|Program name||Package id||Status||Status date|
|Package ID||Orig. computer||Test computer|
|NEA-1857/03||Linux-based PC,PC Windows,UNIX W.S.|
PHITS can deal with the transport of almost all particles (nucleons, nuclei, mesons, photons, and electrons) over wide energy ranges, using several nuclear reaction models and nuclear data libraries (Iwase et al 2002, Niita et al 2006, Sihver et al 2010, Niita et al 2010, and Sato et al 2013). Geometrical configuration of the simulation can be set with GG (General Geometry). Various quantities such as heat deposition, track length and production yields can be deduced from the simulation, using implemented estimator functions called "tally". The code also has a function to draw 2D and 3D figures of the calculated results as well as the setup geometries, using a code ANGEL.
The physical processes included in PHITS can be divided into two categories, transport process and collision process. In the transport process, PHITS can simulate motion of particles under external fields such as magnetic and gravity. Without the external fields, neutral particles move along a straight trajectory with constant energy up to the next collision point. However, charge particles interact many times with electrons in the material losing energy and changing direction. PHITS treats ionization processes not as collision but as a transport process, using the continuous-slowing-down approximation. The average stopping power is given by the charge density of the material and the momentum of the particle taking into account the fluctuations of the energy loss and the angular deviation.
In the collision process, PHITS can simulate the elastic and inelastic interactions as well as decay of particles. The total reaction cross section, or the life time of the particle is an essential quantity in the determination of the mean free path of the transport particle. According to the mean free path, PHITS chooses the next collision point using the Monte Carlo method. To generate the secondary particles of the collision, we need the information of the final states of the collision. For neutron induced reactions in low energy region, PHITS employs the cross sections from evaluated nuclear data libraries JENDL-4.0 (Shibata et al 2011). For high energy neutrons and other particles, we have incorporated several models such as JAM (Nara et al 1999), INCL (Cugnon et al 2011), INCL-ELF (Sawada et al 2012) and JQMD (Niita et al 1995) to simulate nuclear reactions up to 100 GeV/u.
The special features of PHITS are the event generator mode (Iwamoto et al 2007) and the microdosimetric function (Sato et al 2009). Owing to the event generator mode, PHITS can determine the profiles of all secondary particles generated from a single nuclear interaction even using nuclear data libraries, taking the momentum and energy conservations into account. The microdosimetric function gives the probability densities of deposition energy in microscopic sites such as lineal energy y and specific energy z, using the mathematical model developed based on the results of the track structure simulation. These features are very important for various purposes such as the estimations of soft-error rates of semi-conductor devices induced by neutrons, and relative biological effectiveness of charged particles.
From version 2.64, Prompt gamma spectrum and isomer production rates can be precisely estimated, owing to the implementation of EBITEM (ENSDF-Based Isomeric Transition and isomEr production Model). The photo-nuclear reaction model was improved up to 140 MeV.
NEW FEATURES IN PHITS-2.64:
Algorithm for de-excitation of nucleus after the evaporation process was improved by implementing EBITEM (ENSDF-Based Isomeric Transition and isomEr production Model). Prompt gamma spectrum can be precisely estimated, including discrete peaks. The isomer production rates can be properly estimated.
Quasi-deuteron disintegration, which is the dominant photo-nuclear mechanism between 25 to 140 MeV, was implemented in JQMD. Thus, PHITS2.60 can treat the photo-nuclear reaction up to 140 MeV. The evaporation process after the giant resonance of 6Li, 12C, 14N, 16O was improved by considering the isospin of excited nucleus. Thus the alpha emission is suppressed and neutron and proton emission is enhanced from the giant resonance of these nuclei.
Particle transport simulation in the combination field of electro-magnetic fields became available.
New energy mesh functions were implemented in [source] section in order to directly define differential energy spectrum in (/MeV) as well as discrete energy spectrum.
Several algorithms were optimized to reduce the computational time, especially for xyz mesh tally with istdev = 2. Furthermore, use of memory for tally and ANGEL was improved.
Minor revisions and bug fix.
Number of cells acceptable in [t-dchain] was increased.
The references of PHITS and INCL were changed.
7-digit cell ID became acceptable.
Maximum dmax for electron and positron was changed from 1 GeV to 10 GeV.
Restart calculation became available even when PHITS did not stop properly.
Lattice cell became acceptable in [t-dchain].
Avoid the termination of PHITS when some strange error occurs in JAM.
New multiplier function k=-120 was added to weight the density.
Minor bug fix in SMM, user defined tally, range calculation, transform, electron lost particle, random number generation for MPI, delta-ray production.
Nuclear data for some nuclei was revised by following the revision of JENDL-4.0.
Bug in reading proton data library was fixed.
The distribution package includes:
ANGEL: graphic software to draw 2D and 3D figures of the calculated results as well as the setup geometries.
Cross section data libraries: Neutron nuclear data library and photo- and electro-atomic data libraries evaluated mainly based on Japanese Evaluated Nuclear Data Library version 4 (JENDL-4.0).
DCHAIN-SP: Program for calculating the time dependence of activation during and after irradiations
|Package ID||Status date||Status|
Y. Iwamoto, K. Niita, Y. Sakamoto, T. Sato and N. Matsuda: "Validation of the event generator mode in the PHITS code and its application" International Conference on Nuclear Data for Science and Technology 2007, DOI: 10.1051/ndata:07417 (2007)
H. Iwase, K. Niita, T. Nakamura: "Development of general-purpose particle and heavy ion transport Monte Carlo code", J. Nucl. Sci. and Technol. 39, 1142 (2002).
Y. Nara, N. Otuka, A. Ohnishi, K. Niita, S. Chiba: "Relativistic nuclear collisions at 10A GeV energies from p+Be to Au+Au with the hadronic cascade model", Phys. Rev. C61, 024901 (1999).
J. Cugnon, A. Boudard, S. Leray, and D. Mancusi: "New Features of the INCL4 Model for Spallation Reactions", J. Korean Phys. Soc. 59, 955-958 (2011).
Y. Sawada, Y. Uozumi, S. Nogamine, T. Yamada, Y. Iwamoto, T. Sato and K. Niita: "Intranuclear cascade with emission of light fragment code implemented in the transport code system PHITS", Nucl. Instr. Meth. B 291, 38-44 (2012).
K. Niita, T. Sato, H. Iwase, H. Nose, H. Nakashima, L. Sihver: "PHITS- a particle and heavy ion transport code system", Radiation Measurements 41, 1080 (2006).
K. Niita, S. Chiba, T. Maruyama, H. Takada, T. Fukahori, Y. Nakahara and A. Iwamoto: "Analysis of the (N,Xn') reactions by quantum molecular dynamics plus statistical decay model", Phys. Rev. C 52, 2620 (1995)
T. Sato, Y. Kase, R. Watanabe, K. Niita and L. Sihver: "Biological dose estimation for charged-particle therapy using an improved PHITS code coupled with a microdosimetric kinetic model", Radiat. Res. 171, 107-117 (2009)
T. Sato, K. Niita, N. Matsuda, S. Hashimoto, Y. Iwamoto, S. Noda, T. Ogawa, H. Iwase, H. Nakashima, T. Fukahori, K. Okumura, T. Kai, S. Chiba, T. Furuta and L. Sihver, "Particle and Heavy Ion Transport Code System PHITS, Version 2.52", J. Nucl. Sci. Technol. 50, 913-923 (2013)
L. Sihver, T. Sato, K. Gustafsson, D. Mancusi, H. Iwase, K. Niita, H. Nakashima, Y. Sakamoto, Y. Iwamoto and N. Matsuda: "An update about recent developments of the PHITS code" Adv. Space Res. 45, 892-899 (2010).
K. Shibata, O. Iwamoto, T. Nakagawa, N. Iwamoto, A. Ichihara, S. Kunieda, S. Chiba, K. Furutaka, N. Otuka, T. Ohsawa, H. Matsunobu, A. Zukeran, S. Kamada and J. Katakura: "JENDL-4.0: A New Library for Nuclear Science and Engineering", J. Nucl. Sci. Technol. 48, 1-30 (2011).
|Package ID||Computer language|
Research Organization for Information Science and Technology, Tokai, Ibaraki, Japan
Norihiro Matsuda, Shintaro Hashimoto, Yosuke Iwamoto, Tatsuhiko Sato, Takuya Furuta, Shusaku Noda, Tatsuhiko Ogawa, Hiroshi Nakashima, Tokio Fukahori, Keisuke Okumura and Tetsuya Kai
Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki, Japan
High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan
Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan
Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden
Keywords: Monte Carlo method, heavy ions, nuclear data, nuclear reactions, particle transport.