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RESRAD is designed to calculate site-specific residual radioactive material guidelines, and radiation dose and excess cancer risk to an on-site resident (maximally exposed individual). A guideline is a radionuclide concentration or level of radioactivity that is acceptable if a site is to be used without radiological restrictions. Guidelines are expressed as concentrations of residual radionuclides in soil. Soil is unconsolidated earth material, including rubble and debris that may be present.
The guidelines are based on the following principles:
the total effective dose equivalent should not exceed 100 mrem/yr for all plausible land uses and 30 mrem/yr for current and likely future land uses, and
doses should be kept as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). Nine environmental pathways are considered: direct exposure, inhalation of dust and radon, and ingestion of plant foods, meat, milk, aquatic foods, soil, and water.
RESRAD-BUILD is a pathway analysis model designed to evaluate the potential radiological dose incurred by an individual who works or lives in a building contaminated with radioactive material. The radioactive material in the building structure can be released into the indoor air by mechanisms such as diffusion (radon gas), mechanical removal (decontamination activities), or erosion (removable surface contamination.)
Version 6 of RESRAD incorporates many improvements. These include the addition of seven new radionuclides: selenium-79, zirconium-93, neodymium-93m, barium-133, curium-245, curium-246, and curium-247. The code was also modified to account for radioactive decay and in growth during food storage times. The code now has an improved groundwater model to ensure convergence for Kd calculations when water concentrations are known; has an improved radon pathway to reduce execution time; allows sensitivity analyses of many more parameters, such as transfer factors, leach rate, and solubility; has a modified user interface to better check the sensitivity ranges; and contains many updates in its graphics. The code now allows users to input radionuclide activity in SI units, and the resultant doses can also be reported in SI units. QA files are now distributed along with the code so that users can ensure that the code is properly installed and verify RESRAD calculations on their computers. See the developer's web site for the latest information at http://www.ead.anl.gov/resrad.
RESRAD uses a pathway analysis method in which the relation between radionuclide concentrations in soil and the dose to a member of a critical population group is expressed as a pathway sum, which is the sum of products of "pathway factors". Pathway factors correspond to pathway segments connecting compartments in the environment between which radionuclides can be transported or radiation transmitted.
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C. Yu, et al., "Manual for Implementing Residual Radioactive Material Guidelines Using RESRAD, Version 5.0, ANL/EAD/LD-2 (September 1993).
C. Yu, et al., Data Collection Handbook to Support Modeling the Impacts of Radioactive Material in Soil, ANL/EAIS-8 (April 1993).
C. Yu, et al., RESRAD-BUILD: A Computer Model for Analyzing the Radiological Doses Resulting from the Remediation and Occupancy of Buildings Contaminated with Radioactive Material, ANL/EAD/LD-3 (November 1994).
K. F. Eckerman, A. B. Wolbarst, and A. C. B. Richardson, Limiting Values of Radionuclide Intake and Air Concentration and Dose Conversion Factors for Inhalation, Submersion, and Ingestion, Federal Guidance Report No. 11, EPA-520/1-88-020 (September 1988).
K. F. Eckerman and J. C. Ryman, External Exposure to Radionuclides in Air, Water, and Soil, Federal Guidance Report No. 12, EPA 402-R-93-081 (September 1993).
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The new features of RESRAD for Windows include a graphical display of active pathways, a sensitivity summary bar, integrated plot options and results, color-coded default settings, an uncertainty summary window, button prompts to interpret icons, and soil strata graphic feedback. Furthermore, in order to take advantage of the latest computer technology, the RESRAD Fortran programs are now compiled by using the Fortran 95 (LAHEY/FUJITSU LF95) compiler. Also, the Windows interface, which was initially developed in 16-bit Visual Basic 4.0, is now upgraded to 32-bit Visual Basic 6.0. The software was tested under Windows 7 > XP.
Keywords: environment, gamma-ray, radiation effects, radioactive release, radionuclide, radionuclide migration, risk assessment.