved benchmarks; the remaining four are published as draft documents only.
New to the handbook are benchmark specifications for selected measurements on the very-high-temperature reactor critical assembly (VHTRC) which were performed at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) Tokai Research Establishment in Japan between 1985 and 1996.
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Minor Actinide Burning in Thermal Reactors
A Report by the Working Party on Scientific Issues of Reactor Systems
English, 82 pages, published: 11/18/13
NEA#6997
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/science/pubs/2013/6997-minor-actinide.pdf
This publication provides an introduction to minor actinide nuclear properties and discusses some of the arguments in favour of minor actinide recycling, as well as the potential role of thermal reactors in this regard. Various technical issues and challenges are examined from the fuel cycle, operations, fuel designs, core management and safety/dynamics responses to safety and economics. The focus of this report is on the general conclusions of recent research that could be applied to thermal reactors. Further research and development needs are also considered, with summaries of findings and recommendations for the direction of future R&D efforts.
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NEA News No. 30.2-31.1
English, 32 pages, published: 09/16/13
NEA#7164, ISSN: 1605-9581
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/nea-news/2013/30-2-31-1/nea-news-30-2-31-1.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: AEN Infos vol. 30.2-31.1 
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NEA News, No. 31-2
English, 32 pages, published: 01/21/14
NEA#7169
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/nea-news/2013/31-2/nea-news-31-2.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: AEN Infos, n° 31-2 
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Nuclear Energy Data 2013/Données sur l'énergie nucléaire 2013
Bilingual, 92 pages, published: 12/03/13
NEA#7162
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/pubs/2013/7162-bb-2013.pdf
Nuclear Energy Data is the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency's annual compilation of statistics and country reports documenting the status of nuclear power in the OECD area. Information provided by member country governments includes statistics on installed generating capacity, total electricity produced by all sources and by nuclear power, nuclear energy policies and fuel cycle developments, as well as projected generating capacity and electricity production to 2035, where available. Total electricity generation at nuclear power plants and the share of electricity production from nuclear power plants declined in 2012 as a result of operational issues at some facilities and suspended operation at all but two reactors in Japan. Nuclear safety was further strengthened in 2012 following safety reviews prompted by the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident. Governments committed to maintaining nuclear power in the energy mix pursued initiatives to increase nuclear generating capacity. In Turkey, plans were finalised for the construction of the first four reactors for commercial electricity production. Further details on these and other developments are provided in the publication's numerous tables, graphs and country reports.

This publication contains 'StatLinks'. For each StatLink, the reader will find a URL which leads to the corresponding spreadsheet. These links work in the same way as an Internet link.


Les Données sur l'énergie nucléaire, compilation annuelle de statistiques et de rapports nationaux de l'Agence de l'OCDE pour l'énergie nucléaire, présente la situation de l'énergie nucléaire dans les pays de l'OCDE. Les informations communiquées par les pouvoirs publics des pays membres de l'OCDE comprennent des statistiques sur la puissance nucléaire installée, la production d'électricité totale et nucléaire, les politiques nucléaires, les évolutions du cycle du combustible ainsi que, lorsqu'elles sont disponibles, des projections jusqu'en 2035 de la puissance nucléaire et de la production d'électricité. En 2012, la production totale d'électricité des centrales nucléaires mais aussi la part du nucléaire dans la production d'électricité ont diminué en raison de problèmes d'exploitation rencontres par certaines installations et de la mise à l'arrêt de tous les réacteurs japonais sauf deux. À l'issue des réexamens de la sureté entrepris après l'accident de Fukushima Daichi, la sureté nucléaire s'est renforcée en 2012. Les pays décides à conserver le nucléaire dans leur mix énergétique ont avancé dans leurs projets d'augmentation de la puissance nucléaire installée. La Turquie a mis la dernière main au projet de construction de ses quatre premiers réacteurs destines a la production d'électricité. Le lecteur trouvera de plus amples informations sur ces évolutions et d'autres développements dans les nombreux tableaux, graphiques et rapports nationaux que contient cet ouvrage.

Cette publication contient des < StatLinks >. Fonctionnant comme un lien internet, un StatLink fournit l'acces a la feuille de calcul correspondante.
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Nuclear Law Bulletin No. 91
Volume 2013/1
English, 196 pages, published: 09/13/13
NEA#7152, ISSN: 0304-341X
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/law/nlb/nlb91.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Bulletin de droit nucléaire n° 91 
The Nuclear Law Bulletin is a unique international publication for both professionals and academics in the field of nuclear law. It provides subscribers with authoritative and comprehensive information on nuclear law developments. Published twice a year in both English and French, it features topical articles written by renowned legal experts, covers legislative developments worldwide and reports on relevant case law, bilateral and international agreements as well as regulatory activities of international organisations.

Feature articles in this issue include: “The post-Fukushima Daiichi response: The role of the Convention on Nuclear Safety in strengthening the legal framework for nuclear safety”; “Adequate protection after the Fukushima Daiichi acccident: A constant in a world of change”; “Safer nuclear energy through a higher degree of internationalisation? International involvement versus national sovereignty”; and “Special report on the Second Annual Meeting of the Nuclear Law Association, ‘India’s nuclear energy sector: Business opportunities and legal challenges’, 2 March 2013, Mumbai, India”.
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Shielding Aspects of Accelerators, Targets and Irradiation Facilities -- SATIF-11
Workshop Proceedings, Tsukuba, Japan, 11-13 September 2012
English, 202 pages, published: 10/08/13
NEA#7157
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/science/pubs/2013/7157-satif-11.pdf
Particle accelerators have evolved over the last decades from simple devices to powerful machines, and are having an increasingly important impact on research, technology and daily life. Today they have a wide range of applications in many areas including material science and medical applications. In recent years, new technological and research applications have helped to define requirements while the number of accelerator facilities in operation, being commissioned, designed or planned has grown significantly. Their parameters, which include the beam energy, currents and intensities, and target composition, can vary widely, giving rise to new radiation shielding aspects and problems.
Particle accelerators must be operated in safe ways to protect operators, the public and the environment. As the design and use of these facilities evolve, so must the analytical methods used in the safety analyses. These workshop proceedings review the state of the art in radiation shielding of accelerator facilities and irradiation targets. They also evaluate progress in the development of modelling methods used to assess the effectiveness of such shielding as part of safety analyses.
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Stakeholder Confidence in Radioactive Waste Management
An Annotated Glossary of Key Terms
English, 64 pages, published: 03/01/13
NEA#6988
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/docs/2013/6988-fsc-glossary.pdf
The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) Forum on Stakeholder Confidence (FSC) Annotated Glossary is a review of concepts central to societal decision making about radioactive waste management. It records the evolution in understanding that has taken place in the group as the FSC has worked with these concepts over time. This should be a useful resource not only for new FSC participants but also for others: this annotated glossary forms a good reference handbook for future texts regarding societal aspects of radioactive waste management and its governance.
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Status Report on Structural Materials for Advanced Nuclear Systems
English, 107 pages, published: 10/21/13
NEA#6409
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/science/pubs/2013/6409-sr-smans.pdf
Materials performance is critical to the safe and economic operation of any nuclear system. As the international community pursues the development of Generation IV reactor concepts and accelerator-driven transmutation systems, it will be increasingly necessary to develop advanced materials capable of tolerating the more challenging environments of these new systems. The international community supports numerous materials research programmes, with each country determining its individual focus on a case-by-case basis. In many instances, similar alloys of materials systems are being studied in several countries, providing the opportunity for collaborative and cross-cutting research that benefits different systems.

This report is a snapshot of the current materials programmes supporting the development of advanced concepts. The descriptions of the research are grouped by concept, and national programmes are described within each concept. The report provides an overall sense of the importance of materials research worldwide and the opportunities for synergy among the countries represented in this overview.
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Summary of the Fourth International Nuclear Emergency Exercise (INEX-4)
Exercise Conduct and Evaluation Questionnaires
English, 48 pages, published: 07/29/13
NEA#7143
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rp/pubs/2013/7143-Summary-of-INEX-4.pdf
The International Nuclear Emergency Exercise (INEX) series, organised under the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) Working Party on Nuclear Emergency Matters (WPNEM), has proven successful in testing, investigating and improving national and international response arrangements for nuclear accidents and radiological emergencies. Early INEX exercises focused on the national and international aspects of early phase management of nuclear power plant emergencies. Starting with INEX-3 (2005-2006), the international community began looking at issues concerning longer-term consequence management. In 2008, the WPNEM started preparing the INEX-4 series, which was conducted in 2010-2011 and addressed consequence management and transition to recovery in response to malicious acts involving the release of radioactive materials in an urban setting. The goal of INEX-4 was to provide a basis for enhancing emergency management through the exchange of exercise experiences from participating countries and the identification of good practices and common issues. This summary report provides general outcomes based on country responses to the INEX-4 evaluation questionnaire and suggests areas of focus for future consideration.
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The Economics of the Back End of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle
English, 188 pages, published: 10/23/13
NEA#7061
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/pubs/2013/7061-ebenfc.pdf

Other language(s):
- English: The Economics of the Back End of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle - Executive Summary
- Français: Economie de l'aval du cycle du combustible nucléaire - Synthèse 
The feasibility and costs of spent nuclear fuel management and the consequent disposal of ultimate waste continue to be the subject of public debate in many countries, with particular concern often expressed over the lack of progress in implementing final disposal. Uncertainties about back-end costs and the financial risks associated with management of the back end have also been singled out as possible deterrents to investment in new nuclear power plants.

This report offers an appraisal of economic issues and methodologies for the management of spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste from commercial power reactors. It includes a review of different back-end options and current policies and practices, with a focus on the cost estimates for these options and the funding mechanisms in place or under consideration in OECD/NEA countries. A generic economic assessment of high-level estimates of back-end cost impacts on fuel cycle costs is undertaken for selected idealised scenarios, by means of a simple static model. Sensitivity analyses are conducted for the evaluation of uncertainties in major components and the identification of cost drivers. Since factors other than economics are an important part of the decision-making process, an analysis of the influence of key qualitative parameters in the selection of back-end strategies is also presented in this report.
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The Economics of the Back End of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle - Executive Summary
English, 16 pages, published: 10/23/13
NEA#7193
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/pubs/2013/7061-ebenfc-execsum.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Economie de l'aval du cycle du combustible nucléaire - Synthèse 
- English: The Economics of the Back End of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle
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The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident: OECD/NEA Nuclear Safety Response and Lessons Learnt
English, 68 pages, published: 09/10/13
NEA#7161
Volume of the series: Nuclear Safety
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/pub/2013/7161-fukushima2013.pdf

Other language(s):
- Japanese: 福島第一原子力発電所事故 OECD/NEA原子力安全の対応と教訓 
This report outlines the response of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and its member countries to the March 2011 accident at TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. All NEA members took early action to ensure and confirm the continued safety of their nuclear power plants and the protection of the public. Consistent with its objective of maintaining and further developing the scientific, technological and legal bases for safe nuclear energy, the NEA has assisted its member countries in their individual and collective responses to the accident. It has also provided direct assistance to the relevant authorities in Japan. These actions are summarised in the report along with lessons learnt thus far. Key messages are offered as a means to help strengthen the basis for nuclear safety and its implementation in all countries using nuclear power.
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The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency
English, 8 pages, published: 10/21/13
NEA#7139
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/pub/nea-brief.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: L'Agence de l'OCDE pour l'énergie nucléaire 
- Chinese: 经济合作与发展组织核能署 
- Russian: Агентство по ядерной энергии ОЭСР 
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Transition Towards a Sustainable Nuclear Fuel Cycle
English, 68 pages, published: 07/18/13
NEA#7133
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org /science/pubs/2013/7133-transition-sustainable-fuel-cycle.pdf
Future fuel cycle characteristics, feasibility and acceptability will be crucial for the continued development of nuclear energy, especially in the post-Fukushima context. Fuel cycle choices have both long- and short-term impacts, and a holistic assessment of their characteristics, cost and associated safety issues is of paramount importance. This report seeks to associate quantified impacts with foreseeable nuclear energy development in different world regions. It gives initial results in terms of uranium resource availability, fuel cycle facility deployment and reactor types. In particular, the need to achieve short doubling times with future fast reactors is investigated and quantified. The report also provides guidelines for performing future studies to account for a wider range of hypotheses on energy demand growth, different hypotheses regarding uranium resource availability and different types of reactors to be deployed.
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Validation of the JEFF-3.1 Nuclear Data Library
JEFF Report 23
English, 76 pages, published: 02/14/13
NEA#7079
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/dbdata/nds_jefreports/jefreport-23/nea7079-jeff23.pdf
The Joint Evaluated Fission and Fusion (JEFF) Project is a collaborative effort among OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) Data Bank member countries to develop a reference nuclear data library for use in different energy applications. These data can be used to help improve the safety and economy of existing installations, as well as to design advanced nuclear reactors and their associated fuel cycles, including radioactive waste management. The JEFF-3.1 library contains several different data types, including neutron and proton interaction data, neutron activation data, radioactive decay data, fission yield data and thermal scattering data. This report describes the initial validation of the complete JEFF-3.1 library for thermal reactors, fuel cycle, storage and reprocessing, fusion technology and intermediate energy applications. It will be useful for scientists and engineers in national laboratories, universities and industry who use basic nuclear data, and is particularly suitable for those who work with application libraries based on JEFF-3.1.

The JEF/DOC and EFFDOC working documents cited in the report are available online at www.oecd-nea.org/dbdata/nds_jefreports/jefreport-23/.

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Actinide and Fission Product Partitioning and Transmutation
Eleventh Information Exchange Meeting, San Francisco, California, USA, 1-4 November 2010
English, 404 pages, published: 06/01/12
NEA#6996, ISBN: 978-92-64-99174-3
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/science/reports/2012/nea6996-11thPandT.pdf
In order to provide experts with a forum to present and discuss developments in the field of partitioning and transmutation (P&T), the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) has been organising, since 1990, a series of biennial information exchange meetings on actinide and fission product P&T.

These proceedings contain all the technical papers presented at the 11th Information Exchange Meeting, which was held on 1-4 November 2010 in San Francisco, California, USA. The meeting covered national programmes on P&T; fuel cycle strategies and transition scenarios; waste forms and geological disposal; transmutation fuels and targets; pyro and aqueous processes; transmutation physics and materials; and transmutation system design, performance and safety.
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Annual Report 2011
English, 56 pages, published: 04/24/12
NEA#7094, ISBN: 978-92-64-99179-8
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/pub/activities/ar2011/AR2011-E.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Rapport annuel 2011 
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Burn-up Credit Criticality Safety Benchmark – Phase VII
UO2 Fuel: Study of Spent Fuel Compositions for Long-term Disposal
English, 180 pages, published: 02/21/12
NEA#6998, ISBN: 978-92-64-99172-9
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/science/docs/2012/burn-up-credit-phaseVII.pdf
After spent nuclear fuel (SNF) is discharged from a nuclear reactor, fuel composition and reactivity continue to vary as a function of time due to the decay of unstable nuclides. Accurate predictions of the concentrations of long-lived radionuclides in SNF, which represent a significant potential hazard to human beings and to the environment over a very long period, are particularly necessary for radiological dose assessments.
This report assesses the ability of existing computer codes and associated nuclear data to predict isotopic compositions and their corresponding neutron multiplication factor (keff) values for pressurised-water-reactor (PWR) UO2 fuel at 50 GWd/MTU burn-up in a generic spent fuel cask configuration. Fuel decay compositions and keff values have been calculated for 30 post-irradiation time steps out to one million years.
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CSNI Technical Opinion Papers No. 14
Nuclear Licensee Organisational Structures, Resources and Competencies: Determining Their Suitability
English, 16 pages, published: 05/15/12
NEA#6912, ISBN: 978-92-64-99175-0
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/nsd/docs/2011/csni-r2011-13.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Avis techniques du CSIN n° 14 
The way in which nuclear licensees’ organisations are structured and resourced clearly has a potential impact on nuclear safety. As experience has continually demonstrated, operating organisations with a strong training programme for personnel, adequate resourcing and overall effective leadership and management perform more effectively in times of crisis than those lacking in one or more of these areas. In parallel, the nuclear industry is developing new resource deployment strategies which are making increased use of contractors and leading to changes in organisational structure, which in turn create challenges for the continued safe operation of nuclear facilities. This technical opinion paper represents the consensus among human and organisational factor specialists in NEA member and associated countries on the methods, approaches and good practices to be followed in designing an organisation with a strong safety focus while meeting business needs. It also considers some of the attributes that an organisation which is effectively managing its resources and capabilities might demonstrate.
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CSNI Technical Opinion Papers No. 15
Ageing Management of Nuclear Fuel Cycle Facilities
English, 40 pages, published: 12/31/12
NEA#6990, ISBN: 978-92-64-99181-1
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/nsd/docs/2012/6990-top-15.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Avis techniques du CSIN n° 15 
Managing the ageing of fuel cycle facilities (FCFs) means, as for other nuclear installations, ensuring the availability of required safety functions throughout their service life while taking into account the changes that occur with time and use. This technical opinion paper identifies a set of good practices by benchmarking strategies and good practices on coping with physical ageing and obsolescence from the facility design stage until decommissioning. It should be of particular interest to nuclear safety regulators, fuel cycle facilities operators and fuel cycle researchers.
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Challenges in Long-term Operation of Nuclear Power Plants
Implications for Regulatory Bodies
English, 32 pages, published: 09/21/12
NEA#7074, ISBN: 978-92-64-99187-3
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/nsd/docs/2012/cnra-r2012-5.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Défis de l'exploitation à long terme des centrales nucléaires 
Nuclear power reactors have become a major source of electricity supply in many countries and, based on the experience of safe and reliable operation, many operators have sought and received authorisation for long-term operation beyond the period assumed in the plant’s design. Acceptance of a nuclear power plant for long-term operation must be based on evidence that the plant will operate safely over the extended period of service. This requires an assessment of the current and projected condition of the plant and, in particular, of the systems that perform fundamental safety functions, to ensure that these systems will continue to perform their safety functions during the extended operating period. Programmes for long-term operation must be informed by operating experience and must also consider and assess environmental impacts.
This guidance document is intended to assist regulatory organisations in assessing and approving the long-term operation safety assessments submitted by operators. It outlines the fundamental principles that should govern decisions on authorisation for long-term operation. It also describes regulatory challenges and considerations that may arise in an assessment of a plant for long-term operation.
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Chemical Thermodynamics of Tin
Chemical Thermodynamics Volume 12
English, 644 pages, published: 12/31/12
NEA#6354, ISBN: 978-92-64-99206-1
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/dbtdb/pubs/tin.pdf
This volume is the 12th in the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) "Chemical Thermodynamics" series. It is based on a critical review of the thermodynamic properties of tin, its solid compounds and aqueous complexes, carried out as part of the NEA Thermochemical Database Project Phase III (TDB III). The database system developed at the OECD/NEA Data Bank ensures consistency not only within the recommended data sets of tin, but also among all the data sets published in the series. This volume will be of particular interest to scientists carrying out performance assessments of deep geological disposal sites for radioactive waste.
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Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) for Nuclear Reactor Safety Applications
Workshop Proceedings, CFD4NRS-3, Bethesda, Maryland, USA, 14-16 September 2010
English, published: 03/22/12
NEA#7076
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/nsd/csni/cfd/workshops/CFD4NRS-3/
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is increasingly being adopted in nuclear reactor safety (NRS) analyses as a tool which enables a better description of specific safety-relevant phenomena occurring in nuclear reactors. The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) has in recent years conducted important activities in the CFD area, including the organisation of three workshops. The CFD4NRS-3 workshop was the third in the series and was held in Bethesda, Maryland, USA on 14-16 September 2010. A total of 200 experts participated. These proceedings contain the 4 keynote lectures, including the synthesis of results for the Tee-junction Benchmark, and the 57 technical papers presented at the workshop.
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Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste: National Commitment, Local and Regional Involvement
A Collective Statement of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency Radioactive Waste Management Committee Adopted March 2012
English, 24 pages, published: 07/18/12
NEA#7082, ISBN: 978-92-64-99183-5
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2012/7082-geo-disposal-statement.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Stockage géologique des déchets radioactifs : Engagement national, participation locale et régionale 
Disposal in engineered facilities built in stable, deep geological formations is the reference solution for permanently isolating long-lived radioactive waste from the human biosphere. This management method is designed to be intrinsically safe and final, meaning that it is not dependent on human presence or intervention in order to fulfil its safety goal. Selecting the site of a waste repository brings up a range of issues involving scientific knowledge, technical capacity, ethical values, territorial planning, community well-being and more. Bringing to fruition the multi-decade task of siting and developing a repository demands a strong national commitment and significant regional and local involvement.
This collective statement by the Radioactive Waste Management Committee of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency recognises the advances made towards greater transparency and dialogue among the diverse stakeholders concerned and identifies the fundamental elements needed to support national commitment and to foster territorial involvement. It concludes that technical and societal partners can develop shared confidence in the safety of geological repositories and jointly carry these projects forward.
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Homogeneous versus Heterogeneous Recycling of Transuranics in Fast Nuclear Reactors
English, 92 pages, published: 12/31/12
NEA#7077, ISBN: 978-92-64-99177-4
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/science/docs/2012/7077-hvh-recycling-transuranics-fnr.pdf
Fuel transuranics (TRU) multi-recycling is a mandatory feature if both the resource sustainability and the waste minimisation objectives for future fuel cycles are to be pursued. The resulting TRU transmutation can be implemented in fast neutron spectrum reactors according to two main options commonly referred to as the homogeneous and heterogeneous modes.

In this study, the two alternatives have been compared in terms of reactor core feasibility, fuel development and impact on the fuel cycle. The multi-criteria analysis indicates that there are major challenges in minor actinide-loaded fuel development, its experimental validation and possibly in its reprocessing. Both modes of recycling have an impact on the overall fuel cycle, even if at different stages, for example complex target fabrication and handling in the case of heterogeneous recycling and full core fuel fabrication in the case of homogeneous recycling. The study finds that an economic evaluation according to specific implementation scenarios should still be undertaken.
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International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments
September 2011
English, published: 03/26/12
NEA#7038, ISBN: 978-92-64-99163-7
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/science/wpncs/icsbep/handbook.html
The International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP), originally initiated at the national level by the US Department of Energy in 1992, became an official activity of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) in 1995.

This handbook contains criticality safety benchmark specifications that have been derived from experiments performed at various critical facilities around the world. The benchmark specifications are intended for use by criticality safety engineers to validate calculation techniques used to establish minimum subcritical margins for operations with fissile material and to determine criticality alarm requirement and placement. Many of the specifications are also useful for nuclear data testing. Example calculations are presented; these calculations do not, however, constitute a validation of the codes or cross-section data.

The evaluated criticality safety benchmark data are presented in nine volumes, containing over 58 000 pages and 533 evaluations with benchmark specifications for 4 552 critical, near-critical or subcritical configurations, 24 criticality alarm placement/shielding configurations with multiple dose points for each, and 200 configurations that have been categorised as fundamental physics measurements that are relevant to criticality safety applications.

New to the handbook are benchmark specifications for the GROTESQUE: Complex Geometric Arrangement of Unreflected HEU (93.15) Metal Pieces experiment (see front cover) that was performed by John T. Mihalczo at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Critical Experiment Facility in June 1964.
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International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments (DVD)
English, published: 12/31/12
NEA#7080, ISBN: 978-92-64-99192-7
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/science/wpncs/icsbep/handbook.html
The International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP), originally initiated at the national level by the US Department of Energy in 1992, became an official activity of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) in 1995.
This handbook contains criticality safety benchmark specifications that have been derived from experiments performed at various critical facilities around the world. The benchmark specifications are intended for use by criticality safety engineers to validate calculation techniques used to establish minimum subcritical margins for operations with fissile material and to determine criticality alarm requirement and placement. Many of the specifications are also useful for nuclear data testing. Example calculations are presented; these calculations do not, however, constitute a validation of the codes or cross-section data.
The evaluated criticality safety benchmark data are presented in nine volumes, containing over 65 000 pages and 549 evaluations with benchmark specifications for over 4 700 critical, near-critical or subcritical configurations, 24 criticality alarm placement/shielding configurations with multiple dose points for each, and 200 configurations that have been categorised as fundamental physics measurements that are relevant to criticality safety applications.
New to the handbook are benchmark specifications for the Water-moderated Square-pitched U(6.90)O2 Fuel Rod Lattices with 0.67 Fuel-to-water Ratio experiments (see front cover) that were performed by a team of experimenters at Sandia National Laboratories between 2009 and 2012.
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International Handbook of Evaluated Reactor Physics Benchmark Experiments (DVD)
English, published: 05/15/12
NEA#7081, ISBN: 978-92-64-99168-2
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/science/wprs/irphe/irphe-handbook/handbook.html
The International Reactor Physics Experiments Evaluation Project (IRPhEP) was launched in 1999 by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) Nuclear Science Committee (NSC). While co-ordination and administration of the IRPhEP is managed at the international level by the NEA, each participating country is responsible for the administration, technical direction and priorities of the project within their respective countries. The information and data included in this handbook are available to NEA member countries, to all contributing countries and to others on a case-by-case basis.

This handbook contains reactor physics benchmark specifications that have been derived from experiments performed at various nuclear facilities around the world. The benchmark specifications are intended for use by reactor designers, safety analysts and nuclear data evaluators to validate calculation techniques and data. Example calculations are presented; they do not, however, constitute validation or endorsement of the codes or cross-section data.

The 2012 edition of the International Handbook of Evaluated Reactor Physics Benchmark Experiments contains data from 56 experimental series performed at 32 reactor facilities. Fifty-four of the 56 evaluations are published as approved benchmarks; the remaining two are published as draft documents only.

New to the handbook are benchmark specifications for selected configurations from the HTR-PROTEUS Pebble Bed Experimental Program which were performed at the Paul Scherrer Institute’s PROTEUS zero-power research reactor in Villigen, Switzerland between 1992 and 1996.
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International Structure for Decommissioning Costing (ISDC) of Nuclear Installations
English, 192 pages, published: 03/02/12
NEA#7088, ISBN: 978-92-64-99173-6
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2012/ISDC-nuclear-installations.pdf
Cost estimation for the decommissioning of nuclear facilities can vary considerably in format, content and practice both within and across countries. These differences may have legitimate reasons but make the process of reviewing estimates complicated and the estimates themselves difficult to defend. Hence, the joint initiative of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the European Commission (EC) was undertaken to propose a standard itemisation of decommissioning costs either directly for the production of cost estimates or for mapping estimates onto a standard, common structure for purposes of comparison. This report updates the earlier itemisation published in 1999 and takes into account experience accumulated thus far. The revised cost itemisation structure has sought to ensure that all costs within the planned scope of a decommissioning project may be reflected. The report also provides general guidance on developing a decommissioning cost estimate, including detailed advice on using the structure.
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JEFF 3.1.2
Joint Evaluated Nuclear Data Library for Fission and Fusion Applications February 2012
English, published: 04/19/12
NEA#7111
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/dbdata/jeff
The Joint Evaluated Fission and Fusion File is an evaluated library produced through international collaboration among Data Bank member countries co-ordinated by the NEA Data Bank. As of February 2012, JEFF 3.1.2 is the latest update of the general purpose neutron data library.

This DVD contains:
• General purpose incident neutron data in ENDF-6 and ACE formats
• Activation data
• Thermal scattering data
• Incident proton data
• Radioactive decay data
• Neutron-induced fission yields data
• Spontaneous fission yields data
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Janis 3.4
A Java-based Nuclear Data Display Program
English, published: 08/21/12
NEA#7116
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/tools/abstract/detail/nea-1760/
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Japan's Compensation System for Nuclear Damage
As Related to the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident
English, 244 pages, published: 12/31/12
NEA#7089, ISBN: 978-92-64-99200-9
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/law/fukushima/7089-fukushima-compensation-system-pp.pdf
Following the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident, extraordinary efforts were undertaken in Japan to implement a compensation scheme for the proper and efficient indemnification of the affected victims. This publication provides English translations of key Japanese legislative and administrative texts and other implementing guidance, as well as several commentaries by Japanese experts in the field of third party nuclear liability.

The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) has prepared this publication in co-operation with the government of Japan to share Japan’s recent experience in implementing its nuclear liability and compensation regime. The material presented in the publication should provide valuable insights for those wishing to better understand the regime applied to compensate the victims of the accident and for those working on potential improvements in national regimes and the international framework for third party nuclear liability.
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Main Benefits from 30 Years of Joint Projects in Nuclear Safety
English, 132 pages, published: 05/04/12
NEA#7073, ISBN: 978-92-64-99171-2
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/nsd/reports/2012/nea7073-30-years-joint-safety-projects.pdf
One of the major achievements of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) is the knowledge it has helped to generate through the organisation of joint international research projects. Such projects, primarily in the areas of nuclear safety and radioactive waste management, enable interested countries, on a cost-sharing basis, to pursue research or the sharing of data with respect to particular areas or issues. Over the years, more than 30 joint projects have been conducted with wide participation of member countries.
The purpose of this report is to describe the achievements of the OECD/NEA joint projects on nuclear safety research that have been carried out over the past three decades, with a particular focus on thermal-hydraulics, fuel behaviour and severe accidents. It shows that the resolution of specific safety issues in these areas has greatly benefited from the joint projects’ activities and results. It also highlights the added value of international co-operation for maintaining unique experimental infrastructure, preserving skills and generating new knowledge.
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Methods for Safety Assessment of Geological Disposal Facilities for Radioactive Waste
Outcomes of the NEA MeSA Initiative
English, 240 pages, published: 06/21/12
NEA#6923, ISBN: 978-92-64-99190-3
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2012/nea6923-MESA-initiative.pdf
Safety assessment is an interdisciplinary approach that focuses on the scientific understanding and performance assessment of safety functions as well as the hazards associated with a geological disposal facility. It forms a central part of the safety case, and the results of the safety assessments provide evidence to support decision making. The goals of the NEA project on “Methods for Safety Assessment for Geological Disposal Facilities for Radioactive Waste” (MeSA) were to examine and document methods used in safety assessment for radioactive waste disposal facilities, to generate collective views based on the methods’ similarities and differences, and to identify future work. The project reviewed a number of approaches used by various national and international organisations. Following the comprehensive review, a generic safety case with a safety assessment flowchart was developed and is presented herein. The elaboration of the safety concept, the use of safety functions, the implication of uncertainties and the formulation of scenarios are also discussed.
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NEA News, Vol. 30 No. 1
English, 32 pages, published: 07/17/12
NEA#7096, ISSN: 1605-9581
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/nea-news/2012/30-1/nea-news-30-1.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: AEN Infos, vol. 30 n° 1 
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Nuclear Education and Training: From Concern to Capability
English, 200 pages, published: 04/12/12
NEA#6979, ISBN: 978-92-64-17637-9
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/pubs/2012/6979-nuclear-education.pdf
The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) first published in 2000 Nuclear Education and Training: Cause for Concern?, which highlighted significant issues in the availability of human resources for the nuclear industry. Ten years on, Nuclear Education and Training: From Concern to Capability considers what has changed in that time and finds that, while some countries have taken positive actions, in a number of others human resources could soon be facing serious challenges in coping with existing and potential new nuclear facilities. This is exacerbated by the increasing rate of retirement as the workforce ages. This report provides a qualitative characterisation of human resource needs and appraises instruments and programmes in nuclear education and training initiated by various stakeholders in different countries. In this context, it also examines the current and future uses of nuclear research facilities for education and training purposes. Regarding the nuclear training component of workforce competence, it outlines a job taxonomy which could be a basis for addressing the needs of workers across this sector. It presents the taxonomy as a way of enhancing mutual recognition and increasing consistency of education and training for both developed and developing countries.
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Nuclear Education and Training: From Concern to Capability – Executive Summary
English, 12 pages, published: 04/04/12
NEA#7112
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/reports/2012/nuclear-edu-training-ex.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Enseignement et formation dans le domaine nucléaire : moins d'inquiétudes, plus de compétences – Synthèse 
The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) first published in 2000 Nuclear Education and Training: Cause for Concern?, which highlighted significant issues in the availability of human resources for the nuclear industry. Ten years on, Nuclear Education and Training: From Concern to Capability considers what has changed in that time and finds that, while some countries have taken positive actions, in a number of others human resources could soon be facing serious challenges in coping with existing and potential new nuclear facilities. This is exacerbated by the increasing rate of retirement as the workforce ages. This report provides a qualitative characterisation of human resource needs and appraises instruments and programmes in nuclear education and training initiated by various stakeholders in different countries. In this context, it also examines the current and future uses of nuclear research facilities for education and training purposes. Regarding the nuclear training component of workforce competence, it outlines a job taxonomy which could be a basis for addressing the needs of workers across this sector. It presents the taxonomy as a way of enhancing mutual recognition and increasing consistency of education and training for both developed and developing countries.
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Nuclear Energy Data 2012/Données sur l'énergie nucléaire 2012
Bilingual, 84 pages, published: 09/24/12
NEA#7058, ISBN: 978-92-64-17785-7
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/pubs/2012/7058-BB-2012.pdf
Nuclear Energy Data is the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency’s annual compilation of statistics and country reports documenting the status of nuclear power in the OECD area. Information provided by member country governments includes statistics on installed generating capacity, total electricity produced by all sources and by nuclear power, nuclear energy policies, fuel cycle developments, and projected generating capacity and electricity production to 2035, where available. Following the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in March 2011, total nuclear generating capacity and electricity generation declined, principally because of the permanent shutdown of 12 reactors (8 in Germany and 4 in Japan) and the prolonged shutdown of reactors in Japan. The Fukushima Daiichi accident also prompted safety reviews of existing nuclear facilities and led some governments to adopt nuclear phase-out plans. Other governments remained committed to maintaining nuclear power in the energy mix, in some cases pursuing plans to either increase nuclear generating capacity or, as in the cases of Poland and Turkey, to add nuclear generating capacity for the first time. Further details on these and other developments are provided in the publication’s numerous tables, graphs and country reports.
This publication contains “Statlinks”. For each StatLink the reader will find a url which leads to the corresponding spreadsheet. These links work in the same way as an Internet link.

Les Données sur l'énergie nucléaire, la compilation annuelle de statistiques et de rapports nationaux de l’Agence de l’OCDE pour l’énergie nucléaire, présentent des informations communiquées par les gouvernements des pays membres de l'OCDE sur la puissance nucléaire installée, la production d’électricité totale et nucléaire, les politiques nucléaires, les évolutions du cycle du combustible ainsi que, quand elles sont disponibles, des projections jusqu'en 2035 de la puissance nucléaire et de la production d'électricité. Au lendemain de l’accident survenu dans la centrale de Fukushima Daiichi en mars 2011, la puissance installée et la production du parc nucléaire global ont décliné, principalement du fait de la mise hors service de 12 réacteurs (8 en Allemagne et 4 au Japon) et de l’arrêt prolongé d’autres réacteurs au Japon. Cet accident a conduit à réaliser des évaluations de la sûreté des installations et incité certains pays à adopter des plans de sortie du nucléaire. D’autres, en revanche, restent déterminés à conserver le nucléaire dans leur bouquet énergétique, voire à s’équiper de tranches supplémentaires ou, comme la Pologne et la Turquie, de leur premier réacteur de puissance. Le lecteur trouvera de plus amples informations sur ces évolutions et d’autres développements dans les nombreux tableaux, graphiques et rapports nationaux que contient cet ouvrage.
Cette publication contient des « StatLinks ». Fonctionnant comme un lien internet, un StatLink fournit l'accès à la feuille de calcul correspondante.
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Nuclear Energy Today
Second Edition
English, 120 pages, published: 12/21/12
NEA#6885, ISBN: 978-92-64-99204-7
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/pub/nuclearenergytoday/6885-nuclear-energy-today.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: L'énergie nucléaire aujourd'hui 
Meeting the growing demand for energy, and electricity in particular, while addressing the need to curb greenhouse gas emissions and to ensure security of energy supply, is one of the most difficult challenges facing the world’s economies. No single technology can respond to this challenge, and the solution which policy-makers are seeking lies in the diversification of energy sources.

Although nuclear energy currently provides over 20% of electricity in the OECD area and does not emit any carbon dioxide during production, it continues to be seen by many as a controversial technology. Public concern remains over its safety and the management of radioactive waste, and financing such a capital-intensive technology is a complex issue. The role that nuclear power will play in the future depends on the answers to these questions, several of which are provided in this up-to-date review of the status of nuclear energy, as well as on the outcome of research and development on the nuclear fuel cycle and reactor technologies.
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Nuclear Energy and Renewables
System Effects in Low-carbon Electricity Systems
English, 252 pages, published: 11/09/12
NEA#7056, ISBN: 978-92-64-18851-8
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/pubs/2012/7056-system-effects.pdf
This report addresses the increasingly important interactions of variable renewables and dispatchable energy technologies, such as nuclear power, in terms of their effects on electricity systems. These effects add costs to the production of electricity, which are not usually transparent. The report recommends that decision-makers should take into account such system costs and internalise them according to a “generator pays” principle, which is currently not the case. Analysing data from six OECD/NEA countries, the study finds that including the system costs of variable renewables at the level of the electricity grid increases the total costs of electricity supply by up to one-third, depending on technology, country and penetration levels. In addition, it concludes that, unless the current market subsidies for renewables are altered, dispatchable technologies will increasingly not be replaced as they reach their end of life and consequently security of supply will suffer. This implies that significant changes in management and cost allocation will be needed to generate the flexibility required for an economically viable coexistence of nuclear energy and renewables in increasingly decarbonised electricity systems.
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Nuclear Energy and Renewables – Executive Summary
System Effects in Low-carbon Electricity Systems
English, 16 pages, published: 11/05/12
NEA#7066
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/reports/2012/system-effects-exec-sum.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Énergies nucléaire et renouvelables – Synthèse 
This report addresses the increasingly important interactions of variable renewables and dispatchable energy technologies, such as nuclear power, in terms of their effects on electricity systems. These effects add costs to the production of electricity, which are not usually transparent. The report recommends that decision-makers should take into account such system costs and internalise them according to a “generator pays” principle, which is currently not the case. Analysing data from six OECD/NEA countries, the study finds that including the system costs of variable renewables at the level of the electricity grid increases the total costs of electricity supply by up to one-third, depending on technology, country and penetration levels. In addition, it concludes that, unless the current market subsidies for renewables are altered, dispatchable technologies will increasingly not be replaced as they reach their end of life and consequently security of supply will suffer. This implies that significant changes in management and cost allocation will be needed to generate the flexibility required for an economically viable coexistence of nuclear energy and renewables in increasingly decarbonised electricity systems.
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Nuclear Fuel Safety Criteria Technical Review
Second Edition
English, 80 pages, published: 09/14/12
NEA#7072, ISBN: 978-92-64-99178-1
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/nsd/reports/2012/nea7072-fuel-safety-criteria.pdf
Most of the current nuclear fuel safety criteria were established during the 1960s and early 1970s. Although these criteria were validated against experiments with fuel designs available at that time, a number of tests were based on unirradiated fuels. Additional verification was performed as these designs evolved, but mostly with the aim of showing that the new designs adequately complied with existing criteria, and not to establish new limits.

In 1996, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) reviewed existing fuel safety criteria, focusing on new fuel and core designs, new cladding materials and industry manufacturing processes. The results were published in the Nuclear Fuel Safety Criteria Technical Review of 2001. The NEA has since re-examined the criteria. A brief description of each criterion and its rationale are presented in this second edition, which will be of interest to both regulators and industry (fuel vendors, utilities).
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Nuclear Law Bulletin No. 88 (December 2011)
Volume 2011/2
English, published: 01/25/12
NEA#7001, ISSN: 0304-341X
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/law/nlb/nlb88.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Bulletin de droit nucléaire n° 88 (Décembre 2011) 
The Nuclear Law Bulletin is a unique international publication for both professionals and academics in the field of nuclear law. It provides subscribers with authoritative and comprehensive information on nuclear law developments. Published twice a year in both English and French, it features topical articles written by renowned legal experts, covers legislative developments worldwide and reports on relevant case law, bilateral and international agreements as well as regulatory activities of international organisations.

Feature articles in this issue include "The status of radioactive waste repository development in the United States", "The Radioactive Waste Directive: a necessary step in the management of spent fuel and radioactive waste in the European Union", "The continuing role of item-specific agreements in the IAEA safeguards system" and "Fukushima: liability and compensation".
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Nuclear Law Bulletin No. 89
Volume 2012/1
English, 240 pages, published: 07/03/12
NEA#7090, ISSN: 0304-341X
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/law/nlb/nlb89.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Bulletin de droit nucléaire n° 89 
The Nuclear Law Bulletin is a unique international publication for both professionals and academics in the field of nuclear law. It provides subscribers with authoritative and comprehensive information on nuclear law developments. Published twice a year in both English and French, it features topical articles written by renowned legal experts, covers legislative developments worldwide and reports on relevant case law, bilateral and international agreements as well as regulatory activities of international organisations.

Feature articles in this issue include: "Global nuclear law in the making? Joint exercise of public powers in the nuclear field: the case of the revision of the International Basic Safety Standards", "Italian decommissioning in the post-referendum era", "Through the looking glass: placing India’s new civil liability regime for nuclear damage in context" and "Legal aspects of the control and repression of illicit trafficking of nuclear and other radioactive materials".
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Nuclear Law Bulletin No. 90
Volume 2012/2
English, 284 pages, published: 03/22/13
NEA#7092, ISSN: 0304-341X
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/law/nlb/nlb90.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Bulletin de droit nucléaire n° 90 
The Nuclear Law Bulletin is a unique international publication for both professionals and academics in the field of nuclear law. It provides subscribers with authoritative and comprehensive information on nuclear law developments. Published twice a year in both English and French, it features topical articles written by renowned legal experts, covers legislative developments worldwide and reports on relevant case law, bilateral and international agreements as well as regulatory activities of international organisations.
Feature articles in this issue include: "A common high standard for nuclear power plant exports: overview and analysis of the Nuclear Power Plant Exporters’ Principles of Conduct"; "The MCP Altona incident: the Canadian regulatory response and framework for the export of uranium"; "Conflict of law issues related to Switzerland’s participation in the Paris Nuclear Third Party Liability Regime"; and "The impact of the Additional Protocol and Strengthened Safeguards: effects on the International Atomic Energy Agency and on states".
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Nuclear Power Plant Operating Experience
from the IAEA/NEA International Reporting System for Operating Experience: 2009-2011
English, 60 pages, published: 12/31/12
NEA#7120, ISBN: 978-92-64-99193-4
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/nsd/docs/2012/7120-iaea-nea-irs-2009-2011.pdf
The application of lessons learnt from the International Reporting System for Operating Experience (IRS) is an essential element for enhancing the safe operation of nuclear power plants (NPPs) throughout the world. The IRS provides a mechanism for the exchange of information related to the incident, actions taken, root cause analysis and lessons learnt. This feedback on how to adequately remedy, or avoid, possible challenges and precursors is of paramount importance to operational safety. The IRS improves international awareness of potential challenges, actual incidents and “precursors” in NPP operations. The heightened awareness generated by feedback from operating experience has resulted in numerous improvements to equipment, procedures and training in many NPPs. The application of operational feedback also benefits the design of the next generation of NPPs. Operating experience has demonstrated that design modification issues documented in IRS reports can have a significant impact on safety. The IRS is jointly operated and managed by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).
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OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) follow-up to the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident
Extracts from NEA News
English, 16 pages, published: 06/27/12
NEA#6888
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/pub/nea6888-follow-up-fukushima.pdf
The NEA has undertaken a number of activities following the March 2011 accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan. This brochure contains three extracts from NEA News published in the months following the accident: Fukushima (what happened, consequence, follow-up), published June 2011; Fukushima: liability and compensation, published December 2011; and The NEA integrated response to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident, published June 2012. Together these extracts allow the reader to understand better the causes, consequences and importance of the NEA’s response to the Fukushima Daiichi accident (2012).
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Reversibility and Retrievability in Planning for Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste
Proceedings of the "R&R" International Conference and Dialogue, 14-17 December 2010, Reims, France
English, 236 pages, published: 12/31/12
NEA#6993, ISBN: 978-92-64-99185-9
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/docs/2012/6993-proceedings-rr-reims.pdf
Deep geological repositories of radioactive waste are designed and licensed based on a model of long-term safety which does not require the active presence of man. During the period of stepwise development of such repositories, reversibility of decisions and retrievability of the waste are widely thought to be beneficial. Reversibility and retrievability are not requirements for long-term safety. They are instead about implementing a process that responds to ethical and precautionary obligations without compromising safety. How are the concepts of reversibility and retrievability understood in the various nuclear countries? How do they appear in national waste management legislation, regulation and operational programmes, and how can they be implemented?
The “R&R” project of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) culminated in an International Conference and Dialogue on Reversibility and Retrievability in December 2010. This open meeting brought together regulators, policy makers, elected officials, experts in social sciences, and representatives of civil society and stakeholder groups in addition to waste management professionals. These proceedings include the texts of 50 presentations and the “International Retrievability Scale” – a tool to support dialogue with stakeholders and to help establish a common international framework.
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Reversibility of Decisions and Retrievability of Radioactive Waste
Considerations for National Geological Disposal Programmes
English, 28 pages, published: 03/09/12
NEA#7085, ISBN: 978-92-64-99169-9
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2012/7085-reversibility.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Réversibilité des décisions et récupérabilité des déchets radioactifs 
The most widely adopted solution for the definitive management of high-level radioactive waste involves its emplacement in deep geological repositories whose safety should not depend on the active presence of man. In this context, national programmes are considering whether and how to incorporate the concepts of reversibility of decisions and retrievability of waste, including to what extent retrieval can or should be facilitated at the design stage of a repository, and if so over what timescales.
This brochure delivers the key findings and observations of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) project on reversibility and retrievability conducted from 2007 to 2011 with the participation of 15 countries and 2 international organisations. It outlines the activities undertaken and points to further resources. While focused on deep geological disposal, the pragmatic and precise information provided may also be pertinent to sub-surface disposal and to decision-making processes more generally. This brochure, and related project documents, will be of interest to technical and policy professionals and civil society stakeholders concerned with radioactive waste disposal.
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Structural Materials for Innovative Nuclear Systems (SMINS-2)
Workshop Proceedings, Daejon, Republic of Korea, 31 August-3 September 2010
English, 444 pages, published: 12/31/12
NEA#6896, ISBN: 978-92-64-99209-2
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/science/docs/2012/6896-smins-korea-proceedings.pdf
Materials research is a field of growing relevance for innovative nuclear systems, such as Generation IV reactors, critical and sub-critical transmutation systems and fusion devices. For these different systems, structural materials are selected or developed taking into account the specificities of their foreseen operational environment. Since 2007, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) has begun organising a series of workshops on Structural Materials for Innovative Nuclear Systems (SMINS) in order to provide a forum to exchange information on current materials research programmes for different innovative nuclear systems. These proceedings include the papers of the second workshop (SMINS-2) which was held in Daejon, Republic of Korea on 31 August-3 September 2010, and hosted by the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI).
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The Economics of Long-term Operation of Nuclear Power Plants
English, 114 pages, published: 12/19/12
NEA#7054, ISBN: 978-92-64-99205-4
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/reports/2012/7054-long-term-operation-npps.pdf
Refurbishment and long-term operation (LTO) of existing nuclear power plants (NPPs) today are crucial to the competitiveness of the nuclear industry in OECD countries as existing nuclear power plants produce baseload power at a reliable cost. A number of nuclear power plants, most notably 73 units in the United States (up to 2012), have been granted lifetime extensions of up to 60 years, a development that is being keenly watched in other OECD countries. In many of these (e.g. France, Switzerland), there is no legal end to the operating licence, but continued operation is based on the outcomes of periodic safety reviews.
This study analyses technical and economic data on the upgrade and lifetime extension experience in OECD countries. A multi-criteria assessment methodology is used considering various factors and parameters reflecting current and future financial conditions of operation, political and regulatory risks, the state of the plants’ equipment and the general role of nuclear power in the country’s energy policy.
The report shows that long-term operation of nuclear power plants has significant economic advantages for most utilities envisaging LTO programmes. In most cases, the continued operation of NPPs for at least ten more years is profitable even taking into account the additional costs of post-Fukushima modifications, and remains cost-effective compared to alternative replacement sources.
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The Evolving Role and Image of the Regulator in Radioactive Waste Management
Trends over Two Decades
English, 28 pages, published: 12/31/12
NEA#7083, ISBN: 978-92-64-99186-6
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/docs/2012/7083-evolving-role-and-image.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Image et rôle de l'autorité de sûreté nucléaire dans la gestion des déchets radioactifs 
In the area of radioactive waste management, the regulator or safety authority has emerged in recent years as a principal actor in the eyes of civil society. This study shows how regulators are increasing their interaction with society while still retaining – or ­reinforcing – their independence and how they play their role within the stepwise ­licensing and decision-making processes now adopted in most countries. Safety is ensured by a “regulatory system”, in which a host of players, including local ­stakeholders, have a vital role to play. The technical regulator has come to be considered as the “people’s expert”, concentrating knowledge useful to local communities as they deliberate the hosting of a waste storage or disposal facility.
This report provides a useful update on the changing role of the regulator as well as insights that will be helpful to the many countries that are considering, or are preparing for, storage or disposal of radioactive waste either in near-surface facilities or deeper underground. While it focuses on the developments in waste management and disposal, the trends it describes are probably relevant throughout the nuclear field.
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The Long-term Radiological Safety of a Surface Disposal Facility for Low-level Waste in Belgium
An International Peer Review of Key Aspects of ONDRAF/NIRAS' Safety Report of November 2011 in Preparation for the License Application
English, 100 pages, published: 10/08/12
NEA#7086, ISBN: 978-92-64-99196-5
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2012/7086-Belgian-peer-review.pdf
An important activity of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) in the field of radioactive waste management is the organisation of independent, international peer reviews of national studies and projects. This report provides an international peer review of the long-term safety strategy and assessment being developed by the Belgian Agency for Radioactive Waste and Enriched Fissile Materials, ONDRAF/NIRAS, as part of the licence application for the construction and operation of a surface disposal facility for short-lived, low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste in the municipality of Dessel, Belgium. The review was carried out by an International Review Team comprised of seven international specialists, all of whom were free of conflict of interest and chosen to bring complementary expertise to the review. To be accessible to both specialist and non-specialist readers, the review findings are provided at several levels of detail.
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The Post-closure Radiological Safety Case for a Spent Fuel Repository in Sweden
An International Peer Review of the SKB License-application Study of March 2011
English, 156 pages, published: 07/05/12
NEA#7084, ISBN: 978-92-64-99191-0
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/docs/2012/nea7084-peer-review-sweden.pdf
Sweden is at the forefront among countries developing plans for a deep geological repository of highly radioactive waste. There is no such repository in operation yet worldwide, but Sweden, Finland and France are approaching the licensing stage. At the request of the Swedish government, the NEA organised an international peer review of the post-closure radiological safety case produced by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) in support of the application for a general licence to construct and operate a spent nuclear fuel geological repository in the municipality of Östhammar. The purpose of the review was to help the Swedish government, the public and relevant organisations by providing an international reference regarding the maturity of SKB’s spent fuel disposal programme vis-à-vis best practices in long-term disposal safety and radiological protection. The International Review Team (IRT) consisted of ten international specialists, who were free of conflict of interest with the SKB and brought complementary expertise to the review. This report provides the background and findings of the international peer review. The review’s findings are presented at several levels of detail in order to be accessible to both specialist and non-specialist readers.
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The Role of Nuclear Energy in a Low-carbon Energy Future
English, 92 pages, published: 06/18/12
NEA#6887, ISBN: 978-92-64-99189-7
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/nsd/reports/2012/nea6887-role-nuclear-low-carbon.pdf
This report assesses the role that nuclear energy can play in supporting the transition to a low-carbon energy system. It begins by considering the greenhouse gas emissions from the full nuclear fuel cycle, reviewing recent studies on indirect emissions and assessing the impact that nuclear power could make in reducing greenhouse gas emissions.
The report provides estimates of the construction rates that would be needed to meet the projected expansion of nuclear power foreseen by many energy scenarios published by international organisations. It then assesses the economic, technical, societal and institutional challenges represented by such an expansion to identify the most significant barriers. The capacity of nuclear power plants to operate in an electricity system with a large share of renewables, and the impact of smart grid technologies are also examined. Finally, long-term prospects for nuclear energy are discussed in terms of development of new reactor and fuel cycle technologies, non-electric applications and new operational and regulatory constraints that could arise as a consequence of climate change.
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The Supply of Medical Radioisotopes
Market Impacts of Converting to Low-enriched Uranium Targets for Medical Isotope Production
English, 64 pages, published: 12/18/12
NEA#7129, ISBN: 978-92-64-99197-2
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/reports/2012/7129-leu.pdf
The reliable supply of molybdenum-99 (99Mo) and its decay product, technetium-99m (99mTc), is a vital component of modern medical diagnostic practices. At present, most of the global production of 99Mo is from highly enriched uranium (HEU) targets. However, all major 99Mo-producing countries have recently agreed to convert to using low-enriched uranium (LEU) targets to advance important non-proliferation goals, a decision that will have implications for the global supply chain of 99Mo/99mTc and the long-term supply reliability of these medical isotopes.
This study provides the findings and analysis from an extensive examination of the 99Mo/99mTc supply chain by the OECD/NEA High-level Group on the Security of Supply of Medical Radioisotopes (HLG-MR). It presents a comprehensive evaluation of the potential impacts of converting to the use of LEU targets for 99Mo production on the global 99Mo/99mTc market in terms of costs and available production capacity, and the corresponding implications for long-term supply reliability. In this context, the study also briefly discusses the need for policy action by governments in their efforts to ensure a stable and secure long-term supply of 99Mo/99mTc.
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Thermodynamic Sorption Modelling in Support of Radioactive Waste Disposal Safety Cases
NEA Sorption Project Phase III
English, 152 pages, published: 05/04/12
NEA#6914, ISBN: 978-92-64-17781-9
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/docs/2013/6914-sorption-III.pdf
A central safety function of radioactive waste disposal repositories is the prevention or sufficient retardation of radionuclide migration to the biosphere. Performance assessment exercises in various countries, and for a range of disposal scenarios, have demonstrated that one of the most important processes providing this safety function is the sorption of radionuclides along potential migration paths beyond the engineered barriers. Thermodynamic sorption models (TSMs) are key for improving confidence in assumptions made about such radionuclide sorption when preparing a repository's safety case. This report presents guidelines for TSM development as well as their application in repository performance assessments. They will be of particular interest to the sorption modelling community and radionuclide migration modellers in developing safety cases for radioactive waste disposal.
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Trends towards Sustainability in the Nuclear Fuel Cycle: Executive Summary
English, 12 pages, published: 01/16/12
NEA#7069
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/reports/2011/trends-nuclear-fuel-cycle-ex.pdf
Interest in expanding nuclear power to cope with rising demand for energy and potential climate change places increased attention on the nuclear fuel cycle and whether significant moves are being taken towards ensuring sustainability over the long term. Future nuclear power programme decisions will be increasingly based on strategic considerations involving the complete nuclear fuel cycle, as illustrated by the international joint projects for Generation IV reactors. Currently, 90% of installed reactors worldwide operate on a once-through nuclear fuel cycle using uranium-oxide fuel. While closing the fuel cycle has been a general aim for several decades, progress towards that goal has been slow. This report reviews developments in the fuel cycle over the past ten years, potential developments over the next decade and the outlook for the longer term. It analyses technological developments and government actions (both nationally and internationally) related to the fuel cycle, and examines these within a set of sustainability parameters in order to identify trends and to make recommendations for further actions.
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Uranium 2011: Resources, Production and Demand
English, 488 pages, published: 07/26/12
NEA#7059, ISBN: 978-92-64-17803-8
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/pubs/2012/7059-uranium-2011.pdf
In the wake of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident, questions are being raised about the future of the uranium market, including as regards the number of reactors expected to be built in the coming years, the amount of uranium required to meet forward demand, the adequacy of identified uranium resources to meet that demand and the ability of the sector to meet reactor requirements in a challenging investment climate. This 24th edition of the ?Red Book?, a recognised world reference on uranium jointly prepared by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency, provides analyses and information from 42 producing and consuming countries in order to address these and other questions. It offers a comprehensive review of world uranium supply and demand as well as data on global uranium exploration, resources, production and reactor-related requirements. It also provides substantive new information on established uranium production centres around the world and in countries developing production centres for the first time. Projections of nuclear generating capacity and reactor-related requirements through 2035, incorporating policy changes following the Fukushima accident, are also featured, along with an analysis of long-term uranium supply and demand issues.
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Uranium 2011: Resources, Production and Demand – Executive Summary
English, 8 pages, published: 11/01/12
NEA#7123
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/reports/2012/uranium-2011-exec-summary.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Uranium 2011 : Ressources, production et demande – Synthèse 
- Russian: Yран 2011: запасы, добыча и спрос – Краткий обзор 
In the wake of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident, questions are being raised about the future of the uranium market, including as regards the number of reactors expected to be built in the coming years, the amount of uranium required to meet forward demand, the adequacy of identified uranium resources to meet that demand and the ability of the sector to meet reactor requirements in a challenging investment climate. This 24th edition of the “Red Book”, a recognised world reference on uranium jointly prepared by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency, provides analyses and information from 42 producing and consuming countries in order to address these and other questions. It offers a comprehensive review of world uranium supply and demand as well as data on global uranium exploration, resources, production and reactor-related requirements. It also provides substantive new information on established uranium production centres around the world and in countries developing production centres for the first time. Projections of nuclear generating capacity and reactor-related requirements through 2035, incorporating policy changes following the Fukushima accident, are also featured, along with an analysis of long-term uranium supply and demand issues.

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Assessment of the Unresolved Resonance Treatment for Cross-section and Covariance Representation
International Evaluation Co-operation, Volume 32
English, published: 10/07/11
NEA#7042
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/science/wpec/volume32/volume32.pdf
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CSNI Technical Opinion Papers – No. 13
LOCA Criteria Basis and Test Methodology
English, 40 pages, published: 09/21/11
NEA#6986, ISBN: 978-92-64-99154-5
Volume of the series: Nuclear Safety
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/nsd/docs/2011/csni-r2011-7.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Avis techniques du CSIN – n° 13 
Acceptance criteria for emergency core cooling systems (ECCS) define the maximum temperature and degree of oxidation in order to avoid excessive embrittlement and hence failure of the fuel cladding, which would affect core cooling in the case of a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). The criteria are mainly based on experimental data obtained in the 1970s-80s. Several types of tests have been performed to evaluate structural integrity and embrittlement of the cladding under LOCA conditions, and consequently different test methodologies have been used for determining the cladding embrittlement criteria. The current trend towards high burn-up and the use of new cladding alloys has increased the need for international discussions on these test methodologies and acceptance criteria. In response, the NEA Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) and its Working Group on Fuel Safety produced this technical opinion paper, which should be of particular interest to nuclear safety regulators, nuclear power plant operators and fuel researchers.
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Covariance Data in the Fast Neutron Region
International Evaluation Co-operation, Volume 24
English, published: 10/07/11
NEA#7040
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/science/wpec/volume24/volume24.pdf
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NEA News, Vol. 29 No. 2
English, 32 pages, published: 12/14/11
NEA#7009, ISSN: 1605-9581
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/nea-news/2011/29-2/nea-news-29-2-e.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: AEN Infos, vol. 29 n° 2 
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Nuclear Energy Data 2011/Données sur l'énergie nucléaire 2011
Bilingual, 140 pages, published: 10/05/11
NEA#6978, ISBN: 978-92-64-12187-4
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/pubs/2011/6978-BB-2011.pdf
Nuclear Energy Data, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency’s annual compilation of statistics and country reports on nuclear energy, contains official information provided by OECD member country governments on plans for new nuclear plant construction, nuclear fuel cycle developments as well as current and projected nuclear generating capacity to 2035. For the first time, it includes data for Chile, Estonia, Israel and Slovenia, which recently became OECD members. Key elements of this edition show a 2% increase in nuclear and total electricity production and a 0.5% increase in nuclear generating capacity. They also show excess conversion and enrichment capacities in OECD Europe, and insufficient capacity to meet requirements in the North American and Pacific regions. Further details are provided in the publication’s numerous tables, graphs and reports.
This publication contains “Statlinks”. For each StatLink the reader will find a url which leads to the corresponding spreadsheet. These links work in the same way as an Internet link.

Les Données sur l'énergie nucléaire, la compilation annuelle de statistiques et de rapports nationaux de l'Agence de l'OCDE pour l'énergie nucléaire, présentent des informations communiquées par les gouvernements des pays membres de l'OCDE sur les projets de construction de centrales nucléaires, les évolutions du cycle du combustible ainsi que la puissance nucléaire installée actuelle et projetée jusqu'en 2035. Cette édition comprend pour la première fois des données sur le Chili, l'Estonie, Israël et la Slovénie qui sont récemment devenus membres de l'OCDE. Des données clés de cette édition montrent une progression de 2 % de la production d'électricité totale et nucléaire et de 0,5 % de la puissance nucléaire installée. Les capacités de conversion et d'enrichissement de l'uranium sont excédentaires dans les pays européens de l'OCDE et insuffisantes dans les pays d'Amérique du Nord et la région Pacifique. Le lecteur trouvera de plus amples détails dans les nombreux tableaux, graphiques et rapports que contient cet ouvrage.
Cette publication inclut des « Statlinks ». Pour chaque StatLink, une adresse internet pointe vers la feuille de calcul correspondante. Cela fonctionne de la même manière qu’un lien internet.
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Potential Benefits and Impacts of Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles with Actinide Partitioning and Transmutation
English, 74 pages, published: 09/29/11
NEA#6894, ISBN: 978-92-64-99165-1
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/science/reports/2011/6894-benefits-impacts-advanced-fuel.pdf
This report provides a comparative analysis of different studies performed to assess the potential impact of partitioning and transmutation (P&T) on different types of geological repositories for radioactive waste in various licensing and regulatory environments. Criteria, metrics and impact measures have been analysed and compared with the goal of providing an objective comparison of the state of the art to help shape decisions on options for future advanced fuel cycles.
P&T allows a reduction of the inventory of the emplaced materials which can have a significant impact on the repository. Such a reduction can also make the uncertainty about repository performance less important both during normal evolution and in the case of disruptive scenarios. While P&T will never replace the need for waste repositories, it has the potential to significantly improve public perception regarding the ability to effectively manage radioactive waste by largely reducing the transuranic (TRU) waste masses to be stored and, consequently, to improve public acceptance of the geological repositories. Both issues are important for the future sustainability of nuclear power.
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Practices and Experience in Stakeholder Involvement for Post-nuclear Emergency Management
English, 25 pages, published: 10/04/11
NEA#6994, ISBN: 978-92-64-99166-8
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rp/reports/2011/nea6994-practices-stakeholder-invololvment-post-emergency.pdf

Other language(s):
- Japanese: 原子力緊急事態の事後管理における ステークホルダー関与の実践と経験 
One of the most important aspects of post-accident consequence management is the involvement of stakeholders: in the planning, preparation and execution as well as in sustaining efforts over the long term. Having recognised the significance of stakeholder participation in several International Nuclear Emergency Exercises (INEX), the NEA Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health (CRPPH) decided to organise the Practices and Experience in Stakeholder Involvement for Post-nuclear Emergency Management Workshop to explore these issues. This summary highlights the key issues discussed during the workshop, which brought together 75 emergency management and communication specialists from 16 countries. In light of the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, the experience shared during this workshop will be central to further improving national emergency management arrangements.
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Quality Improvement of the EXFOR Database
International Evaluation Co-operation, Volume 30
English, published: 10/07/11
NEA#7041
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/science/wpec/volume30/volume30.pdf
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Trends towards Sustainability in the Nuclear Fuel Cycle
English, 184 pages, published: 12/21/11
NEA#6980, ISBN: 978-92-64-16810-7
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/pubs/2011/6980-trends-fuel-cycle.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Vers un cycle du combustible nucléaire durable : Évolution et tendances 
Interest in expanding nuclear power to cope with rising demand for energy and potential climate change places increased attention on the nuclear fuel cycle and whether significant moves are being taken towards ensuring sustainability over the long term. Future nuclear power programme decisions will be increasingly based on strategic considerations involving the complete nuclear fuel cycle, as illustrated by the international joint projects for Generation IV reactors. Currently, 90% of installed reactors worldwide operate on a once-through nuclear fuel cycle using uranium-oxide fuel. While closing the fuel cycle has been a general aim for several decades, progress towards that goal has been slow. This report reviews developments in the fuel cycle over the past ten years, potential developments over the next decade and the outlook for the longer term. It analyses technological developments and government actions (both nationally and internationally) related to the fuel cycle, and examines these within a set of sustainability parameters in order to identify trends and to make recommendations for further actions.
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Uranium-235 Capture Cross-section in the keV to MeV Energy Region
International Evaluation Co-operation, Volume 29
English, published: 10/07/11
NEA#7043
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/science/wpec/volume29/volume29.pdf