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CCC-0601 GENII-LIN.

GENII-LIN, Multipurpose Health Physics Code

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1. NAME OR DESIGNATION OF PROGRAM:  GENII-LIN.
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2. COMPUTERS
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Program name Package id Status Status date
GENII-LIN-2.1 CCC-0601/06 Tested 20-FEB-2008

Machines used:

Package ID Orig. computer Test computer
CCC-0601/06 Linux-based PC Linux-based PC
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3. DESCRIPTION OF PROGRAM OR FUNCTION

  GENII was developed to incorporate the internal dosimetry models recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) into the  environmental pathway analysis models used at Hanford. GENII is a coupled system of seven programs and the associated data libraries that comprise the Hanford Dosimetry System (Generation II) to estimate potential radiation doses to individuals or populations from both routine and accidental releases of radionuclides to air or water and residual contamination from spills or decontamination operations. The GENII system includes interactive menu-driven programs to assist the user with scenario generation and data input, internal and external dose factor generators, and environmental dosimetry programs. The programs analyze environmental contamination resulting from both far-field and near-field scenarios. A far-field  scenario focuses outward from a source, while a near-field scenario  focuses in toward a receptor. GENII can calculate annual dose, committed dose, and accumulated dose from acute and chronic releases from ground or elevated sources to air or water and from initial contamination of soil or surfaces and can evaluate exposure pathways including direct exposure via water (swimming, boating, and fishing), soil (surface and buried sources), air (semi-infinite and  finite cloud geometries), inhalation pathways, and ingestion pathways. In addition, GENII can perform 10,000-years migration analyses and can be used for retrospective calculations of potential radiation doses resulting from routine emissions and for prospective dose calculations for purposes such as siting facilities, environmental impact statements, and safety analysis reports. The alternate data added in March 1995 was contributed by HEDL and are intended to improve the treatment of decay chains for calculations of doses from contaminated soil allowed to decay for hundreds of years. Air transport calculations are largely unaffected by theses changes due to the short decay times involved. In October  1996 the system was repackaged to replace the ZOO archive files with self-extracting DOS files compressed with the PKZIP utility from Pkware, Inc. Some users encountered problems when reading the ZOO files.
  
GENII-LIN is based on the GENII software package, which runs on Linux platform. The general features of the GENII-LIN system include:
  
- capabilities for calculating radiation dose both for acute and chronic releases, with options for annual dose, committed dose and accumulated dose
- capabilities for evaluating exposure pathways including direct exposure via water (swimming, boat, fishing), soil (buried and surface sources) and air (semi-infinite cloud and finite cloud model), inhalation pathways and ingestion pathways.
  
The release scenarios considered are:
   
- acute release to air, from ground level or elevated sources, or to water;
- chronic release to air, from ground level or elevated sources, or to water;
- initial contamination of soil or surfaces.
CCC-0601/06
GENII-LIN Release 2.1 has the following improvements:
  
- incorporates into the existing environmental pathway analysis models the more recent internal dosimetry models recommended by the ICRP 72 and the radiological risk estimating procedures of FGR13;
- keeps all the modules and capabilities of the previous versions;
- ENV module has been patched
- new modules have been added (ENV13, INTDF13, EXTDF13, DOSE13) with the associated data libraries;
- the GUI has been largely improved;
- the package has been built and tested against the new Qt 3.3.8;
- also 64 bit machines are supported.
- Improved documentation. The package includes prebuilt binaries for both 32- and 64-bit architecture plus the source (Fortran and C++).
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4. METHOD OF SOLUTION

- APPRENTICE interactively prepares a text input  file for the near-term (Approximately 1 to 100 years) environmental  dosimetry programs and a batch processing file to manage the file handling needed to control the operations of the five subsequent codes and prepare an output report.
- ENVIN controls the reading and organization of the input files for ENV, which then calculates the environmental transfer, uptake and human exposure to radionuclides that result from the chosen scenario for the defined source term.
- ENV writes the annual media concentrations and intake rates to intermediate data transfer files for use by DOSE.
- DOSE converts these data to radiation dose, calculating the external dose using factors generated by EXTDF and the internal dose using factors generated in INTDF. DOSE calculates the one-year dose, committed dose, cumulative dose, and maximum annual dose and prepares the normal output report of doses and optional doses by pathway and by radionuclide.
- EXTDF calculates the external dose-rate factors for submersion in an infinite cloud of radioactive materials, immersion  in contaminated water, and direct exposure to plane or slab sources  of contamination. EXTDF used the ISOSHLD point kernel integration technique whereby numerical integration is carried out over the source volume to obtain the total dose.
- INTDF estimates the dose equivalents in a number of target organs from the activity in a given source organ based on ICRP-30 models and biokinetic values for radionuclide residency and transport in the body. The dose equivalent in a target organ is the product of the total number or nuclear transformations of the radionuclide and the energy absorbed  per gram in the target organ. This initial value problem is solved using a coupled set of differential equations.
- DITTY calculates long-term total population exposure based on air and water source terms, atmospheric dispersion patterns, and exposed population. A straight-line cross-wind-averaged Gaussian plume model is used for the dispersion calculation, and the regional population is defined as a function of time for airborne and waterborne pathways. The time frame may be any 10,000-year period, broken into 143 periods of 70 years each.
   
On GENII-LIN-2.0 the following additional modules are available:
- ENV13 is an updated version of the original module ENV. Writes the annual media concentrations and intake rates to intermediate data transfer files for use by DOSE13.
-DOSE13 is an updated version of DOSE. Converts data from ENV13 to radiation dose, calculating the external dose using factors generated by EXTDF13 and the internal dose using factors generated in INTDF13. DOSE13 calculates the one-year dose, committed dose, cumulative dose, and maximum annual dose and prepares the normal output report of doses and optional doses by pathway and by radionuclide. It provides risk estimates for health effects to individuals or populations, by applying appropriate risk factors to the effective dose equivalent or organ dose; for ease future development, it has been splitted into six independent modules (DOSE1, DOSE2, DOSE3, DOSE4, DOSE5, DOSE6) which are called depending on the age class considered.
-EXTDF13 is an updated version of EXTDF. It uses the same point kernel integration technique. It uses more recent and detailed data libraries, calculates the dose rate factors for each organ and organizes data for cancer risk calculation.
-INTDF13 is a full replacement of the original INTDF module. It reads the absorbed dose rate  libraries, available from FGR 13, and calculates  the incremental organ equivalent doses for any year following an initial intake. For each of the six ages considered, one output file is generated containing yearly incremental dose to each of 29 organs.
  
The GENII-LIN system includes a wizard-like graphical user interface written in c++, built on the Qt libraries by Trolltech, which allows the user to effectively address the parameters required for scenario generation and data input, internal and external dose factor generators, and environmental dosimetry programs.
  
A series of well-ordered screens steps the user through the process of problem definition and selection of options for setting up the files for input to the environmental dosimetry programs and dose factor generators and all the necessary processing files to manage the file handling needed to control the operations of the five subsequent modules. As may be required for each of the selected options, GENII-LIN activates other pages to control input of parameters for user selected scenarios.
  
Information transferring between computational modules is done through the data communication files.These files are supplied by the user through the GUI or generated by the computational modules to provide information to subsequent modules. The content and format of these files is defined by the requirements of the GENII-LIN software package. The computational modules must read and write information consistent with these requirements. The user can modify  the content of the files with a text editor but not the format.
  
GENII-LIN has both text and graphical full featured file viewers for output management. The plots produced are fully customizable, by changing fonts and colors, and can be printed, copied to clipboard or saved with several formats (bmp, jpeg, tiff, eps...).
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5. RESTRICTIONS ON THE COMPLEXITY OF THE PROBLEM

Maximum of 100 radionuclides, 16 sectors, 10 distance intervals, 5 shields.
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6. TYPICAL RUNNING TIME:  Few minutes.
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7. UNUSUAL FEATURES OF THE PROGRAM:
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8. RELATED AND AUXILIARY PROGRAMS

APPRENTICE: Interactive input processor for GENII.
MASS: Enables the mass production of GENII output using a file containing one or more nuclide groups and several input files.
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9. STATUS
Package ID Status date Status
CCC-0601/06 20-FEB-2008 Tested at NEADB
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10. REFERENCES

Background references for GENII-LIN 2.1:
- M. Sumini, F. Teodori, N. Cantoro:
GENII-LIN: a New Object-Oriented Interface for the GENII Code,
Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 116, 1-4, pp 597-600 (2005)
- M. Sumini, F. Teodori:
GENII-LIN: a Multipurpose Health Physics Code Built on GENII-1.485,
Proceedings of CITSA 2005, Orlando, July 2005
- Marco Sumini, Francesco Teodori, Nicola Cantoro:
GENII-LIN an Object Oriented Health Physics Code for the Linux Operating
System, Proceedings of RPSD 2006, Carlsbad (NM), April 2006
CCC-0601/06, included references:
- B.A. Napier et al.:
GENII - The Hanford Environmental Radiation Dosimetry Software System,
Volume 1: Conceptual Representation (PNL-6584 Vol. 1, December 1988)
- B.A. Napier et al.:
GENII - The Hanford Environmental Radiation Dosimetry Software System,
Volume 2: Users'Manual (PNL-6584 Vol. 2, November 1988)
- P.D. Rittmann:
Verification Tests for the July 1993 Revision to the GENII Radionuclide
and Dose Increment Libraries (WHC-SD-WM-TI-596, Rev. 0, October 1993)
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11. HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS: MACHINE REQUIREMENTS
CCC-0601/06
GENII-LIN-2.1 was tested at the NEA Data Bank on a PC with 3GHz INTEL Pentium 4 RAM 1Gb under SUSE linux 10.2 kernel 2.6.18.8-0.5.
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12. PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE(S) USED
Package ID Computer language
CCC-0601/06 C++, FORTRAN-77
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13. OPERATING SYSTEM UNDER WHICH PROGRAM IS EXECUTED

Lahey F77L (92%)  and Microsoft QuickBASIC 3.0 (8%) were used to create the executables, which runs under DOS 3.1 or later. It also runs from a DOS window of Windows95. The GENII and APPRENTICE source files were added to the package in the March 1995 update. APPRENTICE, which is written in Microsoft QuickBASIC 3.0, uses modules and subroutines from the Komputerwerk FINALLY! Modules libraries.
  
GENII-LIN requires LINUX operating system; GNU FORTRAN COMPILER, g77, for the GENII portion of the code, and GNU C++ COMPILER, g++, for the GUI; both compilers are part of the GNU Compiler suite (version 3.3.3 or later is recommended); Qt libraries by Trolltech version 3.3.4 or higher. GENII-LIN-2.1 has been succesfully built with Qt 3.3.1 through Qt 3.3.8, however a full test has been performed only with Qt  3.3.4 through 3.3.8. Use earlier versions at user's risk.
  
The pre-built 32 bit binaries, included in the package, were compiled and linked on a Pentium IV PC with SuSE Linux 10.3, Qt-3.3.8, gcc-4.2.1. They may not work on other Linux distributions.
  
The pre-built 64 bit binaries, included in the package, were compiled and linked on an AMD PC with SuSE Linux 10.2, Qt-3.3.8, gcc-4.2.1. They may not work on other Linux distributions.
  
Note that the pre-built binaries are NOT statically linked, so Qt libraries are needed to run the executable.
CCC-0601/06
GENII-LIN-2.1 runs under linux OS only.
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14. OTHER PROGRAMMING OR OPERATING INFORMATION OR RESTRICTIONS:
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15. NAME AND ESTABLISHMENT OF AUTHORS

Original version contributed by:
                Radiation Safety Information Computational Center
                Oak Ridge National Laboratory
                Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U. S. A.
Original version developed by:
                Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, Washington
                through the Energy Science & Technology Software
                Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A.
  
                Westinghouse Hanford Engineering Development
                Laboratory,
                Richland, Washington, U.S.A.
  
GENII-LIN has been developed by:
                Francesco Teodori
                Laboratorio di Montecuccolino
                Bologna University
                via dei Colli, 16
                40136 Bologna, ITALY
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16. MATERIAL AVAILABLE
CCC-0601/06
Genii-Lin-2.1.bin.tar   pre-built binaries for 32 and 64 bit machines
Genii-Lin-2.1_src.tar   source codes
Readme file
Electronic documentation
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17. CATEGORIES
  • G. Radiological Safety, Hazard and Accident Analysis

Keywords: contamination, radiation doses, radioactive release.