It is the purpose of this manual to help an engineer or scientist to design a practical shield by making available to him the techniques and data developed by the Naval Reactors Program and Pressurized Water Reactor Program. The material is organized in the approximate order that the designer would have to accumulate it in developing a shield design of his own. Considerable thought has been given to the organization and relation of the material and to presenting it in the most usable and intelligible form.
Because of the effort spent in organizing the material and in cross referencing within the text, no index has been provided. The serious reader is advised to study first the table of contents in the front of the book and then the more complete table of contents immediately preceding each chapter. Each of the major sections is also preceded by a summary, and facing pages are captioned with the chapter and section titles, respectively. It is felt that this method of presentation lends itself better to finding the information most pertinent to a given problem than an index indiscriminately listing all references, direct and oblique.
These shielding procedures were developed along somewhat different paths at different sites and were, in some cases, aimed originally only at a specific reactor application. Most of these procedures have not previously been written in a generally applicable form. A really cooperative effort was therefore required among the persons who worked on the manual. Long work sessions and many shorter discussions were organized to allow all the material originally written by persons at each of the naval reactors organizations to be combined and rewritten in a more cohesive form. The original authorship of each section has thus been sacrificed, and the manual is now a truly joint effort. Credit has been given to originators of all data and techniques whenever they were known; it is hoped that no omissions have been made in this regard.
At this stage of the reactor shielding art, this manual is necessarily somewhat unbalanced; it tells more about what is known than about what is not known. There will probably be a second edition within a year or so which will be more complete on (for example) thermal-shield design, disposition of insoluble fission products throughout a reactor system, selection of dose points for accurate shield contouring, shield geometry problems such as streaming and scattering, cheaper methods of fabricating large lead shield sections, and perhaps better methods of analyzing the balance between reactor shielding and coolant shielding.
As this manual developed from a series of separate papers to the present form, it became increasingly apparent that, although these techniques were adequate to make possible the design, construction, testing, and operation of several power reactor shields, there are still aspects of the procedures which are unnecessarily tedious, overly conservative, or on somewhat shaky ground. For example, theoretical procedures have not been compared in all cases with experimental data that might be pertinent. Chapter 8 in particular is ripe for such scrutiny; further comparative analysis is invited. The best tribute the editor and authors can hope for is indications from readers that better methods or data are available. This will tell us that the manual is being used as intended and will lead to a better manual for the next edition and to an improved shielding art.
I want to express my appreciation to Admiral Rickover for first having the idea that such a manual should be prepared and for encouraging the authors and myself to do a thorough job even though the effort had necessarily to be made at the expense of urgent daily commitments. Special credit is also due the Technical Information Service and particularly the staff of the Oak Ridge Extension, whose help on this manual went considerably beyond normal editorial services and who converted rough copy into this book with intelligence and dispatch.
(By THEODORE ROCKWELL III)