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NEA-1552 SINBAD ACCELERATOR-.

SINBAD ACCELERATOR, Shielding Benchmark Experiments

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1. NAME:  SINBAD ACCELERATOR, Shielding Benchmark Experiments.
NEA-1552/03
SINBAD-TIARA. Transmission of Quasi-Monoenergetic Neutrons Generated by 43 MeV and 68 MeV Protons Through Iron, Concrete(1996) and Polyethylene(1997) Shields.

NEA-1552/08
SINBAD-65P. Transmission Through Shielding Materials of Neutrons and Photons Generated by 65 MeV Protons (1991).

NEA-1552/10
SINBAD-ROESTI I, II and III. Hadron and low-energy neutron fluences and absorbed doses in the cascades induced in iron and lead dumps irradiated by high-energy hadron beams.

NEA-1552/12
SINBAD-BEVALAC. BEVALAC experiment stopping 272 and 435 MeV/nucleon Nb ions on Nb and Al targets.

NEA-1552/14
SINBAD-RIKEN. RIKEN Development of a Quasi-monoenergetic Neutron Field from the Li-7(p,n)Be-7 Reaction in the 70-210 MeV Energy Range.

NEA-1552/15
SINBAD-PSI-P590MEV. High Energy Neutron Spectra Generated by 590-MeV Protons on a Thick Lead Target (1979).

NEA-1552/16
SINBAD-AGS-P-N-RI. Measurement of Radioactivity Induced by GeV-Protons and Spallation Neutrons Using AGS (Alternative Gradient Synchrotron) accelerator (2001).

NEA-1552/19
SINBAD-TEPC-FLUKA. Simulation of the lineal energy distribution of the energy deposition in biological cells, TEPC-FLUKA Comparison.

NEA-1552/23
SINBAD-KENS-P500MeV. Shielding Experiment using 4m Concrete at KEK Spallation Neutron Source Facility (KENS) (2002-2004)

NEA-1552/24
SINBAD-CERF-BSS. Response of a Bonner Sphere Spectrometer to charged hadrons measured at CERF facility (2003).

NEA-1552/26
SINBAD-CERF-RES.DOSE - CERF benchmark study of residual dose rates with FLUKA (2003).

NEA-1552/27
SINBAD-CERF-RADIONUC. CERF benchmark study of radionuclide production with FLUKA (~2003).

NEA-1552/28
SINBAD-CERF-120GEV/C. CERF shielding experiment at CERN (2004).

NEA-1552/30
SINBAD-30/52MEV-P. Measurements of angular neutron spectra produced from 30- and 52-MeV protons striking thick targets of Carbon, Iron, Copper, and Lead by 30- and 52-MeV Protons, performed at the University of Tokyo and the University of Osaka (1982).

NEA-1552/31
SINBAD-AVF-75MEV-P. Measurements of the transmission of secondary neutrons through concrete shields, involved a 75-MeV proton beam incident on a stopping-range copper assembly, performed at the AVF Cyclotron Facility at Osaka University (1991).

NEA-1552/32
SINBAD-200/400GEV-P. CERN measurements of the dose and hadron yield from copper targets in 200 GeV/c and 400 GeV/c extracted proton beams (1983).

NEA-1552/33
SINBAD-IHEAS-BENCHM. High-Energy Accelerator Shielding Benchmarks.

NEA-1552/34
SINBAD-52P. Transmission Through Shielding Materials of Neutrons and Photons Generated by 52 MeV Protons (1981).

NEA-1552/35
SINBAD-HIMAC. HIMAC experiments stopping He, C, Ne, Ar, Xe, Fe & Si ions on Al, C, Cu & Pb targets.

NEA-1552/36
SINBAD-HIMAC800-CONC. Measurements of high energy neutrons (up to 800 MeV) penetrated through concrete shields (HIMAC/NIRS) (2001).

NEA-1552/37
SINBAD-HIMAC800-FE. Measurements of high energy neutrons (up to 800 MeV) penetrated through iron shields (HIMAC/NIRS) (2002).

NEA-1552/38
SINBAD-ISIS800. ISIS Benchmark Experiment on Deep-Penetration Neutrons through Concrete and Iron Shields (1998)

NEA-1552/39
SINBAD-MSU/155 HE-C. MSU experiment stopping 155 Mev/nucleon He and C ions on aluminum target (1993).
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2. COMPUTERS
To submit a request, click below on the link of the version you wish to order. Only liaison officers are authorised to submit online requests. Rules for requesters are available here.
Program name Package id Status Status date
SINBAD ACCELERATOR-- NEA-1552/01 Tested 02-JUN-1996
SINBAD-TIARA NEA-1552/03 Tested 07-DEC-2000
SINBAD-65P NEA-1552/08 Tested 13-SEP-2000
SINBAD-ROESTI NEA-1552/10 Tested 07-OCT-2002
SINBAD-BEVALAC NEA-1552/12 Tested 15-JAN-2004
SINBAD-RIKEN NEA-1552/14 Tested 27-MAY-2003
SINBAD-PSI-P590MEV NEA-1552/15 Tested 21-DEC-2004
SINBAD-AGS-P-N-RI NEA-1552/16 Report 10-DEC-2008
SINBAD-TEPC-FLUKA NEA-1552/19 Tested 26-JUL-2005
SINBAD-KENS-P500MeV NEA-1552/23 Tested 15-SEP-2006
SINBAD-CERF-BSS NEA-1552/24 Tested 15-SEP-2006
SINBAD-CERF-RES.DOSE NEA-1552/26 Tested 02-DEC-2008
SINBAD-CERF-RADIONUC NEA-1552/27 Tested 01-DEC-2008
SINBAD-CERF-120GEV/C NEA-1552/28 Tested 01-DEC-2008
SINBAD-30/52MEV-P NEA-1552/30 Tested 04-DEC-2008
SINBAD-AVF-75MEV-P NEA-1552/31 Tested 04-DEC-2008
SINBAD-200/400GEV-P NEA-1552/32 Report 02-DEC-2008
SINBAD-IHEAS-BENCHM NEA-1552/33 Arrived 11-FEB-2009
SINBAD-52P NEA-1552/34 Arrived 01-MAR-2012
SINBAD-HIMAC NEA-1552/35 Arrived 14-MAR-2012
SINBAD-HIMAC800-CONC NEA-1552/36 Arrived 01-MAR-2012
SINBAD-HIMAC800-FE NEA-1552/37 Arrived 01-MAR-2012
SINBAD-ISIS800 NEA-1552/38 Arrived 01-MAR-2012
SINBAD-MSU/155 HE-C NEA-1552/39 Arrived 01-MAR-2012

Machines used:

Package ID Orig. computer Test computer
NEA-1552/01 Many Computers Many Computers
NEA-1552/03 Many Computers Many Computers
NEA-1552/08 Many Computers Many Computers
NEA-1552/10 Many Computers Many Computers
NEA-1552/12 Many Computers Many Computers
NEA-1552/14 Many Computers Many Computers
NEA-1552/15 Many Computers Many Computers
NEA-1552/16 Many Computers
NEA-1552/19 Many Computers Many Computers
NEA-1552/23 Many Computers Many Computers
NEA-1552/24 Many Computers Many Computers
NEA-1552/26 Many Computers Many Computers
NEA-1552/27 Many Computers Many Computers
NEA-1552/28 Many Computers Many Computers
NEA-1552/30 Many Computers Many Computers
NEA-1552/31 Many Computers Many Computers
NEA-1552/32 Many Computers
NEA-1552/33 Many Computers
NEA-1552/34 Many Computers Many Computers
NEA-1552/35 Many Computers Many Computers
NEA-1552/36 Many Computers Many Computers
NEA-1552/37 Many Computers Many Computers
NEA-1552/38 Many Computers Many Computers
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3. DESCRIPTION

SINBAD is a new electronic database developed to store a variety of radiation shielding benchmark data so that users can easily retrieve and incorporate the data into their calculations. SINBAD is an excellent data source for users who require the quality assurance necessary in developing cross-section libraries or radiation trans- port codes. The future needs of the scientific community are best served by the electronic database format of SINBAD and its user- friendly interface, combined with its data accuracy and integrity. It has been designed to be able to include data from nuclear reactor shielding, fusion blankets and accelerator shielding experiments.
  
The guidelines developed by the Benchmark Problems Group of the American Nuclear Society Standards Committee (ANS-6) on formats for benchmark problem description have been followed by SINBAD. SINBAD data include benchmark information on (1) the experimental facility and the source; (2) the benchmark geometry and composition; and (3) the detection system, measured data, and an error analysis. A full reference section is included with the data. Relevant graphical information, such as experimental geometry or spectral data, is included. All information that is compiled for inclusion with SINBAD has been verified for accuracy and reviewed by two scientists.
NEA-1552/03
SINBAD-TIARA
============
Purpose and Phenomena Tested:
----------------------------
Intermediate-energy neutron spectra and reaction rates behind and inside up to 130 cm thick iron shield, up to 200 cm thick concrete shield, and up to 180 cm thick polyethylene were measured for 43 and 68 MeV p-Li7 quasi-monoenergetic neutron source at the 90-MV AVF cyclotron of the TIARA facility in JAERI.
The energy between 1E-10(MeV) and the peak energy of the neutrons generated by the Li7(p,n) reaction was measured.
  
Description of Source and Experimental Configuration:
----------------------------------------------------
Figure 1 shows a cross sectional view of the Takasaki Ion Accelerator for Advanced Radiation Application (TIARA) facility with the experimental arrangement.
Quasi-monoenergetic source neutrons were generated by 43- and 68-MeV protons bombarding 3.6 mm and 5.2 mm thick 99.9 % enriched Li-7 targets, respectively. The protons penetrating the target with a 2-MeV energy loss were bent down toward the beam dump by a clearing magnet.  The neutrons produced in the forward angle reached the experimental room through a 10.9 cm diameter and 225 cm long iron collimator embedded in the concrete wall.  The intensity of source neutrons was monitored with a proton beam Faraday cup and two fission counters placed near the Li-7-target and the collimator.  An iron test shield of 10 to 130 cm thickness was assembled [1, 2, 5] with 10 cm thick iron slabs of 120 cm x 120 cm rectangular surface on a movable stand.  A concrete test shield of 25 to 200 cm thickness was also assembled [3, 6] with 120 x 120 x 25 cm3 slabs on the movable stand.  A polyethylene test shield of 30.5 to 183.0 cm thickness was also assembled [4, 7] with 118.5 x 118.0 x 30.5 cm3 slabs on the movable stand. An additional iron collimator was used for measurements of thinner test shields and off axis measurements in order to depress the neutron leakage through the collimator wall and rotary shutter.  The additional collimator of 40 to 80 cm thickness was assembled with 120 x 120 x 10 cm3 slabs with a 10.9 cm diameter cylindrical hole on the movable stand. Thicknesses of the test shields and the additional  collimator, peak flux of source neutrons per proton beam charge (microcoulombs-microC) are given. Atom densities of the iron, concrete and polyethylene test shields and the additional collimator are given.
  
Absolute fluxes of source neutrons in the monoenergetic peak per proton beam charge (microcoulombs), shown in Table 1, have been measured with a proton-recoil-counter-telescope (PRT) set at the position of 5.54 m from the Li target. The spectra of quasi-monoenergetic source neutrons were measured by the time of flight (TOF) method with the BC501A liquid scintillation detector placed about 14 m away from the target. Normalized measured source neutron energy spectra are given in Tables 3 and 4, presented as flux per proton beam charge.

NEA-1552/08
SINBAD-65P
==========
Purpose and Phenomena Tested:
----------------------------
Transmission of secondary neutrons and photons generated by 65 MeV protons through shielding materials. Graphite, iron, lead and concrete assemblies were studied to obtain information on the secondary neutron effects, needed for the design of high energy accelerator shielding.
  
Description of the Source and Experimental Configuration:
--------------------------------------------------------
The experiments were performed at the AVF cyclotron of Research Center of Nuclear Physics, Osaka University. A copper target of 65 MeV proton stopping range was used. The secondary neutrons and photons were collimated by a 7.5-cm diam., 50-cm long iron-lined concrete hole. The test shields of concrete, iron, lead and graphite were placed very close to the collimator exit. The shields were slabs about 40 x 40 cm in cross section and 10 to 100 cm thick.

NEA-1552/10
SINBAD-ROESTI
=============
Purpose and Phenomena Tested:
----------------------------
Space distribution of hadron and low-energy neutron fluences and absorbed doses in the cascades induced in iron and lead dumps irradiated by high-energy hadron beams.
  
Description of Source and Experimental Configuration:
----------------------------------------------------
The experiments Roesti I (Ref. [1]) and III (Ref. [3]) were performed at the H6 secondary beam in the North Experimental Area of the CERN SPS (Super Proton Synchrotron). The beam consisted of positive hadrons (2/3 protons and 1/3 positive pions) with a momentum of 200 GeV/c.  The beam had a gaussian profile with standard deviations of the projected horizontal and vertical beam profile distributions equal to 1.2 and 0.9 cm respectively.
  
Experiment Roesti II (Ref. [2]) took place at an extracted beam of the CERN PS (Proton Synchrotron). The beam consisted of protons of 24 GeV/c momentum, with a Gaussian profile of standard deviation 0.13 cm in both the horizontal and the vertical direction.
  
In Roesti I and II the target was a dump made of twenty 5 cm thick, 30x30 cm square iron plates. The density of the iron was 7.86 +/- 0.02 g/cm3. The plates were welded to an iron framework with gaps of 0.7 cm between the plates. Extra detector slots were provided in front of the first plate (slot 0) and behind the last plate (slot 20). The beams were incident on the centre of the first absorber slab. Aluminium plates, 0.4 cm thick, 24 cm wide and 30 cm high, were inserted into each slot excepted slot 9, which was left empty. Aluminium disks of varying sizes were punched out of the plates at different radial distances from the center and  several of them were used as activation detectors. Other detectors (RPL glasses inside polyethylene capsules of 0.8 cm internal diameter, sulphur and indium disks) were placed in the remaining holes.
  
In Roesti III the target was a dump made of twenty 5 cm thick, 50x50 cm square lead plates. The density of the lead was not measured. The lead composition was known to include a small amount of antimony (about 4%).
The lead plates were bolted together with 0.8 cm gaps and placed on an iron support structure. The beam was incident on the first absorber slab 10 cm off-centre in the horizontal mid-plane. Activation detectors, mounted on aluminium plates 0.05 cm thick and with 50x50 cm lateral dimensions, included aluminium, indium, sulphur and polyethylene disks. A slight azimuthal asymmetry around the nominal beam axis was found for the detectors with the highest activation threshold (but not for the others). The data reported for each radial distance are the aritmetic mean of different azimuthal detector positions.

NEA-1552/12
SINBAD-BEVALAC
==============
Purpose and Phenomena Tested:
-----------------------------
The stopping of high energy Nb ions in Niobium and Aluminum targets has been investigated in the BEVALAC facility of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory during July 1991. The neutron spectra were measured by the time-of-flight method.
  
Description of source and Experimental Configuration
----------------------------------------------------
The energy of the projectile was 272 and 435 MeV/nucleon for Nb ions stopping in Niobium target and 272 MeV/nucleon for Nb ions stopping in Aluminum target. They were delivered in spills of 1 second every 6 seconds with approximately 3E+05 particles per spill reaching the target.
  
A set of two thin detectors were located in the beam trajectory upstrem of the target. They were used to define valid particles from a coincidence logic.
  
The Niobium target was a 5.08 x 5.08 cm2 square plate 1 cm thick for the higher energy and 0.51 cm thick for the lower energy. The Aluminum target was a 5.08 x 5.08 cm2 square plate 1.27 cm thick. The targets were oriented perpendicular to the  beam. All the targets were thick enough to stop the beam. Mass thickness of targets is 8.57 g/cm2 for Niobium with 435 MeV/ nucleon, 4.37 g/cm2 for Niobium with 272 MeV/nucleon and 3.43 g/cm2 for Aluminum.
  
The target was housed inside a rectangular steel scattering chamber with a thin Mylar window 0.25 mm thick in the face of the scattering chamber, directly between the target position and the neutron detectors. The longer dimension of the chamber was perpendicular to the beam axis and big enough to allow neutrons leaving the target to reach the detectors though the Mylar window. Chamber walls were 0.32 cm thick. Pressure inside scattering chamber was at most 1.E-05 Torr.

NEA-1552/14
SINBAD-RIKEN
============
Purpose and Phenomena Tested:
----------------------------
A quasi-monoenergetic neutron field was developed using the Li-7(p,n)Be-7 reaction in the energy range from 70 to 210 MeV in the ring cyclotron facility at RIKEN [1]. Neutrons were generated from a 10-mm-thick Li-7 target injected by protons accelerated to 70, 80, 90, 100, 110, 120, 135, 150 and 210 MeV.
  
Description of Source and Experimental Configuration:
----------------------------------------------------
A quasi-monoenergeric neutron field was developed at the E4 experimental room of the RIKEN ring cyclotron facility. This room has a big charged-particle spectrometer, named SMART (Swinger and Magnetic Analyzer with a Rotator and a Twister), for nuclear-physics research; a part of it is used as a neutron beam line. Ions are accelerated in two steps with an AVF-cyclotron and a ring-cyclotron, and are transported to E4-room. The beam swinger permits to bombard the accelerated particles onto a target in a scattering chamber at any angle up to 110 deg.
  
Quasi-monoenergetic neutrons were produced from a 10-mm-thick Li-7 metal target (99.98 atm% enriched, 0.54 g/cm3) injected by 70, 80, 90, 100, 110, 120, 135, 150, 210 MeV protons. Proton beam was focused on the center of the Li target within ~2-mm-diameter. The beam intensity used is up to 100 nA in order to suppress the activities induced in other experimental instruments.

The protons that penetrated the Li-7 target were focused by the PQ1 and PQ2 quadruple-magnets, and were bent towards the beam dump by a PD1-dipole-magnet. A beam dump of lead is set in the beam duct through the PD1, and the whole PD1 is insulated so as to be used as a Faraday cup.
  
The neutrons produced at 0deg. from the target pass through a 3-cm-thick acrylic vacuum window and a 120-cm-thick ironcollimator having 22-cm-wide x 22-cm-high hole, and reach the neutron measurement area. Concrete and iron shields are additionally equipped in order to shield the spurious neutrons produced at the PD1 beam dump.
  
The neutron energy spectra were measured with an NE213 organic liquid scintillator using the time-of-flight (TOF) method. The absolute peak neutron yields were obtained by measurement of 0.478 MeV gamma-rays from Be-7 nuclei produced in the Li-7 target.

NEA-1552/15
SINBAD-PSI-P590MEV
==================
As part of a feasibility study for a German spallation source, a series of experiments [2] were performed in 1979 at the Swiss Institute for Nuclear Research (SIN) to determine high energy particle spectra from spallation targets. The experiment presented here used a time-of-flight (TOF) technique to measure angular neutron spectra resulting from 590-MeV protons on a thick lead target.
  
Description of the Source and Experimental Configuration:
--------------------------------------------------------
A 590-MeV proton beam obtained from the SIN cyclotron was focused to a 2-cm diameter onto a cylindrical lead target. The target was composed of twelve cylindrical blocks, each 5-cm long and 10-cm diameter, giving an overall length of 60 cm. The proton current was monitored during the experiment using a carbon scatterer placed in the incident proton beam. A pair of thin plastic scintillators operated in coincidence was used to detect the scattered protons. The monitor was calibrated with respect to the absolute proton flux by counting individual protons in the direct beam with a third thin plastic scintillator at sufficiently reduced current. Measurements of the neutrons emitted from the target were performed at 30-deg., 90-deg. and 150-deg. via an iron collimator (about 1 m thick).

NEA-1552/16
SINBAD-AGS-P-N-RI
=================
Purpose and Phenomena Tested:
----------------------------
Measurement of radioactivity induced by high-energy protons with energy of 2.83 and 24 GeV and spallation neutrons produced by bombarding a mercury target with the high-energy protons were performed by using the AGS (Alternative Gradient Synchrotron) accelerator at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The samples of boron, carbon, aluminum, iron, copper, niobium, mercury-oxide, lead, bismuth, acrylic resin, SS-316, Inconel-625 and Inconel-718 were irradiated around the mercury target. After the irradiation, the radioactivity of each sample was measured by using HPGe detectors at the cooling time between 2 h and 200 d. In the processing of the measured g-ray spectra, more than 90 radioactive nucleus were identified, and the radioactivity production data were obtained.

NEA-1552/19
SINBAD-TEPC-FLUKA
=================
Purpose and Phenomena Tested:
----------------------------
Measurements and simulation of the lineal energy distribution of the energy deposition in biological cells of 2 micrometer diameter. This is first done in well characterised mixed radiation field in order to evaluate the response of the instrument. The comparison is then repeated in the complex cosmic ray environment on board of an aircraft.
  
Description of the Source and Experimental Configuration:
--------------------------------------------------------
Sources:
  
Pure photon: Co60
Pure Neutron: 0.5 MeV at PTB
Mixed Field: AmBe without lead cap
High energy field:  CERN-EU High Energy Reference Field (CERF) facility [1] (Positively charged hadron beam (mixture of protons and pions) with 120 GeV/c momentum on copper target producing secondaries passing through 80 cm concrete shielding. The resulting neutron spectrum has two maximum at about 1 Mev and 70 MeV) similar to the high-energy component of the radiation field created by cosmic rays at commercial flight altitudes.)
Radiation field at commercial flight altitude.

NEA-1552/23
SINBAD-KENS-P500MeV
===================
Purpose and Phenomena Tested:
----------------------------
Penetration of up to 500 MeV neutrons, generated on a thick tungsten target bombarded by 500 MeV protons, through an ordinary concrete shieldof 4-m-thickness was studied to check the accuracies of the transmission and activation calculation codes.
  
Description of Source and Experimental Configuration:
----------------------------------------------------
A high-energy neutron source produced in the forward direction from a thick tungsten target bombarded by 500 MeV - 5 microA protons was arranged at the KENS spallation neutron source facility. Using a 0-degree beam course downstream of the target, high-energy neutron source produced in the forward direction is available from the beam exit. An ordinary concrete shield of 4-m thickness was assembled in contact with the beam exit of the neutron irradiation room, and 7 slots reaching the beam axis inside the concrete shield were equipped in every 40-80 cm thickness for irradiation sample insertion. The angular and energy distributions of neutrons produced from the target assembly was calculated using the MARS14 code. The MARS14 source calculation is described in [2].

NEA-1552/24
SINBAD-CERF-BSS
===============
Purpose and Phenomena Tested:
----------------------------
Bonner Sphere Spectrometers (BSS) are employed in neutron spectrometry and dosimetry since many years. A real 'calibration' of the BSS response to charged hadrons would require the availability of broad beams of protons and charged pions of several defined energies up to tens of GeV, which is not really feasible. Thus an experimental verification of the response of the BSS to a monoenergetic beam of high-energy hadrons was performed at the CERF facility at CERN as described here.
  
Description of Source and Experimental Configuration:
----------------------------------------------------
Source: 120 GeV/c positive hadron beam (composed of 1/3 protons and 2/3 pions) of Gaussian profile with FWHM (full width at half maximum) of 30.5 mm and 31.7 mm in the horizontal and vertical planes, respectively (determined with a multi-wire proportional chamber), at the CERF facility at CERN [1].

NEA-1552/26
SINBAD-CERF-RES.DOSE
====================
Purpose and Phenomena Tested:
----------------------------
Samples of materials, typical for accelerator machines as well as for shielding and construction components, were irradiated in the stray radiation field of the CERN-EU high-energy Reference Field facility (CERF). The samples included pure materials such as aluminium, copper, iron and titanium as well as composites like concrete. Emphasis was put on an accurate recording of the irradiation conditions, such as irradiation profile and intensity, and on a detailed determination of the elemental composition of the samples. After the irradiation the residual dose rate was measured at different cooling times ranging from about twenty minutes to one month. Furthermore, the irradiation experiment was simulated with the FLUKA [1, 2] Monte Carlo code and residual dose rates were calculated using a new method simulating the production of the various isotopes and the electromagnetic cascade induced by the radioactive decay at a certain cooling time. In general good agreement was found giving confidence in the predictive power of FLUKA and tools for the calculation of residual rates important to estimate in a detailed way individual and collective doses to personnel during interventions at accelerators.
  
Description of Source and Experimental Configuration:
----------------------------------------------------
All samples were irradiated at the CERN-EU high-energy Reference Field (CERF) facility [4]. At this facility a pulsed, 120 GeV/c mixed hadron beam (1/3 protons, 2/3 positively charged pions) from the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) accelerator is aimed at a 50 cm long copper target creating a stray radiation field around the target that is similar to beam loss regions at high-energy accelerators (collimators, dumps, etc.). The samples were either laterally attached to the target or placed on a sample holder, located immediately downstream of the target and centred with its axis. A list of the samples is given in Table 1.
  
The actual alignment of the target with respect to the beam axis was measured at the up- and downstream faces of the target using Polaroid films and was then also taken into account for the simulations. The samples were irradiated with exposure times ranging from a few hours to several days and a total number of accumulated beam particles ranging from 3.9 x 10^11 to 1.6 x 10^12. The lateral beam profile as well as the number of particles in each beam spill (cycle length of 16.8 s) were recorded for later use in the simulation as well as during the post-processing of the FLUKA results.
  
The geometry of the target is detailed in file geometryDescription.htm, and shown on Fig. 1 and Fig. 2.

NEA-1552/27
SINBAD-CERF-RADIONUC
====================
Purpose and Phenomena Tested:
----------------------------
The activation of beamline components at high-energy accelerators, such as the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), is of concern with regard to radiation safety, not only during the operation of the machine and possible maintenance but also later for decommissioning and final disposal of the activated materials. In all cases accurate calculations of the radionuclide inventory are required which are typically performed with modern particle interaction and transport codes, in case of the LHC mainly with the Monte Carlo code FLUKA [1, 2].
  
In contrast to integral quantities, such as the dose equivalent to personnel by prompt radiation or the dose to components, predictions for the production of individual isotopes can be much less reliable as they depend strongly on details of the models implemented in the Monte Carlo (MC) code. Thus, benchmark experiments are of utmost importance in order to verify the accuracy and limits of applicability of these models. Unfortunately, activation experiments are not trivial and are prone to uncertainties of various natures.
  
Samples of different materials to be used for machine and shielding components of the Large Hadron Collider were irradiated in a high-energy stray radiation field. The materials included steel, copper, titanium, concrete as well as light materials such as carbon composites and boron nitride. The induced specific activities of radionuclides, as measured with gamma spectrometry at different cooling times (from about twenty minutes to two months), then served as benchmark of the FLUKA Monte Carlo code.
  
The study aimed at high accuracy in all aspects of measurements and simulations, including elemental analyses of the irradiated materials with different methods, detailed revision of the spectrometry results  as well  as low statistical uncertainties in the predictions of FLUKA. Furthermore, the experiment allowed for an accurate recording of the irradiation conditions, such as irradiation profile and intensity. The presented data is published in Ref. [3] and references listed therein.
  
Description of the Source and Experimental Configuration
--------------------------------------------------------
All samples were irradiated at the CERN-EU high-energy Reference Field (CERF) facility [4]. At this facility a pulsed, 120 GeV/c mixed hadron beam (1/3 protons, 2/3 positively charged pions) from the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) accelerator is aimed at a 50 cm long copper target creating a stray radiation field around the target that is similar to beam loss regions at high-energy accelerators (collimators, dumps, etc.). The samples were either laterally attached to the target or placed on a sample holder, located immediately downstream of the target and centred with its axis.
  
The actual alignment of the target with respect to the beam axis was measured at the up- and downstream faces of the target using Polaroid films and was then also taken into account for the simulations. The samples were irradiated with exposure times ranging from a few hours to several days and a total number of accumulated beam particles ranging from 6.7 x 10^10 to 1.6 x 10^12. The lateral beam profile as well as the number of particles in each beam spill (cycle length of 16.8 s) were recorded for later use in the simulation as well as during the post-processing of the FLUKA results.
  
The geometry of the target is detailed in file geometryDescription.htm, and shown on Fig. 1 and Fig. 2.

NEA-1552/28
SINBAD-CERF-120GEV/C
====================
Purpose and Phenomena Tested:
----------------------------
High energy neutron spectra between 12 MeV and 380 MeV were measured using a 120 GeV/c hadron beam on a cylindrical copper target, at the CERF (CERN-EU High Energy Reference Field) facility at CERN. Measurements were performed at various longitudinal locations behind lateral shields of concrete or iron, using an NE213 organic liquid scintillator. The corresponding MARS15 Monte Carlo simulations were also performed, and the results were compared to the experimental energy spectra.
  
Description of Source and Experimental Configuration:
----------------------------------------------------
Fig. 1 shows the beam line of the CERF facility with 80 or 160 cm thick concrete for side shields and 80 cm thick concrete and 40 cm thick iron for roof shield. A copper target (50 cm thick, 7 cm diameter) can be placed at two different locations, A or B, as shown in Fig. 1. The beam line is inclined horizontally at approximately 2.1 degrees. The experimental arrangement is presented in the subdirectory \Exp-arrangement\. A positively charged hadron beam consisting of a mixture of protons (34.8 %), pions (60.7 %) and kaons (4.5 %) with momentum of 120 GeV/c impacted on the target. The number of incident beam particles was measured relatively by a PIC (precision ionization chamber) beam monitor which is calibrated to absolute number of beam particles. Densities of shielding materials and composition of the concrete shield are given in Tables 1 and 2, respectively.

NEA-1552/30
SINBAD-30/52MEV-P
=================
Purpose and Phenomena Tested:
----------------------------
A series of experiments performed at the University of Tokyo and the University of Osaka measured the angular neutron spectra produced from 30- and 52-MeV protons striking thick targets of various materials. The results of these benchmark experiments were reported by Nakamura [1,2] et al. for 30- and 52-MeV protons incident on carbon, iron, copper, and lead targets. Nakamura reported secondary neutron spectra at several angles, as well as total neutron yield. The targets used in these experiments were about twice the range of an incident proton so that the proton beam was completely stopped. The targets were sufficiently thin so that the neutrons had negligible interaction within the targets.
  
Description of Source and Experimental Configuration:
----------------------------------------------------
The SF cyclotron of the Institute for Nuclear Study (INS) at the University of Tokyo was used to produce a 30-MeV proton beam that bombarded carbon, iron, copper, and lead targets. The targets were arranged perpendicular to the beam. A diagram of the SF cyclotron is shown in Fig. 1. The targets were 20-mm in diameter, with thickness and densities as shown in Table 1.
  
A 52-MeV proton beam at the FM-cyclotron at the Institute for Nuclear Study at the University of Tokyo was also used to bombard thick targets of carbon, iron, copper, and lead. A diagram of the FM cyclotron is shown in Fig. 2. The proton beam passed through a 0.15 mm thick stainless steel window, then impinged on the targets given in Table 1.

NEA-1552/31
SINBAD-AVF-75MEV-P
==================
Purpose and Phenomena Tested:
----------------------------
A series of experiments, performed at the AVF Cyclotron Facility at Osaka University, involved a 75-MeV proton beam incident on a stopping-range copper assembly to study the transmission of secondary neutrons through concrete shields.  The data were used by the experimenters to benchmark the MORSE Monte Carlo code with the DLC-87 multigroup cross section library for neutron penetration calculations.
  
Description of Source and Experimental Configuration:
----------------------------------------------------
Protons were accelerated to 75 MeV in the AVF cyclotron and transported to a 1-cm-thick (stopping range) Cu target. Neutrons generated in the forward direction were passed to an experimental room through a 7.5-cm-inner-diameter iron-lined concrete collimator 50 cm in length (the thickness of the lining was not given).  Concrete shields of 40 x 40 cm2 area and 20, 50, and 100 cm thickness were placed 7 cm from the collimator exit. Figure 1 illustrates the experimental arrangement[1].

NEA-1552/32
SINBAD-200/400GEV-P
===================
Purpose and Phenomena Tested:
----------------------------
Standard activation and dosimetric techniques were used to measure the angular variation of hadron flux density and absorbed dose around copper targets irradiated by high-energy protons. The reports include the compilation of the results of the measurements obtained during four irradiations at proton energies between 195 and 400 GeV.

NEA-1552/33
SINBAD-IHEAS-BENCHM
===================
Purpose and Phenomena Tested:
----------------------------
Six kinds of Benchmark problems were selected for evaluating the model codes and the nuclear data for the intermediate and high energy accelerator shielding by the Shielding Subcommittee in the Research Committee on Reactor Physics. The benchmark problems contain three kinds of neutron production data from thick targets due to proton, alpha and  electron, and three kinds of shielding data for secondary neutron and photon generated by proton. Neutron and photoneutron reaction cross section data are also provided for neutrons up to 500 MeV and photons up to 300 MeV, respectively.

NEA-1552/34
SINBAD-52P
==========
Purpose and Phenomena Tested:
----------------------------
Attenuation of secondary neutrons and photons generated by 52 MeV protons through shielding materials. Graphite, iron, water and ordinary concrete assemblies were studied to obtain information on the secondary neutron effects, needed for the design of high energy accelerator shielding.
  
Description of the Source and Experimental Configuration:
--------------------------------------------------------
The experiments were performed at the FM cyclotron of Institute for Nuclear Study of University of Tokyo. The 52 MeV proton beam was extracted into the air through a 0.15-mm-thick stainless-steel window of the beam transporting duct and injected to the center of a 2.145-cm-thick graphite target placed 5 cm from the window. A thickness of the graphite target was sufficient to stop the 52 MeV protons which have a range of 1.6 cm. Most neutrons were generated by C-12(p,n)N-12 reaction (Q=-18.14 MeV).  The diameter of proton beam was about 5 mm at the injecting point. The beam intensity was 1 to 2 nA.

NEA-1552/35
SINBAD-HIMAC
============
Purpose and Phenomena Tested:
----------------------------
Carbon, Aluminum, Copper and Lead targets were bombarded with He, C, Ne, Ar, Fe, Xe and Si ions of energies ranging from 100 to 800 MeV/nucleon.
  
They were performed at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator of Chiba (HIMAC) depending of the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) of Japan in different experimental sets from 1997 to 1999.
  
Description of Source and Experimental Configuration:
----------------------------------------------------
The energy of the projectile is 100 and 180 MeV/nucleon for He ions, 100, 180 and 400 MeV/nucleon for C and Ne ions, 400 MeV/nucleon for Ar, Fe and Xe ions and 800 MeV/nucleon for Si ions. The Si ions are only stopped on C and Cu targets.
The beam is extracted from the synchrotron with a time pulse of 0.5 seconds every 3.3 seconds. The microtime structure corresponds to 5 MHz.
The target is a 10x10 cm2 plate of carbon, aluminum, copper and lead. Its thickness is calculated to stop completely the incident particles.

NEA-1552/36
SINBAD-HIMAC800-CONC
====================
Purpose and Phenomena Tested:
----------------------------
The neutron energy spectra penetrated through concrete shields were measured using the Self-TOF detector, an NE213 organic liquid scintillator and the Bi and C activation detectors at HIMAC (Heavy-Ion Medical Accelerator) of NIRS (National Institute of Radiological Sciences), Japan [1]. Neutrons were generated by bombarding 400 MeV/nucleon C-12 ion on a thick copper target. The neutron spectra were measured in the energy range from 20 MeV to 800 MeV. The neutron fluence attenuation length were obtained from the experimental results and the calculation.
  
Description of the Source and Experimental Configuration:
--------------------------------------------------------
The shielding experiment was performed at HIMAC PH-2 beam line. The experimental arrangements using the Self-TOF detector, NE213 detector and the (Bi and C) activation detector are shown. The neutrons are produced by bombarding copper target with 400 MeV/nucleon C-12 ions beams on thick (stopping length). The target size was 10 cm x 10 cm and 5 cm thick. A transmission-type ionization chamber was placed behind the end window of a beam line as a beam monitor. An NE102A plastic scintillator (100mm x100mm and 3mm thick) placed just in front of the shields, was also used as a relative monitor. The Self-TOF detector was placed 506 cm downstream from the target front face on the beam axis. An iron collimator of 60 cm x 60 cm and 40 cm thickness with a hole of 10 cm x 10 cm was set in front of the Self-TOF detector to decrease the accidental signals which were induced by the incidence of fragment charged particles on the stop counters, and also to inject neutrons almost normally into the detector. A veto counter (150 mm x 150 mm and 5 mm thick NE102A plastic scintillator), was placed in front of the radiator to remove fragment charged particles from neutrons.
  
The Self-TOF detector was fixed at the same position, in opposition of the NE213 detector which was placed in contact with the shielding surface, (Measuring point (A)) and distant from the shielding surface (Measuring point (B)), 500 cm downstream of the copper target on the beam axis. The measuring point (B) is selected for comparison with the Self-TOF results. Five pairs of Bi and C activation detectors were insert between each concrete shield of 50 cm thickness (50, 100, 150 and 200 cm thickness) and behind the most downstream shield of 250 cm thickness on the beam line, simultaneously. After 10 hours irradiation, the measurements of the gamma-rays from the activation detectors were carried out with two high-purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors (GC-1818 and GC-2020, Canberra Industries, Inc.).
  
The assembly of concrete shields is 100 cm x 100 cm in size was put onto the steel platform to fix the center of the shield on the beam axis. The Self-TOF detector and the NE213 detector were used to measure neutron energy spectra penetrating through shields up to 200 cm thickness, Bi and C
activation detectors were used to measure them up to 250 cm thickness.

NEA-1552/37
SINBAD-HIMAC800-FE
==================
Purpose and Phenomena Tested:
----------------------------
The neutron energy spectra penetrated through iron shields were measured using the Self-TOF detector and a NE213 organic scintillator at HIMAC (Heavy-Ion Medical Accelerator) of NIRS (National Institute of Radiological Sciences), Japan [1]. Neutrons were generated by bombarding 400 MeV/nucleon C-12 ion on a thick copper target. The neutron spectra were measured in the energy range from 20 MeV to 800 MeV. The neutron fluence and fluence attenuation length were obtained from the experimental results and the calculation.
  
Description of the Source and Experimental Configuration:
--------------------------------------------------------
The shielding experiment was performed at HIMAC PH-2 beam line. The neutrons are produced by bombarding copper target with 400 MeV/nucleon C-12 ions beams on thick (stopping length). The target size was 10 cm x 10 cm and 5 cm thick. A transmission-type ionization chamber was placed behind the end window of a beam line as a beam monitor. An NE102A plastic scintillator (100mm x100mm and 3mm thick) placed just in front of the shields, was also used as a relative monitor. The Self-TOF detector was placed 509 cm downstream of the target front face on the beam axis. An iron collimator of 60 cm x 60 cm and 40 cm thickness with a hole of 10 cm x 10 cm was set in front of the Self-TOF detector to decrease the accidental signals which were induced by the incidence of fragment charged particles on the stop counters, and also to inject neutrons almost normally into the detector. A veto counter (150 mm x 150 mm and 5 mm thick NE102A plastic scintillator), was placed in front of the radiator to remove fragment charged particles from neutrons.
  
The Self-TOF detector was fixed at the same position, in opposition of the NE213 detector which was placed in contact with the shielding surface, (Measuring point (A)) and distant from the shielding surface (Measuring point (B)), 503 cm downstream of the copper target on the beam axis. The measuring point (B) is selected for comparison with the Self-TOF results.
  
The assembly of iron shields is 100 cm x 100 cm in size and 10 cm thickness was put onto the steel platform to fix the center of the shield on the beam axis. The thickness of the shield assembly was changed to be 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 cm. The mass density of iron shield is 7.8 g/cm3.

NEA-1552/38
SINBAD-ISIS800
==============
Purpose and Phenomena Tested:
----------------------------
The purpose of this experiment was to measure the deep-penetration neutrons through a thick bulk shield at an intense spallation neutron source facility, ISIS, of the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), United Kingdom [1].
  
Description of the Source and Experimental Configuration:
--------------------------------------------------------
The source is a thick tantalum target (total length of 296.5 mm) impinged by 800 MeV - 200 micro-A protons, producing neutrons. This target, placed at the center of the target station, is shielded with approximately 3-m-thick steel and 1-m-thick ordinary concrete in the upward direction, through which the neutrons are transmitted. On top of the shield of the target station, the neutron flux attenuations through concrete and iron shields, which were additionally placed up to 1.2-m and 0.6-m thicknesses respectively, were measured using activation detectors of graphite, bismuth, aluminum and a multi-moderator spectrometer using indium-oxide activation detector. The attenuation lengths for concrete and iron of high-energy neutrons above 20 MeV at 90 degrees to the proton beam axis were obtained from the 12C(n, 2n)11C reaction rates. The neutron energy spectra in the energy range from thermal to 400 MeV behind concrete and iron were also obtained by an unfolding analysis using the reaction rates of 12C(n, 2n)11C, 27Al(n, a)24Na, 209Bi(n, xn)210-xBi (x=4~10), and 115In(n, g)116mIn.

NEA-1552/39
SINBAD-MSU/155 HE-C
===================
Purpose and Phenomena Tested:
----------------------------
An aluminum target was bombarded with He and C ions of 155 MeV/nucleon at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NCSL) facility in the Michigan State University (MSU) during September 1993. Neutron yields were measured by the time-of-flight method.
  
Description of Source and Experimental Configuration:
----------------------------------------------------
The energy of the projectile is 155 MeV/nucleon for both He and C ions. They are delivered in bursts of 1 to 3 nanoseconds width with a period of 41.6 ns.
  
The target is an aluminum cylinder, 13.34 cm long with a diameter of 1.78 cm. It is coaxial with the beam. At the entrance side there is a cylindrical hole 5.08 cm long and 1.59 cm diameter also coaxial with the beam in order to minimize the loss of backscattered delta electrons, since the number of beam particles is calculated from the total amount of charge collected in the target.
  
The target is suspended inside a spherical scattering chamber of diameter 91.44 cm with 3.2 mm thick steel wall. Pressure inside chamber is 1.E-06 Torr.
top ]
4. METHODS
NEA-1552/03
SINBAD-TIARA
============
Measurement System:
------------------
Five kinds of detectors were used: the BC501A organic liquid scintillation detector, the Bonner ball counter, 238U and 232Th fission counters, Li7F and Li(nat)F thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) and solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD).
  
To measure the neutron energy spectra, a 12.7 cm diameter x 12.7 cm long BC501A liquid scintillation detector was placed behind the test shields. The pulse height distributions of the detector were converted to neutron energy spectra by the FERDOU unfolding code [8] and a measured response matrix [9].
  
A Bonner sphere spectrometer with four polyethylene moderators of thicknesses 1.5, 3.0, 5.0, 9.0 cm, and without moderator was placed behind the test shields for measurements of energy dependent neutrons. The central part is a 5.08 cm diameter spherical proportional counter filled with 10 atm (at 22 degree) He-3 gas.  Reaction rates above gamma-ray discrimination level were measured for five different moderator thicknesses.  These five reaction rates were unfolded with the SAND-2 code [10] and the response functions given by Uwamino et al [11].
  
U-238 and Th-232 fission counters (Centronic FC480/1000) with a 10.1 cm long x 3.81 cm diameter active volume were used to measure fission rates behind the test shields.  Absolute efficiencies of U-238 and Th-232 fission counters were (1.05 +- 0.04) x 1.E+3 and (9.86 +- 0.34) x 1.E+2 barn/cm^2/counts, respectively, which were measured with a Cf-252 neutron source.
  
Neutron reaction rates were measured on the beam axis in the test shield using Li7F and Li(nat)F thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) (Harshaw Co. Ltd.) of 1 x 1 x 6 mm3. Thermoluminescence was converted to the absolute dose in TLD using a calibration factor determined with a Co60 gamma-ray source within the uncertainty less than 3 %.
  
The neutron reaction rates in the test shield were also measured using a solid state nuclear track detectors. The composition of the detector is Allyl diglycol carbonate which is the same as that of CR-39. The detector is a rectangular solid of 10 mm x 5 mm and 1 mm thick attached with a 1 mm thick polyethylene radiator. The exposed detectors were etched chemically, the etch pits on the detectors were counted through an optical microscope of 400 times magnifications.
  
Description of Results and Analysis:
-----------------------------------
The main source of information were references [1, 2, 3, 4].
  
Transmitted neutron energy spectra behind the iron test shields measured with the BC501A scintillation detector are given. The spectra on the beam axis behind the iron test shields are presented. The spectra at the off beam positions are shown. The error bars consist of errors of spectrum unfolding and counting statistics. Other errors in the source neutron flux are estimated to be less than 6.6% (errors of PRT (3-5%), conversion factor of fluence monitor to total charges of proton beam (3%), neutron penetration factor through objects on the beam line (3%) and the fluence monitor counting statistics (less than 1%)).
Transmitted neutron energy spectra behind the concrete and polyethylene test shields measured with the BC501A scintillation detector are given.
  
The reaction rates of the Bonner sphere spectrometer behind the iron, concrete and polyethylene test shields are given. Neutron spectra behind the iron, concrete and polyethylene test shields obtained from the reaction rates using the SAND-2 unfolding code and the response functions are given. The experimental errors of the Bonner sphere spectrometer could not be estimated by the SAND-2 unfolding code.
  
The fission rates measured behind the iron, concrete and polyethylene test shields using fission counters are given. The uncertainties of the measured data given in the tables include the counting statistics of the fission counters and neutron fluence monitors. The U-238 and Th-232 fission counters measure the neutron flux above the threshold energy of about 1 MeV.
  
The differences between neutron reaction rates of Li7F and Li(nat)F TLDs measured inside the iron and concrete shields are given. As the Li7F and Li(nat)F response functions differ significantly only below about 1 MeV, these differences are the measure of the neutron flux up to 1 MeV.  The uncertainties of the measured data given in the tables include the counting statistics of each detector and neutron fluence monitor.
  
The neutron reaction rates of SSNTD measured inside the iron, concrete and polyethylene shields are given. The detector is sensitive to neutrons below 10 MeV. The uncertainties of the measurements include the counting statistics of etch pits and neutron fluence monitor.
  
Model for Calculation:
The calculations of the 43- and 68-MeV p-Li neutron energy spectra using Monte Carlo and deterministic transport codes are described in [4, 5, 6] (using MORSE-CG, DOT3.5 and HETC-KFA2 codes), [14, 17] (DORT, MCNP4B), [15] (LAHET) and [16, 18] (MCNPX). The input data used for the LAHET and HMCNP4A calculations are given in [15].
  
The authors of the experiment propose [1] to use a three-dimensional (X,Y,Z) or two-dimensional (R-Z) calculational models. Calculational geometry used for the MORSE and HETC Monte Carlo codes is shown. In the figureTc is a thickness of additional collimator which are given. The 43- and 68-MeV p-Li neutron beams impinge on the shielding assembly at its center. The neutron beam spreading is 5.94 x 1.E-4 sr. Cylindrical flux estimators were placed behind the shield surface on and off beam axes. The measured source energy spectra for 43- and 68-MeV p-Li neutrons are given. Atom densities of the test shields and the additional collimator are also given.
  
To calculate the fission rate, the U-238 and Th-232 fission cross sections given in Table 45 can be used. They include the data from JENDL-3 [12] in the neutron energy up to 20 MeV, and those measured by Lisowski et al. [13] in the energy region between 20 and 400 MeV.
   
Normalization Between Calculation and Measurement:
Calculated values of the transmitted spectra and count rates should be normalized by proton beam charge (microcoulombs).  Total source neutrons per proton beam charge can be calculated with the peak flux and the energy spectrum given.

NEA-1552/08
SINBAD-65P
==========
Measurement System and Uncertainties:
------------------------------------
A 76-mm-diam. x 76-mm-long NE-213 scintillation detector was placed just behind the shield system. The pulse height distributions were converted to neutron and photon energy spectra by using the revised FERDO-U unfolding code [2]. The background data were obtained in the same geometrical condition except that the collimator was closed by an iron plug.
The collimated 0 deg. neutron source spectrum measurement was made without the shield at a location 538 cm down from the copper target using the same detection system. Neutron source below 4.5 MeV was not measured. Use of the evaporation spectrum was suggested in this energy range. Gamma ray source spectrum is also given for energies above 1.8 MeV. Information on the uncertainties is available only in graphical form.
  
Description of Results and Analysis:
-----------------------------------
Absolute neutron penetration spectral measurements were reported at 20, 40, and 60-cm-thick-iron; 10, 20, and 30-cm-thick lead; 30, 60, and 90-cm-thick graphite; and 20, 50, and 100-cm-thick concrete.  The photon spectral measurements are reported for the 20-cm-thick iron, 10-cm-thick lead, 30-cm-thick graphite, and the 20 and 50-cm-thick concrete.  Neutron spectral measurements were reported for 5 MeV to 61 MeV and Photon spectral measurements for 1.9 MeV to 9.4 MeV.  Data are plotted with 1-sigma error bars and with computational results using MORSE/DLC-87.
  
Calculations were performed by MORSE, ANISN and MCNP-4A codes using DLC58/HELLO, DLC119/HILO86, DLC87/HILO and ENDF/B-VI high energy ross-sections [3], [4].

NEA-1552/10
SINBAD-ROESTI
=============
Measurement System and Uncertainties:
-------------------------------------
Activation detectors:
--------------------
In115(n,n')In115m: indium disks of 1.0 cm diameter, 0.36 cm thick. 336 keV gammas measured with a GeLi detector (absolute emission probability assumed = 46.7%)
  
S32(n,p)P32: sulphur pellets of 2.3 cm diameter, 0.6 cm thick (thickness larger than max. range of emitted beta particles). Betas were measured with a thin-window GM tube calibrated with a thick sulphur sample irradiated by neutrons from a PuBe source of known yield. Note that the original calibration, on which the results reported in Ref. [1], [2] and [3] were based, was later found incorrect. The numerical data available here are based on the new correct calibration.
  
Al27(n,a)Na24: aluminium disk thickness 0.4 cm (Roesti I) or 0.05 cm (Roesti II and III). Diameter: 1.0 to 3.0 cm (Roesti I & II), 1.0 to 4.0 cm (Roesti III) (increasing with radial distance). 2.754 MeV gammas were measured with a 3"x3" NaI detector covered by a perspex cap.
  
Al27(h,spall)F18: same disks and measuring apparatus as for the previous detector. Annihilation photons of 0.511 MeV energy were measured by placing the disks between two sheets of perspex to ensure annihilation close to the source.
  
C12(x,xn)C11: polyethylene disks 0.04 cm thick, with a 1.5 to 3.5 cm diameter (increasing with radial distance). These detectors were used only in the Roesti III experiment. The experimental data are not available.
  
The measured activities were corrected for decay during and after the irradiation and during counting. A correction for non uniformity of the beam intensity was also made, based on several monitors. `
  
The presence of the detectors was not considered in the calculational models described in chapter 5. The aluminium detectors were cut out of the aluminium support plates, so only the plates must be considered. The other detectors were generally too smallor of too small density to affect the development of the shower.
  
Dosimeters:
----------
Schott-Jenner DOS2 Radiophotoluminescent dosimeters (RPL): glass rods 0.6 cm long and with a 0.1 cm diameter, read with a Toshiba FGD-6 reader. The composition is the following (in weight %): O-53.7%, P-33.4%, Al-4.6%, AG-3.7%, Li-3.7%, B-0.9% (A_eff ~ 19, Z_eff ~ 10). These detectors were used only in the Roesti I and Roesti II experiments.
  
A photo of a bare RPL and an irradiated one (braun) in the tube is given. (An RPL becomes brown when it is irradiated to very high doses, which was never the case in these experiments. So, only the bare RPL in the picture corresponds to those used).
  
In the simulations, the RPL geometry was not reproduced in detail (they were too small to get enough scoring statistics and to affect particle transport) but in a first phase dose was scored at their position, assuming a composition of 54% Oxygen and 46% "Aluminium equivalent". After some tests, it was found that scoring simply dose in aluminium was giving the same results (in the mixed fields of hadronic cascades, dose depends only very weakly on atomic number).
  
Uncertainties:
--------------
The authors estimate that the results should have typical uncertainties of few percents, maximum 10%. Detectors were positioned by taping them with adhesive tape at positions known with the normal accuracy available with a measurement tape (typically about 1 mm, to be compared with detector diameters of the order of 1 cm).
  
Description of Results and Analysis:
-----------------------------------
The measured results are given in files rosti1.exp, rosti2.exp, rosti3.exp. In the tables the standard deviations represent the spread of several measurements from different azimuthal detector positions.
  
Calculations have been performed with FLUKA92 (Ref. [4], [5]) and with HETC88 (Ref.[6]).
The following FLUKA92 input files prepared by J. Zazula are included here as a guide for the computational model development:
  
- fl24fe1.inp: FLUKA92 input for iron dump, 24 GeV/p (act. detectors)
- fl24fe2.inp: FLUKA92 input for iron dump, 24 GeV/p (absorbed dose)
- fl200fe1.inp: FLUKA92 input for iron dump, 200 GeV/h (act. detectors)
- fl200fe2.inp: FLUKA92 input for iron dump, 200 GeV/h (absorbed dose)
- fl-24pb.inp: FLUKA92 input for lead dump, 24 GeV/p (act. detectors)
- fl-200pb.inp: FLUKA92 input for lead dump, 200 GeV/h (act. detectors)
  
The input files are sufficient for a description of the geometry of the experiment, but the complete analysis included also several user routines which are not included here.
  
Unfortunately input files are not all consistent with each other. For instance some of the inputs for the Pb dump use a symmetrical geometry, while others describe more accurately the actual geometry, with the beam hitting the dump off-center. Also the material composition may appear to be with or without a small amount of antimony.
  
Note also that these files refer to a very old version of the code and are made available mainly to help in the geometry and material description. Many defaults have now changed, and most settings should be revised, in particular those concerning the neutron cross sections (the 37-group library has been replaced by one with 72 groups).

NEA-1552/12
SINBAD-BEVALAC
==============
Measurement System:
-------------------
Neutron detectors were located outside the scattering chamber at laboratory angles from 3 to 80 deg. The detectors consist in 10.16 cm thick big rectangular slabs of plastic scintillator NE-102 covered with a very thin reflective cover and about 0.1 cm of black adhesive tape. These cover completely the detectors except for the top and bottom faces, where the coupling with the bundle of light guides takes place. These guides couple to their respective photomultipliers.
  
There were 16 detectors, all of them with a height of 101.6 cm and different width, between 2.5 and 50.8 cm and hence different solid angle relative to the target. The centers of the detectors were located at the same height that the center of the target. The  values of angular position of each detector, their width and flight path are given.
  
In front of each main  detector another thin NE-102 detector was located with height and width slightly larger than main detectors and thickness 0.64 cm. The purpose was to reject any charged particle incident on the neutron detector.
  
The detectors efficiency was calculated by using the M.C. code by Cecil, Anderson and Madey (Ref. 2).
  
Background neutrons were not measured, instead they were estimated from the analysis of two regions of the time-to-digital converter spectra.
  
Description of Results and Analysis:
------------------------------------
The results are presented as double differential neutron yield (energy and angle) in terms of neutron per MeV, per milisteradian and per incident ion. There are only results for 14 detectors since the results from detectors at 40 and 64 deg. are not available.
  
The results for 272 MeV/nucleon Nb ions on Nb target are presented for angles 3 to 24 deg. and for angles 28 to 80 deg.
  
For Nb ions of 435 MeV/nucleon also on Nb target the results are presented for angles 3 to 24 deg. and for angles 28 to 80 deg.
  
Finally the results for 272 MeV/nucleon Nb ions on Al target are presented for angles 3 to 24 deg. and for angles 28 to 80 deg.
  
Integrated yields of neutrons above 20 MeV are presented. These numbers represent yields of neutrons over 20 MeV per incident ion and are given for the forward space beyond the target (0-90 deg.) and also for the first 45 deg. and the first 10 deg.

NEA-1552/14
SINBAD-RIKEN
============
Measurement System:
------------------
The neutron energy spectra were measured by the time-of-flight (TOF) method using a 12.7-cm-diameter x 12.7-cm-long NE213 organic liquid scintillator. The neutron detector was placed both 12 and 20 m away from the Li-7 target in order to obtain a good time resolution of the TOF measurement for the high-energy neutrons. The detector efficiency was determined by a calculation code from [2].
  
The peak neutron fluences were measured by two relative neutron fluence monitors in the position of 8.37 and 12.0 m from the Li-7 target along the neutron beam line. An NE213 organic liquid scintillator (5.08-cm-diameter x 5.08-cm-long) near to the PD1 magnet (Monitor 1) and an NE102A plastic scintillator (2-cm-wide x 2-cm-high x 0.5-cm-thick) at the collimator exit (Monitor 2), were also equipped because of an uncertainty in the amount of proton charges through the beam dump in a low-current experimental run. The counts of these neutron fluence monitors were calibrated to the absolute monoenergetic peak neutron fluence on the beam line after an estimation of the number of Be-7 nuclei produced in the Li-7 target. The number of residual Be-7 nuclei equals the number of peak neutrons released in the 4p direction [3]. In order to determine the number of residual Be-7 nuclei in the target, 0.478 MeV gamma-ray emitted from the decay of Be-7 with a half-life of 53.3 day was measured with a high-purity Ge detector. The efficiency of the Ge-detector was determined with 3% accuracy. Correction factors for neutron attenuation through the acrylic window  and air and also neutron scattering at the collimator were evaluated by Monte Carlo calculation.
  
Description of Results and Analysis:
-----------------------------------
The peak neutron fluences at the two measuring positions of 8.37 and 12 m from the target issued from the evaluation of the target activity are listed. In this table are also listed the correction factors applied for the neutron attenuation through the acrylic window and air and also neutron scattering at the collimator. The peak neutron fluences were also estimated by integrating over the peak region of the neutron-energy spectra resulted by the NE213 scintillator measurements.
The fluences obtained by these two methods are listed and compared. The neutron-energy spectra measured with the TOF method are shown.
  
Error Assessment:

The absolute peak neutron fluence was obtained within 7.5% accuracy with the target activity measurements and within 15.6% with the integrated spectra over the peak region obtained by the NE213 scintillator measurements.

NEA-1552/15
SINBAD-PSI-P590MEV
==================
Measurement System and Uncertainties:
-------------------------------------
Two detectors were used for measurements. The main detector was a 3-cm thick, 4.5-cm diameter NE213 liquid scintillator employing n-gamma pulse discrimination. The distance between the target axis and the center of the main detector was 117.3 cm (+- 0.3 cm). A secondary detector, a 0.5-cm thick plastic scintillator, was located immediately in front of the liquid scintillator. This secondary detector was used as counter to remove pulses from charged particles also produced in the target. The model of the plastic scintillator is not specified in [1]. Background measurements were performed by removing the target block opposite the collimator entrance. The contents for each time bin were integrated and the results divided by the NE213 detector efficiency. The efficiency was calculated by using the Monte Carlo code of Stanton as modified by Cecil et al. [6]. Then the data were scaled by the solid angle subtended by the detector, the dead time correction factor, the number of incident protons, and the target average surface. In the interpretation of the experimental data, no information is provided about the meaning of or the way to determine the so-called "target's average surface", which is said to be 12.5 cm squared. No errors were given for the experimental spectrum. However, it was specified that during the off-line data processing, there was an error associated to the procedure used to separate the response of the high energy neutrons from the response of the low energy neutrons in the TOF spectra. That error was reported as being small.
  
Description of Results and Analysis:
-----------------------------------
The spectrum of neutrons emitted from the first block (0 - 5 cm) in the target at 90 deg., as presented in Reference 1, is illustrated. The neutron yield is given as neutrons per MeV per incident proton per steradian per cm squared. This spectrum was compared to a calculation performed at KFA Julich. The calculational method was based on the high energy nucleon meson transport code HETC [7]. The comparison of calculation and experiment is illustrated. It was observed that the calculated spectrum is much softer than the measured spectrum. The measured spectrum was available only as a plot. For comparison purposes the measured data were extracted from the plot and digitized.
  
More recent benchmark calculation has been performed in ref. [1] by MCNPX code. The new 150-MeV cross section set, LA150, was used in these calculations [5]. The sample input for the MCNPX code is given in file mcnpx.inp. A comparison of the calculated spectrum and the measured spectrum is shown. It can be seen from Figure 5 that the calculation and experiment compare well. The largest difference between the calculated and the measured data is at lower energies (below 3 MeV).

NEA-1552/19
SINBAD-TEPC-FLUKA
=================
Measurement System and Uncertainties:
------------------------------------
The detectors used were:
  
A Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter (TEPC) is a standard instrument for measurements in a mixed radiation field. Particularly in aircrew radiation dosimetry the TEPC is of major interest for usage as a reference instrument. It measures the microdosimetric distribution d(y) of absorbed dose as a function of the lineal energy y over up to five orders of magnitude.
Dose equivalent is calculated folding this distribution with the quality factor as a function of linear energy transfer (LET), as defined in ICRP74.
The TEPC instrument used at the Austrian Research Center Seibersdorf (ARCS) is a sphere of 125 mm inner diameter. Since the TEPC is filled with pure propane gas, at low pressure (933.2 Pa) it simulates a tissue volume with a diameter of 2 micrometers. The wall of the sphere is made of a tissue equivalent plastic (A150). The TEPC sphere is contained in an aluminium cylindrical structure together with the required electronics. The complete assembly, cased inside a portable trolley of an aircraft hand-baggage dimension, is called HAWK [2].
  
Description of Results and Analysis:
-----------------------------------
The response of a Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter (TEPC)  has been simulated with the Monte Carlo transport code FLUKA[3]. Absorbed dose rate and ambient dose equivalent rate distributions as a function of lineal energy have been simulated for several reference sources and mixed radiation fields. The comparison between the simulated and measured microdosimetric spectra in these standard fields show a good agreement.
The Monte Carlo code FLUKA has also been used to calculate the radiation field at aircraft altitudes to simulate the TEPC response to this field. This simulation has been compared with TEPC in-flight measurements done at the same geographical position, altitude and same solar condition. The microdosimetric spectra measured within the aircraft shows a reduction of the high-LET contribution compared with the one simulated in free atmosphere. This reduction can be due to the influence of the aircraft structures.

NEA-1552/23
SINBAD-KENS-P500MeV
===================
Measurement System:
-------------------
Activation detectors of bismuth, aluminum, indium and gold foils were inserted into 8 slots inside the shield, and attenuations of neutron reaction rates were obtained by measurements of gamma-rays from the activation detectors. Because of large neutron intensity gradients, a variety of detector sizes and thicknesses were employed. From analyses of the photo peak counts of each gamma-ray, the following activation reaction rates were obtained:
  
Reaction            Threshold[MeV]
209Bi(n,9n)201Bi    61.73
209Bi(n,8n)202Bi    53.98
209Bi(n,7n)203Bi    45.31
209Bi(n,6n)204Bi    37.99
209Bi(n,5n)205Bi    29.63
209Bi(n,4n)206Bi    22.56
27Al(n,alpha)24Na    3.25
27Al(n,X)22Na       ~30
27Al(n,X)7Be        ~100
115In(n,n')115mIn   ~0.5
198Au(n,gamma)197Au Thermal
  
The reaction rates were estimated using one or a few gamma-rays from the radioactive products, and the reaction rates in the same slot agreed within about 10%, independently of gamma-rays analyzed or detector sizes used.
  
Description of Results and Analysis:
-----------------------------------
Experiment Analysis:
The experiment was simulated by the authors using the Monte-Carlo MARS14 code.
The MARS14 input data used in this analysis include besides the main input
(mars.inp) also 2 subroutines:
beg1_src.f: source routine
reg1.f: geometry routine

NEA-1552/24
SINBAD-CERF-BSS
===============
Measurement System and Uncertainties:
------------------------------------
The BSS used in the present experiment employs a spherical Centronics SP9 3He proportional counter (3.2 cm active diameter, filled to a pressure of 202 kPa 3He and 101 kPa Kr, see he3.jpg) at the centre of moderators of different diameters and composition: five polyethylene spheres of outer diameter 81 mm, 108 mm, 133 mm, 178 mm and 233 mm and two spheres made of a composite polyethylene/cadmium/lead moderator to detect high-energy neutrons (called Stanlio and Ollio). The density of the polyethylene (CH2)n is 0.963 g/cm3. Five of the spheres are made of pure polyethylene with different outer diameter. Ollio is a sphere with outer diameter of 255 mm, consisting of moderator shells of (from the central 3He proportional counter outwards) 3 cm polyethylene, 1 mm cadmium, 1 cm lead and 7 cm polyethylene thickness. Stanlio has outer diameter of 118.5 mm and consists of moderator shells of 2 cm polyethylene, 1 mm cadmium and 2 cm lead thickness. The geometry of the seven detectors is also described in the FLUKA input files (see section 5).
Each detector of the BSS was exposed to the 120 GeV/c hadron beam. The beam impinged on each sphere at 25 mm from its centre.
  
The 10% uncertainty given on the experimental data is an estimate of the total uncertainties, but it is mainly uncertainty on the beam monitoring (which is done with an air-free ionisation chamber placed in the beam, the standard monitor used at CERF). The statistical uncertainty on the number of counts is negligible. The information on the uncertainties due to the size or positioning of the sphere is not available.
  
Description of Results and Analysis:
-----------------------------------
Monte Carlo simulations with the FLUKA code were performed reproducing the exact experimental conditions. The 14 input files are given (two per each of the seven detectors of the BSS, one for 120 GeV/c proton beam and one for 120 GeV/c positive pion beam). The experimental data (counts per beam particle) are compared with the results of the FLUKA Monte Carlo simulations. The agreement is rather good except for the two smaller spheres where the experimental figure is about of factor 2 higher than the simulation value.
  
The present results served as experimental confirmation of the complete response matrix of the BSS to charged hadrons calculated with FLUKA [2]. The information on the response of the BSS to charged hadrons was used to correct the results of an experiment performed at CERN aimed at determining the neutron yield and spectral fluence at various angles from unshielded, semi- thick copper, silver and lead targets, bombarded by a mixed proton/pion beam with 40 GeV/c momentum [3].

NEA-1552/26
SINBAD-CERF-RES.DOSE
====================
Measurement System and Uncertainties:
------------------------------------
Following the irradiation of each sample, residual dose rates were measured with a Microspec portable spectrometer by Bubble Technology Industries (BTI) at various cooling times and distances to the surface of the samples.
  
The instrument is based on a NaI crystal of cylindrical shape with a diameter and height of about 5 cm. The scintillation light is detected by a photomultiplier tube, which converts the scintillation light into an electronic signal and amplifies the signal. Dose rates can be measured up to 100 microSv/h in a range from 60 keV to 3 MeV. Before each use the spectrometer was calibrated with a 22Na source according to the manufacturer's recommendation. To determine dose rates the device measures energy spectra which are then internally folded with the detector response as calculated by the manufacturer.
  
Since an absolute comparison of measured and calculated dose rates (especially on contact) requires knowledge of the effective centre of the detector it was determined in the CERN calibration laboratory. The dose rates from three different calibration sources (60Co, 137Cs and 22Na) were measured at distances R between the source and the surface of the detector varying between contact (R=0) and 30 cm and the results for each source were fitted, resulting in an average value of 2.4 cm for the centre of the detector.
  
For the dose rate measurements the irradiated samples were placed on a holder to allow for distances of 12.4 cm, 22.4 cm and 32.4 cm, between the surface of the sample (the surface which was facing the CERF target during the irradiation) and the centre of the detector. In addition, the samples were directly placed in contact with the detectors. All measurements were carried out in a laboratory with a low background radiation dose rate of 55 nSv/h.
  
All measured data points carry errors which include the following uncertainties: a 2 mm uncertainty for the determination of the effective centre of the detector, a 2 mm uncertainty for the positioning of the sample with the holder (i.e., distance to the detector), and a systematic instrument uncertainty of 1 nSv/h corresponding to the last significant figure on the display of the respective devices. Except for the aluminium sample measured data below 10 nSv/h were systematically excluded from the comparison due to their proximity to the background value and the lower measurement threshold as indicated in the user -manual of the instrument. In case of aluminium they were kept in order to indicate the behaviour of the dose rate at large cooling times.
  
Uncertainties which could arise from deviations of the actual beam -shape, i.e., spatial distribution of beam particles, from a Gaussian distribution (which is assumed in the simulations) would affect most the results for the samples irradiated downstream of the CERF target. Thus, an additional simulation was performed with a pencil beam source instead of a Gaussian distribution among the beam particles in lateral directions. Results from this additional simulation for the residual dose rate from an iron sample are shown in Figure 3 together with the results of the default (Gaussian) beam definition. The difference is considerable with the dose being higher by about 70 % for a pencil beam. However, it should be noted that it represents the maximum possible effect, while the actual uncertainties of the (measured) Gaussian distribution are assumed to be much smaller.
  
Similarly, uncertainties arising from deviations of the actual beam orientation from the assumed one (see direction cosines in x- and y-direction at the beam spot) could lead to uncertainties in the results for the samples attached laterally to the CERF target. Again, the effect has been estimated with an additional simulation, i.e., by aligning the source particles with the z-axis (zero direction cosines). The result can be seen in Figure 4. Here, the effect is much smaller and only about 10% at maximum.
  
Description of Results and Analysis:
-----------------------------------
Both the specific activities of different radionuclides in the samples and the residual dose rates at various distances were calculated with FLUKA. For the isotope production the simulations were based on a detailed description of the experimental setup containing the copper target, the holder with the samples, as well as the concrete enclosure of the beam-line shielding. According to the beam profile measurements the beam was assumed to be rectangular with a Gaussian profile of 2.1 cm and 2.6 cm full widths at half maximum (FWHM), in the lateral directions. In addition, the small offset of the beam axis with respect to the axis of the copper target was included into the simulation. Furthermore, the elemental compositions of the samples were considered as given in Table 2.
  
Residual dose rates were calculated following a two-step approach based on specifically developed user routines. For the first step (i.e., the calculation of isotopes), the FLUKA implementation of the geometry of the CERF experimental area includes all details as described above. In order to increase the statistical significance of the results for the relatively small samples, particle transport into the sample regions was biased using region importance factors. Isotope information was written into files for a total of 12 cooling times ranging from 6 minutes to 1000 hours (~42 days) and for the exact profile of the respective irradiation considering each beam pulse and the actual number of particles. Table 3 lists FLUKA input-files and the files containing the irradiation profiles.
  
In the second step of the simulation (i.e., the calculation of residual dose rates) the FLUKA geometry consisted only of the respective sample surrounded by air which roughly represents the situation during the dose rate measurements in the laboratory. Backscattering of photons from the walls of the laboratory (concrete) was found by MC simulation to have only a minor influence on the dose rate results. Therefore, the laboratory walls were neglected in the simulations as was also the sample holder which provided only a small volume for scattering. A dedicated simulation of the electromagnetic cascade caused by gamma and positron emitter was performed for each cooling time and the dose equivalent was calculated by folding the particle fluence with appropriate fluence-to-dose equivalent conversion factors [5]. The emission of electrons was neglected as it was found to give only a negligible contribution to the total dose rate.
  
Results of these calculations were compared to the experimental values. As mentioned above, values are compared for four distances between the sample surface and the centre of the detector: contact, 12.4 cm, 22.4 cm, 32.4 cm, respectively. Experimental and simulation results are given in the files listed in Table 4.

NEA-1552/27
SINBAD-CERF-RADIONUC
====================
Measurement System and Uncertainties
------------------------------------
The specific activities of the irradiated samples were measured at different cooling times ranging from about 20 minutes to two months. The gamma spectrometry measurements were performed with a high-sensitivity, low-background High-Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector by Canberra (245 cm3 sensitive volume, 60% efficiency at 1.33 MeV). The data acquisition and analysis was carried out using the software GENIE 2000 (version 2.1) by Canberra and the PROCOUNT-2000 counting procedure software. This system was complemented with LABSOCS (Laboratory Sourceless Calibration Software, version 4.1.1), a mathematical efficiency calibration software by Canberra taking into account geometrical effects and also correcting for self-absorption in the samples.
  
The samples were positioned on a custom-made sample holder at different reproducible distances from the detector. The distance for each sample was chosen on the basis of its remanent dose rate and on the respective dead time of the measuring system. For each distance the efficiency of the detector was calculated using LABSOCS.
  
The analysis performed by the GENIE 2000 software includes advanced analysis algorithms for nuclide identification, interference correction (resolution of overlapping peaks into individual components), calculation of specific activities, background subtraction and efficiency correction. The nuclide identification within GENIE 2000 is based on standard or user -specific libraries. The latter were created for each sample material taking into account the chemical composition, the possible activation reaction channels as well as the cooling time. All results of the analyses were revised manually since, for some radionuclides (e.g., in case of interference in the gamma energies of different nuclides), the semi-manual calculation of the specific activity turned out to be the most accurate method.
  
Stated uncertainties are calculated by the analysis software based on the shape of the peak in the spectra, the respective signal to background ratio and furthermore includes parameters based on the efficiency curve of the detector, the correction factor coming from LABSOCS as well as possible uncertainties coming from stated half-lives and branching ratios of mother-daughter chains.
  
Uncertainties which could arise from deviations of the actual beam -shape, i.e., spatial distribution of beam particles, from a Gaussian distribution (which is assumed in the simulations) would affect most the results for the samples irradiated downstream of the CERF target. Thus, an additional simulation was performed with a pencil beam source instead of a Gaussian distribution among the beam particles in lateral directions. Results from this additional simulation for the residual dose rate from an iron sample are shown in Figure 3 together with the results of the default (Gaussian) beam definition. The difference is considerable with the dose being higher by about 70 % for a pencil beam. However, it should be noted that it represents the maximum possible effect, while the actual uncertainties of the (measured) Gaussian distribution are assumed to be much smaller.
  
Similarly, uncertainties arising from deviations of the actual beam orientation from the assumed one (see direction cosines in x- and y-direction at the beam spot) could lead to uncertainties in the results for the samples attached laterally to the CERF target. Again, the effect has been estimated with an additional simulation, i.e., by aligning the source particles with the z-axis (zero direction cosines). The result can be seen in Figure 4. Here, the effect is much smaller and only about 10% at maximum.
  
Description of Results and Analysis
-----------------------------------
A total of 9 different materials used in the construction of the LHC were selected: aluminum, steel, iron, copper, titanium, concrete, carbon composite, boron nitride and resin. Of these materials, 19 samples (see Table 1) were machined to a size of about 2x2x2 cm3, except for the concrete sample, which was powdered and filled into boxes of about 4 cm length and diameter. The elemental compositions of the materials were analysed by a number of different outside companies and institutes using a variety of techniques. The materials discussed in this paper, their elemental composition as well as their densities are summarized in Table 2.
  
Specific activities of different radionuclides in the samples were calculated with FLUKA. For the isotope production the simulations were based on a detailed description of the experimental setup containing the copper target, the holder with the samples, as well as the concrete enclosure of the beam-line shielding. According to the beam profile measurements the beam was assumed to be rectangular with a Gaussian profile of 2.1 cm and 2.6 cm full widths at half maximum (FWHM), in the lateral directions. In addition, the small offset of the beam axis with respect to the axis of the copper target was included into the simulation. Furthermore, the detailed elemental compositions of the samples were considered as given in Table 2.
  
The full hadronic cascade was simulated in the target, in the samples and in the beamline enclosure. Neutrons were transported down to thermal energies; all other hadrons were transported until stopped. The electromagnetic cascade was not simulated as activation by photonuclear interactions can be neglected in hadron-induced cascades. FLUKA input file names are listed in Table 3 for the different configurations. Separate simulations were performed for proton and pion beam particles and their results were combined in a post-processing step according to the actual beam composition. The total yield of all produced radionuclides was scored separately for all samples and the results were written into output files. These data files were then post-processed, and specific activities were calculated taking into account the decay chains and build-up of isotopes, as well as the correct intensity profile of the respective irradiation experiment (see Table 3 for the file names of the irradiation profiles).
  
In Tables 4-12 the calculated and measured specific activities are compared for each material. All cooling times (see Table 1) refer to the beginning of the respective gamma spectrometry measurement. The first gamma spectrometry measurement was typically performed after a cooling time of between 20 minutes and one hour. This allowed for the identification of isotopes with half-lives of less than one hour. Tables 4-12 show the experimentally measured specific activities in Becquerel per gram, together with their corresponding errors in percent, as well as the ratio between the simulated and experimental results. In addition to the ratios of calculated to measured specific activities, the ratios of measured specific activities to the so -called "Minimal Detectable Activity" (MDA) of the gamma spectrometry measurement are listed. Only those isotopes are given which were identified by both the experiment and the simulation, as well as where the respective measured activity was above the given MDA value.
  
For the benchmark experiment, many isotopes were detected at different cooling times and their specific activities were determined. However, for the final comparison with FLUKA predictions only one measurement result was selected for each nuclide based on the following criteria: smallest experimental uncertainty, largest ratio between the measured specific activity and the respective MDA, as well as the appropriate cooling time as compared to the half-life of the respective isotope. The experimental errors contain both statistical and systematic uncertainties of the spectrometry analysis. For the calculated values the errors represent statistical uncertainties only. Isotopes predicted by FLUKA with an uncertainty larger than 20 % are not listed. Uncertainties in the half-lives used to follow the radioactive decay chains were found to have a negligible influence on the results. The errors of the ratios of calculated to measured specific activities were obtained by summing up the relative errors of the latter.

NEA-1552/28
SINBAD-CERF-120GEV/C
====================
Measurement System:
------------------
Neutron measurements were carried out using an NE213 organic liquid scintillator (12.7 cm diameter by 12.7 cm long), at different positions behind the shield, as shown in Fig. 1. The measurement locations covered an angular range with respect to the beam axis between 13 and 133 degrees. The detector locations and their angles from the beam incidence points of target location A and B are given in Table 3.
  
Two NE102A plastic scintillators (veto counters) of 5 mm thickness were used to reject charged particle events. A larger veto (30 cm X 30 cm) was located upstream of the NE213 detector mainly to reject muon background, and a smaller veto counter (15 cm X 15 cm) was in front of the NE213 to reject charged particles from the shielding wall or roof.
  
The electronic measurement circuit: the output signal from the NE213 detector was divided into two by a signal divider and fed to a CFD1 and an ADC. After the CFD1 selected pulses from the NE213 above threshold, charged particle events (especially muons) from upstream detected by the large veto counter (L-veto) were rejected by Veto1 in a coincidence module (Coin1).
  
The next one (Coin2) rejected the events that occured during the computer busy. The signals to ADCs from the NE213 were total or slow components which were generated by gating in the total or the slow (decay) region of the signal pulse. The signal from the small veto counter (Sveto) was fed to the ADC to get the
total component of charged particle events from the shield. The Lveto signal was fed to the ADC without VETO1 only in the beginning of the experiment to determine the discrimination level of charged particles.
  
Description of Results and Analysis:
-----------------------------------
Neutron events were selected by eliminating ray events from the 2-dimensional view of the total and slow components of the NE213 signals, and also by discriminating charged particle events detected by the S-veto. Neutron energy spectra were obtained by the unfolding method using the FORIST code. The complete FORIST data are to be found in the subdirectory \CERFforist\. The response matrix for 12 to 380 MeV neutrons for the unfolding was made from the response functions for this neutron spectrometer which have been experimentally investigated in the neutron energy range up to 390 MeV in separate experiments.
The uncertainty of the response function is 15%.
  
The experiment was simulated by the authors using the Monte-Carlo MARS15 code. The complete MARS15 input data used in this analysis are included in the subdirectory \MARS-input\. The transport calculations are presented in details in Ref. [3].
  
The numerical data of the neutron dose are given in Table 4. Fig. 2 shows measured neutron energy spectra behind 80 and 160 cm thick concrete, and 40 cm thick iron both for target locations A and B obtained by the unfolding method. A broad peak of cascade can be seen around 80 MeV in all energy spectra. Since the maximum neutron energy of the response matrix is 380 MeV, the experimental data above that energy could not be obtained. Bumps in the fluxes around the maximum energy can be seen in the spectra at forward angles since neutrons in the energies of higher than 380 MeV, of which fluxes are not negligible, contributed to the results of maximum energy group in the unfolding process.
  
MARS15 calculation results are also shown in Fig. 2. Although slight discrepancies between the experiment and the calculation can be seen at forward angles such as the A3, B4 and B5 locations after 80 cm thick concrete, the calculated spectra generally agreed very well with the experimental spectra within the experimental errors.
  
The data constitute a useful benchmark to verify the accuracy of radiation
transport codes.

NEA-1552/30
SINBAD-30/52MEV-P
=================
Measurement System:
------------------
The secondary neutrons produced by the 30-MeV proton beam were measured at angles of 0, 15, 30, 45, 75, and 135 degrees using a 7.62-cm-diameter x 7.62-cm-long NE 213 scintillator placed 4.03 m from the target.
  
The secondary neutrons produced by the 52-MeV proton beam were measured at angles of 0, 15, 30, 45, and 75 degrees using a 5.08-cm-diameter x 5.08-cm-long NE 213 organic liquid scintillator and iron and aluminum activation detectors. The neutron  pulse-height distributions from the NE 213 detector were converted to the neutron spectrum using the FERDO unfolding code and calculated response functions[3].

Description of Results and Analysis:
-----------------------------------
The experimentally measured energy spectrum of neutrons produced from 30-MeV protons at various angles is shown in Figures 3, 4, 5, and 6 for the carbon, iron, copper, and lead targets, respectively.  The data given in these graphs have been digitized and are provided in Tables 2, 3, 4, and 5 for the carbon, iron, copper, and lead targets respectively. The measured angular distributions of neutrons integrated from 3-MeV to 30-MeV from 30-MeV protons on the carbon, iron, copper, and lead targets are given in Table 6, and are shown in Figure Figure 7.
  
The experimentally measured energy spectrum of neutrons produced from 52-MeV protons at various angles is shown in Figures 8, 9, 10, and 11 for the carbon, iron, copper, and lead targets, respectively. The data given in these graphs have been digitized and are provided in Tables 7, 8, 9, and 10 for the carbon, iron, copper, and lead targets respectively.
  
The measured angular distributions of neutrons integrated from 5-MeV to 52-MeV from 52-MeV protons on the carbon, iron, copper, and lead targets are given in Table 11, and are shown in Figure 12.
  
The experimental uncertainties are shown in the figures and have been digitized and are given in the data tables. The uncertainties in the angular neutron spectrum for the 52-MeV experiments is not given for every data point, but are provided every fifth energy bin.
  
These 30- and 52-MeV angular neutron production experiments were modeled with the high energy particle transport code MCNPX[5]. The new 150-MeV cross section set, LA150, was used in each of these calculations[6]. The computational model for the experiments consisted of a parallel beam of protons impinging upon the targets. The proton energy was 30-MeV for the SF cyclotron experiments and 52-MeV for the FM cyclotron experiments. The 0.15 mm thick stainless steel window was included in the model of the FM cyclotron experiment. The target was surrounded by a sphere of air. Current tallies were performed on the spherical surface in angular intervals and the results converted to neutrons per steradian per proton for comparison with the experimental results. Performing tallies at small solid angles covering the same solid angle as the detector would have required excessively long run times to obtain acceptable statistical error.
  
The composition of the stainless steel window is assumed to be Stainless Steel 316 and its composition is given by Reference 4. The Hybrid MPM option in MCNPX provided the best results for the 52-MeV proton calculations. For the 30-MeV proton calculations the best results were provided with Bertini INC without preequilibrium. The calculated angular neutron spectra are plotted against the measured neutron spectra in Figures 13, 14, 15, and 16 for 30-MeV protons incident on carbon, iron, copper, and lead targets respectively.
  
The calculated angular distributions of neutrons integrated from 3-MeV to 30-MeV from 30-MeV protons on the carbon, iron, copper, and lead targets are shown in Figure 17. In order to make a simple comparison with the calculated neutron spectra and the measured neutron spectra the ratios of calculated to measured total neutron yield for fast neutrons from 30-MeV protons on carbon, iron, copper, and lead have been calculated.
  
The calculated angular neutron spectra are plotted against the measured neutron spectra in Figures 18, 19, 20, and 21 for 52-MeV protons incident on carbon, iron, copper, and lead targets respectively. The calculated angular distributions of neutrons integrated from 5-MeV to 52-MeV from 52-MeV protons on the carbon, iron, copper, and lead targets are shown in Figure 22. In order to make a simple comparison with the calculated neutron spectra and the measured neutron spectra the ratios of calculated to measured total neutron yield for fast neutrons from 52-MeV protons on carbon, iron, copper, and lead have been calculated.

NEA-1552/31
SINBAD-AVF-75MEV-P
==================
Measurement System:
------------------
Neutrons penetrating the shield were measured by a 7.6-cm-diameter x 7.6-cm-long NE-213 scintillator. Background data were obtained for this configuration with the collimator blocked by an iron plug. The source spectrum measurement was made in a similar configuration, the only differences being that the concrete shields were removed and the detector was located 778 cm from the target.

Description of Results and Analysis:
-----------------------------------
The atom densities (atoms/cm3) for concrete were given in Reference 1. All atomic weights were taken from Reference 3. For conversion of atom densities to atom and weight percents performed here, Avogadro's number was taken to be 6.022E23. The material isotopic compositions are given in Table 1. No information was given on the compositions of Fe and Cu.
Figure 2 illustrates two experimentally obtained source spectra:  one from the unfolding of the pulse height spectrum, and the other converted from the time-of-flight (TOF) spectrum.  The pulse height spectrum was unfolded using the FERDO-U[2] method.  The TOF measurement was only possible for neutrons above 25 MeV, because the repetition rate (1/55 ns-1) of the proton beam was not variable. Contributions to the TOF spectrum from lower energy neutrons were removed by discriminating against signals corresponding to the pulse height for recoil protons of energy less than 25 MeV.  The secondary neutron emission spectrum from the target at 0deg. from the beam axis was calculated by the experimenters using the ARIES code system.  Results from this calculation are given with the experimental results in Figure 2[1].
Figure 3 illustrates the spectra of neutrons transmitted through the concrete shields.  Also shown here are results from calculations of transmission spectra performed by the experimenters with the MORSE Monte Carlo code with the DLC-87 cross section library. The data from Figure 3 has been digitized and is given in tabular format in Tables 3, 4, and 5 for the 20 cm, 50 cm, and 100 cm thick concrete shields respectively. The error bars given on the measured values in Figure 3 above are from the output of the FERDO-U code.  Fluctuations in the measured spectra at 20 - 40 MeV arise for two reasons.  First, the transmitted neutron fluence for the 100-cm-thick shield was on the same order of magnitude as the background neutron fluence, and so subtracting the background spectrum increases the uncertainty in the transmission spectrum.  Second, the response matrix used for unfolding was constructed based on measured response data, and since these data did not cover the entire range of interest, data were interpolated and extrapolated where necessary.
  
The neutron source for this benchmark was the measured neutron source spectrum given in Reference 1. All neutron transmission calculations were performed by emitting the measured neutron source spectrum in a cone of 3.14E-3 steradians. The measured neutron spectrum is given in Table 6 and Figure 4.
  
The neutron source spectrum was also calculated using MCNPX with 75-MeV protons incident on a copper target. The calculated neutron source was calculated by performing a tally over all neutrons emitted from the target in an angle of 3.5deg. The calculated neutron spectrum is given in Table 7 and Figure 5.  The MCNPX model used to calculate the neutron source spectrum is given in Appendix A.
The concrete shields were placed 385 cm from the neutron source.  These concrete shields were modeled as slabs 40 cm by 40 cm in cross section and 20, 50, and 100 cm thick.  The shield assemblies were broken into subsections to facilitate importance weighting.
The transmitted neutron spectrum was tallied using the F4 tally over a cell of the same size as the scintillator that was used in the experiment. The MCNPX model used to calculate the transmitted neutron spectra is given in Appendix B.
The composition of the shield assemblies used in the calculations were the same as the measured shield compositions, with exception of those trace elements that are not contained within the LA150 cross section set. The composition of the shield assemblies is given in Table 8. For both the calculation of the neutron source and the neutron transmission calculations the default physics options were used[4]. The 150-MeV cross section set, LA-150, created for the Accelerator Production of Tritium Project was used for these calculations[5]. The LAHET/MCNP cross over value was set to 150-MeV so that tabular neutron cross section data was used over the whole range of neutron energies.
Importance regions in the shield assemblies were used to force neutrons towards the detector. The importances were varied to maintain the neutron population constant in all regions in the shield assembly.
The results of the calculations of neutrons transmitted through the concrete shields are listed in Table 9 and Figure 6.

NEA-1552/34
SINBAD-52P
==========
Measurement System and Uncertainties:
------------------------------------
The transmitted neutron and photon spectra were measured in the forward direction along the proton beam axis with a 51-mm-diam and 51-mm-long NE-213 scintillation detector placed in contact with the rear face of the slabs. Exception were three measurements of graphite, performed in 1979, where the detector was placed on the extended axis at 3.45 m from the front target surface (not reported here). The number of protons incident on the target was monitored by a current integrator connected to the target.
  
Angle-dependent source neutron from the graphite target were measured with the NE-213 system at 0, 15, 30, 45 and 75 degrees, and the photon spectra at 0 degrees. Only neutrons with energies higher than about 2 MeV were measured. An estimation of low energy neutrons may be needed for gamma calculations to take into account neutron induced gamma rays.  The following are experimental uncertainties derived from [7].
  
   Item                              Uncertainty
    
Detector Placement                  < 1-cm
Material Thickness Error            < 1%
Material Density Error              < 1%
Source Measurement Error            like 21.4 cm Graphite
Neutron Penetration Spectra         As Shown with Figures of Data Results
Gamma-ray Penetration Spectra       As Shown
Background Contributions at 3 m     Neutron (3-10%) Gammas (40-70%)
  
Description of Results and Analysis:
-----------------------------------
The neutrons and photons produced at the target were transmitted through slabs of graphite (21.4, 42.8 and 64.5 cm thick), iron (19.3, 38.6 and 57.9 cm), water (60 and 101 cm), and ordinary concrete (46, 69 and 115 cm).
  
The pulse height distributions were converted to neutron and photon energy spectra by using the revised FERDO unfolding code [3] and the calculated response matrix.
  
In the experimental geometries with the detector in contact with the shield, the background was considered to be negligible. In the case of 1979 graphite experiments (data are not included here) background room scattering was estimated with the detector at 3 m from the graphite assembly and a shadow bar between the assembly and the detector. Background radiation contributed between 3 and 10 % to the observed transmitted neutrons and between 40 and 70% to the transmitted photons.
  
NE-213 spectral data are reported in tables lacking statistical errors. Data plots contained 1-sigma error bars and computational comparisons using ANISN and MMCR-U transport codes.  Data for Neutron transmission are tabulated from 2.5 MeV and continue in 1 MeV steps to 35.5 MeV.  Photon flux was measured from 0.25 MeV and are tabulated in steps of 0.25 MeV through 10 MeV.
  
Calculations were performed by MORSE, ANISN, MCNP-4A, and MMCR-U codes using DLC58/HELLO, DLC119/HILO86, DLC87/HILO and ENDF/B-VI high energy cross-section libraries ([2], [4], [5]).

NEA-1552/35
SINBAD-HIMAC
============
Measurement System:
------------------
Neutron detectors are located at laboratory angles of 0, 7.5, 15, 30, 60 and 90 deg. The measurements were performed simultaneously at 3 detectors each time.
Each neutron detector consists of a NE-213 liquid scintillator 12.7 cm in diameter and 12.7 cm thick, covered first with glass 1 mm thick and externally with aluminum 1.6 mm thick. These are the E counters.
Other detectors, plastic scintillators NE102A, are 15x15 cm2 plates 0.5 cm thick. These are the delta-E counters to discriminate charged particles.  
The detectors efficiency has been calculated by using the M.C. code by Cecil et al. (Ref. 5).
Background neutrons were measured by interposing iron bars 15x15 cm2 square and 60 cm long.
  
  
Description of Results and Analysis:
-----------------------------------
The numerical results of the experiments are given in terms of neutrons produced per angle unit(sr), per energy unit(MeV) and per incident particle.
  
They are presented as follows:
  
in Tables 2 to 7 for He ions with 100 MeV/nucleon
in Tables 8 to 13 for He ions with 180 MeV/nucleon
in Tables 14 to 19 for C ions with 100 MeV/nucleon
in Tables 20 to 25 for C ions with 180 MeV/nucleon
in Tables 26 to 31 for C ions with 400 MeV/nucleon.
in Tables 32 to 37 for Ne ions with 100 MeV/nucleon
in Tables 38 to 43 for Ne ions with 180 MeV/nucleon
in Tables 44 to 49 for Ne ions with 400 MeV/nucleon.
in Tables 50 to 55 for Ar ions with 400 MeV/nucleon
in Tables 56 to 61 for Fe ions with 400 MeV/nucleon
in Tables 62 to 67 for Xe ions with 400 MeV/nucleon
in Tables 68 to 73 for Si ions with 800 MeV/nucleon
  
The statistical uncertainties vary from 2 to 5% at low and mid-energy but increases until 30% for the energy threshold. The room scattered background is less than 10%. The total normalization uncertainty is less than 14%.
  
The transport calculations using MCNPX code were done by P. Ortego and are described in Ref. [8]. Some results are provided in file HIMAC_PO.xls. The two models for HIMAC experiments with alpha particles on C, Al, Cu and Pb are given in files mcnpxhim.015 and mcnpxhim.390. Two models are necessary because of the target is turned 45 deg. for some detectors, so HIM015 is the case for detectors 0 to 15 deg. (no turn of target) and HIM390 is the case for detectors 30 to 90 deg. (target turned 45 deg.).
  
The different atom densities for other target materials are given in comment lines. The same is done for the alpha particle energy. Default values for high energy models are used.

NEA-1552/36
SINBAD-HIMAC800-CONC
====================
Measurement System and Uncertainties:
-------------------------------------
The Self-TOF detector consists of radiator detectors, a start counter and a stop counter of nine segments. The schematic drawing of the detector is given. The radiator is a stack of 20 thin plastic scintillators (NE102A) of 10 cm x 10 cm with 0.6 cm thickness. Each plastic scintillator is viewed by a 0.95 cm-diameter photo-multiplier (Hamamatsu R1635) through a light guide. The start counter is a plastic scintillator (NE102A) of 10cm x 10cm x 0.5cm viewed by two 5.08 cm-diameter photo-multiplier (Hamamatsu R2083) from both sides through each light guide. The stop counter is designed to cover an area of 60 cm x 60 cm and is segmented into nine plastic scintillators (NE102A) of 20 cm x 20 cm x 2 cm each of which is viewed by a 12.7 cm-diameter photo-multiplier (Hamamatsu R1259) through a light guide. The distance between the start and stop counters is adjustable, and is chosen to be 1.2 m for a usual measurement.
  
An in-coming neutron produces charged particles in twenty radiators, and then the charged particles emitted in the forward direction reach any one of nine stop counters through the start counter. The energy of the charged particle is determined by using the TOF method between the start and stop counters. In this detector, only proton events H(n,p) and C(n,p) reactions have been selected to obtain the detector response function. The neutron energy spectrum can be obtained from the measured proton energy spectrum using an unfolding method with the response functions which have already been measured for neutrons in the energy range of 60 to 800 MeV [2]. Although the Self-TOF detector can measure neutron above 30 MeV in principle, the detection efficiency is very low for neutrons below 130 MeV because low energy charged particles produced in a radiator stop in the following radiators and never reach the start and stop counters.
  
The NE213 scintillator (12.7 cm diam. by 12.7 cm thick) was coupled with the R4144 photo-multiplier connected to E1458 base (Hamamatsu Photonics Co. Ltd.), which is designed to expand the dynamic range of output pulses for high-energy neutron measurements [3]. The thin NE102A plastic scintillator (15 cm by 15 cm square and 0.5 cm thick), coupled with the H1949 photo-multiplier and base (Hamamatsu Photonics. Co. Ltd.), were placed in front of the NE213 scintillator as  veto counter to discriminate charged particles from non-charged particles, neutrons and photons. The response matrix have already been measured in the energy range up to 800 MeV experimentally at the HIMAC [4].
  
The Bismuth detector, 8 cm-diam. x 1.1 cm-thickness, was used through the 209Bi(n,4n)206Bi to 209Bi(n,10n)200Bi reactions. The cross section data have already been measured by Kim et al.[5] in the energy range of 20 to 150 MeV and the measured data are in good agreement with ENDF/V-VI high-energy library data [6] calculated by Fukahori [7]. Their threshold energies monotonously increase from 22 MeV of 209Bi(n,4n) to 70 MeV of 209Bi(n,10n) with the interval of 8 MeV corresponding to binding energy per nucleon. The half lives of Bi-200 to Bi-206 are between 36.4 min. and 15.31 days. The physical properties of 209Bi(n,xn) reaction are shown.
  
The 12C(n,2n)11C reaction has the threshold energy of about 20 MeV and the reaction cross section has recently been measured up to 150 MeV also by Kim and al.[5] and [8], which has almost constant value of about 20 mb above 20 MeV. The half life of C-11 is about 20 min., which is shortly-activated good neutrons flux monitor of energy above 20 MeV. The detector size is 8 cm-diam. x 1 cm-thickness.
  
Description of Results and Analysis:
------------------------------------
The neutron energy spectra measured by the Self-TOF detector are shown compared with the results of the LAHET 2.7 Monte Carlo code calculation [9]. The source neutron spectrum measured at 0 degree on the beam axis by Kurosawa et al. [10] is also shown. The spectra have a broad peak around 200 to 300 MeV and the shapes of the spectra do not change so much with the concrete thickness. The softening of the neutron spectra can scarcely be observed with the increasing of the shielding thickness. For the calculated spectra, the LAHET results tend to overestimate with increasing the thickness, especially for neutrons above 300 MeV. At 200 cm thickness, the discrepancy between measurements and calculation is growing up to factor 7 in the energy range of 300 MeV to 400 MeV.
  
The neutron energy spectra measured by NE213 for both detector positions (A) and (B) are shown. They are compared with the results of MCNPX calculation [11] combined with the LA150 cross section library [12], and also with the source neutron spectrum [10]. MCNPX results underestimate the measurements in the energy range below 100 MeV and above 400 MeV, and overestimate that in the in the energy range between 150 and 400 MeV. With increasing the concrete thickness, the calculated spectra show a good agreement with the experimental results up to 150 cm, but large underestimation can be seen at 200 cm thickness in the energy range below 100 MeV.
  
Since the measured position (B) of the NE213 detector is almost the same position where the Self-TOF was set, the neutron energy spectra measured by these two detectors are compared. The NE213 spectra cannot reproduce the peak due to the large errors and are also much higher in the energy region below about 100 MeV  than the Self-TOF spectra, because the non-collimated NE213 detector detects a lot of neutron components scattered from the shield and the room floor.
  
Concerning Activation detectors, neutron energy spectra are shown. The calculated results with the MCNPX are also shown on the  same figure. The measured spectra give large overestimation of 300% at 50 cm depth of 250 cm shielding thickness compared with the MCNPX results. This large discrepancy becomes smaller with the shield thickness and at 250 cm depth the MCNPX calculation gives very good agreement with the experimental results.
  
In order to obtain the neutron fluence attenuation length, the contribution of the room scattered neutrons must be subtracted from the NE213 results. This components were estimated by MCNPX calculations, Figure 7 shows the calculated energy spectra in the two cases (with and without room floor) at two concrete thicknesses of 100 cm and 200 cm. The attenuation of neutron fluence could be obtained by integrating the neutron flux over the energy range. Figure 8 shows the attenuation profiles of neutron fluence integrated from 100 to 600 MeV for Self-TOF and LAHET results, from 20 to 800 MeV for NE213 and Bi and C activation detectors and MCNPX results. The calculated neutron fluence are in good agreement with the experiment for the Self-TOF and NE213(A) but the experimental results become smaller than the calculated results with increasing the shielding thickness. For the attenuation length, calculated results indicate a little larger values than the measured ones up to 27% for all measurements.

NEA-1552/37
SINBAD-HIMAC800-FE
==================
Measurement System and Uncertainties:
-------------------------------------
The Self-TOF detector consists of radiator detectors, a start counter and a stop counter of nine segments. The radiator is a stack of 20 thin plastic scintillator (NE102A) of 10 cm x 10 cm with 0.6 cm thickness. Each plastic scintillator is viewed by a 0.95 cm-diameter photo-multiplier (Hamamatsu R1635) through a light guide. The start counter is a plastic scintillator (NE102A) of 10 cm x 10 cm x 0.5 cm viewed by two 5.08 cm-diameter photo-multipliers (Hamamatsu R2083) from both sides through light guides. The stop counter is designed to cover an area 20 cm x 20 cm x 2 cm each of which is viewed by a 12.7 cm-diameter photo-multiplier (Hamamatsu R1259) through a light guide. The distance between the start and stop counters is adjustable, and is chosen to be 1.2 m for a usual measurement.
  
An in-coming neutron produces charged particles in twenty radiators, and then the charged particles emitted in the forward direction reach any one of nine stop counters through the start counter. The energy of the charged particle is determined by using the TOF method between the start and stop counters. In this detector, we selected only proton events H(n,p) and C(n,p) reactions to obtain the detector response function. The neutron energy spectrum can be obtained from the measured proton energy spectrum using an unfolding method with the response function which has already been measured for neutrons in the energy range of 60 to 800 MeV [2]. Although the Self-TOF detector can measure neutron above 30 MeV in principle, the detection efficiency is very low for neutrons below 100 MeV because low energy charged particles produced in a radiator stop in the following radiators and never reached the start and stop counters.
  
The NE213 scintillator (12.7 cm diam. by 12.7 cm thick) was coupled with the R4144 photo-multiplier connected to E1458 base (Hamamatsu Photonics. Co. Ltd.), which is designed to expand the dynamic range of output pulses for high-energy neutron measurements [3]. The thin NE102A plastic scintillator (15 cm by 15 cm square and 0.5 cm thick), coupled with the H1949 photo-multiplier and base (Hamamatsu Photonics. Co. Ltd.), were placed in front of the NE213 scintillator as  veto counter to discriminate charged particles from non-charged particles, neutrons and photons. The response matrix has already been measured in the energy range up to 800 MeV experimentally at the HIMAC [4].   
  
Description of Results and Analysis:
------------------------------------
The neutron energy spectra measured by the Self-TOF detector are shown. The source neutron spectrum measured at 0 degree on the beam axis by Kurisawa et al. [5] and the calculated results with the MCNPX 2.1.5 Monte-Carlo code [6] combined with the LA150 cross-section library [7] are also shown in figure 3. The spectra have a broad peak around 200 to 300 MeV with the iron thickness up to 80 cm. The softening of the neutron spectra can scarcely be observed with the increasing of the shielding thickness. For the calculated spectra the broad peak and the softening of the spectra are also observed but those are harder than the measured results for all cases.
  
For the NE213 detector, neutron energy spectra measured for both detector positions (A) and (B) are shown. The measured and the calculated with the MCNPX 2.1.5 code, energy spectra are reported for both detector positions. At position (A) in contact with the rear surface of the shield, calculations overestimate the measurements with increasing the iron thickness in the energy range below 100 MeV. The calculations are fairly in good agreement with the measurements in the energy range between 100 and 400 MeV, especially in good agreement in the whole energy range of 20 to 800 MeV for 20 and 40 cm thick iron shields. At the position (B) continuous neutron energy spectra could be obtained, however, large error bars can be seen at 40 cm and 60 cm thicknesses in the energy range between 20 to 150 MeV.
  
Since the measured position (B) of the NE213 detector is almost the same position where the Self-TOF was set, the neutron energy spectra measured by these two detectors are compared. The NE213 spectra cannot reproduce the peak due to the large errors and are also much higher in the energy region below 200 MeV for 100 thick iron than the Self-TOF spectra, because the non-collimated NE213 detector detects a lot of neutron components scattered from the shield and the room floor.
  
In order to obtain the neutron fluence attenuation length, the contribution of the room scattered neutrons must be subtracted from the NE213 results. This components were estimated by MCNPX calculations, Figure 7 shows the calculated energy spectra in both cases (with and without room floor) at two iron thicknesses of 20 cm and 100 cm. The attenuation of neutron fluence could be obtained by integrating the neutron flux over the energy range. The attenuation profiles of neutron fluence integrated from 100 to 600 MeV for Self-TOF and MCNPX results, from 20 to 800 MeV for NE213 and MCNPX results are shown. The neutron fluence attenuation lengths of two different energy ranges are summarized.
  
The calculated neutron fluence are in good agreement with the experiment for the Self-TOF and NE213(A) but largely overestimated in the calculation for the NE231 (B) results. For the attenuation length there is a very good agreement within 5% between experiment and calculation.

NEA-1552/38
SINBAD-ISIS800
==============
Measurement System and Uncertainties:
------------------------------------
Two types of graphite activation detectors were used: one was a disk type of 8-cm diameter x 3-cm thickness; the other was the Marinelli type, for measuring the spatial neutron flux distribution on the shield top without an additional shield and behind additional concrete and iron shields of various thicknesses. This detector uses the 12C(n, 2n)11C reaction : the half life of 11C is about 20 min., which makes a good rapidly activated neutron flux monitor for an energy above 20 MeV.
  
Bismuth detectors (8-cm diameter x 1.1-cm thickness), were used to obtain the high-energy neutron spectrum by using 209Bi(n, xn)210-xBi (x=4~12) reactions. Their threshold energies regularly increase from 22 MeV of 209Bi(n, 4n) to 70 MeV of 209Bi(n, 10n) with an interval of 8 MeV corresponding to the binding energy per nucleon. The half lives of 200Bi to 206Bi are between 36.4 min. and 15.31 days.
  
The aluminum detector was of the Marinelli type with the same size as the graphite detector. The threshold energy of the 27Al(n, a)24Na reaction is 3.25 MeV and the half life of 24Na is 15.02 hr. The cross-section data are from the ENDF/B-VI high-energy library [2] calculated by Fukahori using the ALICE code [3].
  
As for the Indium-oxide loaded multi-moderator activation detector, In2O3 powder (2.875 g) was filled in a spherical cavity of 0.735-cm radius in a cylindrical acryl, and it was placed in a spherical polyethylene moderator (Bonner sphere) [4]. Five kinds of detectors were used, which used four kinds of moderators and no moderator(bare). Using the reaction rates of the detectors, the neutron energy spectrum can be available through an unfolding technique.
  
A neutron dose meter (Rem Ion Monitor, Harwell, U.K.) and a gamma-ray dose meter (RO2, Eberline, Inc., U.S.A) were used in a current mode for measuring the neutron and gamma-ray dose-equivalent rates, respectively. This REM-counter was a conventional BF3 ion-chamber covered with a polyethylene moderator of cylindrical shape, which had low sensitivity to neutrons of energies higher than 20 MeV.
    
The errors of the results (reaction rates) of the experiment can be estimated by the equation :

            delta(R) = squareroot(delta(Qh)2 + delta(c)2 + delta(p)2)

- delta(Qh) is the error of the beam current which was estimated to be about 1 %,
- delta(c) is the statistical error of the photo peak area,
- delta(p) is the error of the peak efficiency of HPGe detector estimated by the EGS4 Monte Carlo code, which is within a few %.

delta(R) is then dominated by delta(c), which varies from 2 to 50% depending on the total peak counts.
  
Description of Results and Analysis:
-----------------------------------
The neutron energy spectra were obtained on the floor without an additional shield, behind a 60-cm-thick additional concrete shield and a 30-cm-thick additional iron shield.
  
The obtained neutron spectrum on the shield top floor has two components: a hadron cascade peak of around 100 MeV in the energy range above 10 MeV and a broad peak including evaporation and slowing down neutrons around 500 keV below 10 MeV. The neutron spectrum through an additional 60-cm-thick concrete shield placed on the shield top shows an evaporation peak around 1 MeV and a rather flattened lethargy spectrum down to thermal energy, especially in the low-energy component below 100 keV. This reflects the slowing-down effect due to the elastic collisions of light elements, like hydrogen in the concrete. This spectrum has a typical 1/E slowing-down spectrum after the concrete.
  
The neutron spectrum through a 30-cm thick iron shield also has a typical spectrum after the iron, where high-energy neutron components above a few MeV are slowed down to less than 1 MeV by inelastic collisions with iron; also, a broad peak over the region from 10 eV to 500 keV is remarkable due to the low inelastic cross section of iron in this energy region and the increasing neutron capture cross section below 10 keV.
  
The neutron attenuation length for concrete at 90 degrees to the 800-MeV proton beam axis obtained in this study is compared with other experimental and calculated results: the present value of 125.4 g/cm2 is just between the values of 120 g/cm2 for 25-GeV proton by Stevenson et al. [5] and 143 g/cm2 for 12-GeV proton by Ban et al. [6] For the attenuation length of iron, the present value of 161.1 g/cm2 is slightly larger than that of 148 g/cm2 obtained by Jeffrey et al.using a 800-MeV proton accelerator at Los Alamos National Laboratory [7]. Stevenson and Ban have also given values of 147(+/-)10 g/cm2 for 25-GeV protons and 188(+/-)12 g/cm2 for 12-GeV protons, respectively : the present value is just between them.

NEA-1552/39
SINBAD-MSU/155 HE-C
===================
Measurement System:
------------------
Neutron detectors in groups of 1, 3 or 7 detectors per position are located outside the scattering chamber at laboratory angles of 10, 30, 45, 60, 90, 125 and 160 deg. at the left side of the incident beam and at angles of -30, -45 and -60 deg. at the right side of the incident beam. The origin of the angle is taken at the extension of the incident beam (passed the target) and the positive angle as counterclock.
Absolute position, flight path and solid angle for each individual detector are presented.
The 3 detectors at angle 90 deg. are grouped in a triangle with 2 in the base and 1 at the top. The bundles of detectors at 10, 30, 45 and 60 deg. are formed by 7 detectors, one in the center and other 6 detectors surrounding the central ones at angular pitch of 60 deg. The detectors at angles 125, 160, -30, -45 and -60 deg. are individual detectors.
The dimensions of the detectors are 12.7 cm in diameter and the most 7.62 cm thick but there are also 5.08 cm thick detectors. There is one 5.08 cm thick detector in each bundle of 3 or 7, except at angle 30 deg. Where there are two of them. The individual detectors are all 7.62 cm thick.
Each individual neutron detector consists of a liquid scintillator (BC-501 or NE-213) encased in a cylindrical cell constructed of either glass or aluminum.
Other plastic scintillator detectors were placed between the target and the neutron detectors to detect any charged particle reaching the main neutron detectors. They are referred as veto detectors. They are 12.7 cm in diameter and 6.35 mm thick.
The detectors efficiency has been calculated by using the M.C. code by Cecil, Anderson and Madey (Ref. 2).
Background neutrons were measured by interposing cylindrical iron or brass bars.
  
Description of Results and Analysis:
-----------------------------------
The numerical results of the experiment are presented. They are expressed as double differential values in neutrons per angle unit(msr), per energy(MeV) and per incident ion.
  
Table 4 presents the results for He ions at angles 10 to 60 deg.
Table 5 presents the results for He ions at angles 90 to 160 deg.
Table 6 presents the results for C ions at angles 10 to 60 deg.
Table 7 presents the results for C ions at angles 90 to 160 deg.
  
The previous results have been integrated with the angle for obtaining the total yields for both ions. Also the calculated interaction fraction and number of neutrons per interaction are presented.
The uncertainty due to the procedure used to discriminate neutrons coming from  different bursts is estimated in 10 to 15%. Other systematic uncertainty due to the detector efficiency calculation is estimated in 10%. The total systematic uncertainty is estimated in 20 to 25%. The statistical uncertainty was of the order of 5% for the spectra at 30 deg.
  
The MCNPX model for MSU experiment used by P. Ortego is given in mcnpxmsu3.i, and the corresponding results are included in the EXCEL file MSU_MCNPX.xls. The results seem acceptable for this type of experiments with very good estimation for the evaporation part at 90 deg. and more uncertain results in the small angle detectors.
top ]
7. UNUSUAL FEATURES
NEA-1552/34
SINBAD-52P
===================
Quality assessment:
-------------------
The experimental results are of high interest for the benchmarking of codes both on the area of secondary neutron production and in the area of neutron transmission through different materials used for shielding. Nevertheless and due to the lack of experimental uncertainty and to the normalization of some of the experimental results to calculated values, it has been finally determined the inadequacy of these experiments as they are documented at this moment for the benchmarking of calculation models and numerical codes.

It has been concluded that the experimental information should be recovered and a reasonable estimate of experimental uncertainty should be obtained before these experiments could be used for benchmarking processes. Given the results obtained in the sensitivity analyses presented in Chapter 6, main attention should be paid to the energy of the proton beam and to the density and hydrogen content of the concrete blocks, on the side on the physical characteristics of the experiment.

With such an effort at least the measurements for iron 38.6cm and all those with water and concrete could be qualified for benchmarking purposes.

For detailed evaluation see [9].

NEA-1552/35
SINBAD-HIMAC
============
Quality assessment:
------------------
These experiments were found to be adequate for the benchmarking of calculation models and numerical codes. Only the measurements with Ne ions of 400MeV/u on Al and Pb targets should be revised before this use.

For detailed evaluation see [9].

NEA-1552/36
SINBAD-HIMAC800-CONC
====================
Quality assessment:
-------------------
These experiments were found to be inadequate for the benchmarking of calculation models and numerical codes due to the lack of experimental uncertainty in the characteristics of the components of the measurements (beam energy, concrete density and composition) and mainly due to the large magnitude of the total measurement uncertainties for the sTOF and NE213 results.

Concerning the Bi&C activation results they are much larger that the other measured values and their uncertainty is missing, therefore they cannot be used for comparison.

It has been concluded that the uncertainty in the unfolding process for the measurements with Ne213 and sTOF detectors should be drastically reduced to make the measured values meaningful.

Additionally the experimental uncertainty for each of the components of the measurement process (beam energy, target thickness and density, shielding block thickness, composition and density and efficiency of detectors) should be obtained, they should be combined and a global uncertainty should be estimated.

For detailed evaluation see [13].

NEA-1552/37
SINBAD-HIMAC800-FE
==================
Quality assessment:
-------------------
These experiments were found to be inadequate for the benchmarking of calculation models and numerical codes due to the large magnitude of measurement uncertainties and by the lack of uncertainty in the main experimental parameters.

It has been concluded that the experimental information should be recovered, and a reduced experimental uncertainty should be obtained in the unfolding process of the measurements, before these experiments could be used for benchmarking purposes.

Additionally an estimate of experimental parameter uncertainties should be obtained. Specifically information is required on the uncertainty of the following magnitudes:

- Beam energy
- Absolute number of protons received in target
- Target thickness and density
- Shield block thickness
- Efficiency of detectors
- Dead time correction
- Distinction between neutrons and photons

For detailed evaluation see [8].

NEA-1552/38
SINBAD-ISIS800
==============
Quality assessment:
-------------------
In order to determine the adequacy of these experiments, they have been modelled with the Monte Carlo code MCNPX version 2.6.0 and the calculated results have been compared with the experimental measurements.

A sensitivity analysis has also been performed on the main variables impacting the results. These include beam energy, density of previous steel layers, density of previous concrete layers, density of additional shield layers and the gaps existing between concrete layers and the igloo walls.

Some of the magnitudes of the experiment have not an estimation of their uncertainty. Their impact on the absolute reaction rates can be very important but since the sensitivity of the final result, i.e. the attenuation length, to these magnitudes is small they have not a significant impact on the final results.

Finally and considering the attenuation length as the final results, it has been determined the adequacy of these experiments for the benchmarking of calculation models and numerical codes.

For detailed evaluation see [20].

NEA-1552/39
SINBAD-MSU/155 HE-C
===================
Quality assessment:
-------------------
In order to determine the adequacy of these experiments, they have been modelled with the Monte Carlo code MCNPX version 2.6.0 and the calculated results have been compared with the experimental measurements. Both a detailed and a simplified model have been created and their results have been compared. The simplification is limited to the code version and to the solid angle between the target and the detectors entrance.

A sensitivity analysis has also been performed on the main variables impacting the results. These include the target length and density, the beam energy and the beam spot position. A maximum value of the global uncertainty has been estimated.

Finally it has been determined the adequacy of these experiments for the benchmarking of calculation models and numerical codes.

For detailed evaluation see [3].
top ]
9. STATUS
Package ID Status date Status
NEA-1552/01 02-JUN-1996 Tested at NEADB
NEA-1552/03 07-DEC-2000 Tested at NEADB
NEA-1552/08 13-SEP-2000 Tested at NEADB
NEA-1552/10 07-OCT-2002 Tested at NEADB
NEA-1552/12 15-JAN-2004 Tested restricted
NEA-1552/14 27-MAY-2003 Tested restricted
NEA-1552/15 21-DEC-2004 Tested at NEADB
NEA-1552/16 10-DEC-2008 Report Only
NEA-1552/19 26-JUL-2005 Tested at NEADB
NEA-1552/23 15-SEP-2006 Tested restricted
NEA-1552/24 15-SEP-2006 Tested at NEADB
NEA-1552/26 02-DEC-2008 Tested at NEADB
NEA-1552/27 01-DEC-2008 Tested at NEADB
NEA-1552/28 01-DEC-2008 Tested at NEADB
NEA-1552/30 04-DEC-2008 Tested at NEADB
NEA-1552/31 04-DEC-2008 Tested at NEADB
NEA-1552/32 02-DEC-2008 Report Only
NEA-1552/33 11-FEB-2009 Arrived at NEADB
NEA-1552/34 01-MAR-2012 Masterfiled Arrived
NEA-1552/35 14-MAR-2012 Masterfiled Arrived
NEA-1552/36 01-MAR-2012 Masterfiled Arrived
NEA-1552/37 01-MAR-2012 Masterfiled Arrived
NEA-1552/38 01-MAR-2012 Masterfiled Arrived
NEA-1552/39 01-MAR-2012 Masterfiled restricted
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10. REFERENCES
NEA-1552/03, bibliography:
SINBAD-TIARA
============
Background references:
[8] K. Shin, Y. Uwamino and T. Hyodo : 'Propagation of Errors from Response Functions to Unfolded Spectrum', Nucl. Technol., 53, 78 (1981).
[9] N. Nakao, T. Nakamura, M. Baba, Y. Uwamino, N. Nakanishi, H. Nakashima and Sh. Tanaka : 'Measurements of Response Function of Organic Liquid Scintillator for Neutron Energy Range up to 135 MeV', Nucl. Instrum. Methods, A362, 454 (1995).
[10] W. N. McElroy, S. Berg, T. Crokett and R. G. Hawkins : 'A Computer Automated Iterative Methods for Neutron Flux Spectra Determination by Foil Activation', AFWL-TR-67-41, Air Force Weapons Laboratory, Kirtland Air Force Base, vol. 1-4 (1967).
[11] Y. Uwamino, T. Nakamura and A. Hara: 'Two Type of Multi-Moderator Neutron Spectrometers: Gamma-Ray Insensitive Type and High-Efficiency Type', Nucl. Instrum. Methods in Phys. Res., A239, 299 (1985).
[12] K. Shibata et al.: 'Japanese Evaluated Nuclear Data Library, Version-3 -JENDL-3-', JAERI 1319(1990).
[13] P. W. Lisowski et al.: 'Fission Cross Sections in the Intermediate Energy Region', Proc. Spec. Meet. on Neutron Cross Section Standards for the Energy Region above 20 MeV, Uppsala, Sweden, 21-23 May, 1991, p.177-186 (1991).
NEA-1552/03, included references:
[1] Y. Nakane, K. Hayashi, Y. Sakamoto, N. Yoshizawa, N. Nakao, S. Ban, H.
Hirayama, Y. Uwamino, K. Shin and T. Nakamura: Neutron Transmission Benchmark
Problems for Iron and Concrete Shields in Low, Intermediate and High Energy
Proton Accelerator Facilities, JAERI-Data/Code 96-029,  (1996).
[2] H. Nakashima, N. Nakao, Sh. Tanaka, T. Nakamura, K. Shin, Su. Tanaka, S.
Meigo, Y. Nakane, H. Takada, Y. Sakamoto and M. Baba : Experiments on Iron
Shield Transmission of Quasi-monoenergetic Neutrons Generated by 43- and 68-MeV
Protons via the 7Li(p,n) Reaction, JAERI-Data/Code 96-005,  (1996).
[3] N. Nakao, H. Nakashima, Y. Sakamoto, Y. Nakane, Sh. Tanaka, Su. Tanaka, T.
Nakamura, K. Shin and M. Baba: Experimental Data on Concrete Shield
Transmission of Quasi-monoenergetic Neutrons Generated by 43- and 68-MeV
Protons via the 7Li(p,n) Reaction, JAERI-Data/Code 97-020 (1997).
[4] N. Nakao, H. Nakashima, M. Nakao, Y. Sakamoto, Y. Nakane, Su. Tanaka, Sh.
Tanaka and T. Nakamura: Experimental Data on Polyethylene Shield Transmission
of Quasi-monoenergetic Neutrons Generated by 43- and 68-MeV Protons via the
7Li(p,n) Reaction, JAERI-Data/Code 98-013 (1998).
[5] H. Nakashima, N. Nakao, Sh. Tanaka, T. Nakamura, K. Shin, Su. Tanaka, H.
Takada, S. Meigo, Y. Nakane, Y. Sakamoto and M. Baba : Transmission through
Shields of Quasi-Monoenergetic Neutrons Generated by 43- and 68-MeV Protons.
Part-II: Iron Shielding Experiment and Analysis for Investigating Calculation
Methods and Cross Section Data, Nucl. Sci. Eng. 124, No. 2 (October 1996) 243.
[6] N. Nakao, H. Nakashima, T. Nakamura, Sh. Tanaka, Su. Tanaka, K. Shin, M.
Baba, Y. Sakamoto and Y. Nakane : Transmission through Shields of
Quasi-Monoenergetic Neutrons Generated by 43- and 68-MeV Protons. Part-I:
Concrete Shielding Experiment and Calculation for Practical Application, Nucl.
Sci. Eng. 124, No. 2 (October 1996) 228.
[7] N. Nakao, M. Nakao, H. Nakashima, Su. Tanaka, Y. Sakamoto, Y. Nakane, Sh.
Tanaka and T. Nakamura: Measurements and Calculations of Neutron Energy Spectra
Behind Polyethylene Shields Bombarded by 40- and 65-MeV Quasi-Monoenergetic
Neutron Sources, J. Nucl. Sci. Technol., 34(4) (1997) pp348-359.
[14] C. Konno, F. Maekawa, M. Wada, H. Nakashima, K. Kosako: DORT Analysis of
Iron and Concrete Shielding Experiments at JAERI/TIARA, JAERI-Conf 99-002,
p.164-169 (1999).
[15] N. E. Hertel, T. M. Evans: Benchmarking the LAHET Elastic Scattering Model
for APT Design Applications, ERDA Final Report, Prepared for the Westinghouse
Savannah River Company under ERDA Task Order 96-081, JEFDOC-715 (1997).
[16] A.J. Koning: MCNPX analysis of 68 MeV neutron transmission on iron,
JEFDOC-769 (1998).
[17] Ch. Konno et al.: Analyses of the TIARA experiments using the LA-150
cross-section data library, JEFDOC-808 (1999).
[18] A. Koning: Processing and validation of intermediate energy evaluated data
files, JEFDOC-838 (May 2000).

NEA-1552/08, bibliography:
SINBAD-65P
==========
Background references:
[1] Shin K., Ishii Y., Miyahara K., Uwamino Y., Sakai H. and Numata S.: Transmission of Intermediate-Energy Neutrons and Associated Gamma Rays Through Iron, Lead, Graphite, and Concrete Shields, Nucl. Sci. Eng., 109, 380-390 (1991).
[2] K. Shin et al., Nucl. Technol., 53, 78 (1981).
[3] K. Hayashi, et al.: Accelerator Shielding Benchmark Analysis and Future Items to be Solved, SATIF Proceedings of the Specialists Meeting, Arlington, USA, 28-29 April 1994, OECD 1995
[4] H. Nakashima, et al.: Accelerator Shielding Benchmark Experiment Analyses, SATIF-2 Proceedings of the Specialists' Meeting, CERN, Geneva, Switzerland, 12-13 Oct. 1995, OECD 1996
NEA-1552/08, included references:
[5] H. Nakashima et al.:
Benchmark Problems for Intermediate and High Energy Accelerator Shielding
JAERI-Data/Code 94-012 (September 1994)

NEA-1552/10, bibliography:
SINBAD-ROESTI
=============
Background references:
[6] R.G. Alsmiller, Jr., F.S. Alsmiller and O.W. Hermann: The high-energy transport code HETC88 and comparisons with experimental data, Nucl. Instr. Meth. A295, 337-343 (1990)
NEA-1552/10, included references:
[1] J.S. Russ et al.:
Low-Energy Neutron Measurements in an Iron Calorimeter Structure Irradiated
by 200 GeV/c Hadrons (CERN/TIS-RP/89-02) (1989) (*)
[2] A. Fasso et al.:
Measurements of Low-Energy Neutrons in an Iron Calorimeter Structure Irradiated
by 24 GeV/c Protons (CERN/TIS-RP/90-19) (1990) (*)
[3] G.R. Stevenson et al.:
Measurements of Low-Energy Neutrons in a Lead Calorimeter Structure
Irradiated by 200 GeV/c Hadrons (CERN-TIS/RP/91-11) (1991) (*)
[4] A. Fasso et al.:
FLUKA Simulations of the Rosti Experiments
CERN/TIS-RP/IR/92-44 (11 December 1992)
[5] A. Fasso:
A Comparison of FLUKA Simulations with Measurements of Fluence and Dose
in Calorimeter Structures
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 332(1993) 459-468 (1993)
(*) Note that the 32S(n,p)32P activities and the dosimetric data reported in
the original reports were corrected later due to new calibrations.
NEA-1552/12, included references:
[1] L. Heilbronn et al.
"Neutron yields from 435 MeV/nucleon Nb stopping in Nb
and 272 MeV/nucleon Nb stopping in Nb and Al", Physical Review C, vol. 58,
No.6, pp. 3451-3460 (1998).
[2] R.A. Cecil et al.
Improved predictions of neutron detection efficiency for hydrocarbon
scintillators from 1 MeV to about 300 MeV", Nuclear Instruments
and Methods in Phys. Res., vol. 161, p. 439 (1979).

NEA-1552/14, bibliography:
SINBAD-RIKEN
============
Background references:
[2] Cecil R.A., Anderson B.D., Madey R.: Nucl. Instr. And Meth. 161, 439 (1979).
[3] Schery S.D., et al.: Nucl. Instr. And Meth. 147, 399 (1977).
[3] Nakao N. homepage: http://idsun1.kek.jp/nakao/research/nyield/nyield.htm
NEA-1552/14, included references:
[1] Nakao N., et al.:
Development of a quasi-monoenergetic neutron
field using Li-7(p,n)Be-7 reaction in the 70-210 MeV energy range
at RIKEN, Nucl. Instr. and Meth., A420 pp218-231 (1999)

NEA-1552/15, bibliography:
SINBAD-PSI-P590MEV
==================
Background references:
[1] Georgia Tech MCNPX Benchmarking Homepage: http://www-rsicc.ornl.gov/pending_benchmarks/GTECH_ACCELERATOR/index.html
[3] Tuli J.:
"Nuclear Wallet Cards," National Nuclear Data Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory, July 1990.
[4] Leo W.:
"Techniques for Nuclear and Particle Physics Experiments: a How-To Approach," Berlin ; New York : Springer, 1994.
[5] Chadwick M.B., Young P.G., Chiba S., Frankle S.C., Hale G.M., Hughes H.G., Koning A.J., Little R.C., MacFarlane R.E., Prael R.E. and Waters L.S.:
"Cross Section Evaluations to 150 MeV for Accelerator-Driven Systems and Implementation in MCNPX," Nuclear Science and Engineering, vol. 131, pp. 293, March 1999.
[6] Cecil R.A., Anderson B.D. and Mady R.:
"Nuclear Instruments and Methods" vol. 161, pp. 439, 1979.
[7] Filges D., Cloth P., Neef R.D. and Sterzenbach G.:
Contribution to Spallation Source Meeting, Bad Konigstein, March 18-20, 1980.
NEA-1552/15, included references:
[2] Cierjacks S., Raupp F., Howe S.D., Hino Y., Swinhoe M.T., Rainbow M.T. and
Buth L.: High Energy Particle Spectra from Spallation Targets, Proceedings of
the 5th Meeting of the International Collaboration on Advanced Neutron Sources,
Julich, June 22-26, 1981 (pp 215-240 Jul-Conf-45)
NEA-1552/16, included references:
- Yoshimi KASUGAI et al.:
Measurement of Radioactivity Induced by GeV-Protons and Spallation Neutrons
using AGS Accelerator, JAERI-Research 2003-034 (January 2004)

NEA-1552/19, bibliography:
SINBAD-TEPC-FLUKA
=================
Background references:
[1] Mitaroff, A. and Silari, M.:
The CERN-EU High-Energy Reference Field (CERF) Facility for Dosimetry at Commercial Flight Altitudes and in Space, Rad. Prot. Dosim. Vol.102, No. 1. pp.7-22, (2002).
[2] Far West Techn. Inc.:
Environmental radiation monitor with 5 inches tissue equivalent proportional counter, Operations and repair manual, December, (2000).
[3] Fasso, A., Ferrari, A., Ranft, J., Sala, P.R.:
FLUKA: Status and Prospective for Hadronic Applications  Proc. of the MonteCarlo 2000 Conference, Lisbon, October 23-26 2000, Springer-Verlag Berlin, p. 955-960, (2001).
NEA-1552/19, included references:
[4] S. Rollet, P. Beck, A. Ferrari, M. Pelliccioni, M. Autischer:
Dosimetric Considerations on TEPC FLUKA-Simulation and Measurements, Rad. Prot.
Dosim., Vol. 110, Nos 1-4, pp. 833-837 (2004)
[5] P. Beck, A. Ferrari, M.Pelliccioni, S. Rollet and R. Villari:
FLUKA Simulation of TEPC Response to Cosmic Radiation

NEA-1552/23, bibliography:
SINBAD-KENS-P500MeV
===================
Background references:
Shielding Experiment with Activation Detector and Imaging Plate:
[6] Q. Wang, K. Masumoto, A. Toyoda, N. Nakao, M. Kawai and T. Shibata: 'KENS Shielding Experiment (2) - Measurement of the Neutron Spatial Distribution inside and outside of a Concrete Shield using an Activation Foil and an Imaging Plate Technique', Proc. The 2ns Itrs International Symposium on Radiation Safety and Detection Technology (ISORD-2), Tohoku University, Sendai, JAPAN, July 24-25, (2003); J. Nucl. Sci. Technol. Suppl.4, p.26(2004)

Shielding Experiment 2003 Detail Report (Japanese):
[7] H. Yashima and N. Nakao:
'Deta Analysis for Neutron Reaction Rates of Activation Detectors in KENS Shielding Experiment - Experiment on January 2003-', KEK Internal 2003-10 (Feb. 2004).
NEA-1552/23, included references:
[1] [PPT Presentation] N. Nakao et al.:
Arrangement of high-energy neutron irradiation field and shielding experiment
using 4 m concrete at KENS", Proc. 10th Int. Conf. On Radation Shielding
(ICRS10)
Madeira, Portugal, May 9-14, 2004; Radiat. Prot. Dosim. Vol.116, No.1-4,
pp553-557 (2005).

[2] N. Nakao et al.:
KENS Shielding Experiment (1) - Measurement of Neutron Attenuation through 4m
Concrete Shield Using a High Energy Neutron Irradiation Room
Proc. 2nd iTRS Int. Symposium on Radiation Safety and Detection Technology
(ISORD-2), Tohoku University, Sendai, JAPAN, July 24-25, (2003); J. Nucl. Sci.
Technol. Suppl.4, p.22 (2004)

NEA-1552/24, bibliography:
SINBAD-CERF-BSS
===============
Background reference:
[3] S. Agosteo, C. Birattari, E. Dimovasili, A. Foglio Para, M. Silari, L.
Ulrici and H. Vincke:
Neutron production from 40 GeV/c mixed proton/pion beam on copper, silver and
lead targets in the angular range 30-135 degree
Nuclear Instruments and Methods B 229, 24-34, 2005.
NEA-1552/24, included references:
[1] A. Mitaroff and M. Silari:
The CERN-EU high-energy Reference Field (CERF)
facility for dosimetry at commercial flight altitudes and in space
Radiation Protection Dosimetry 102, 7-22, 2002.
[2] S. Agosteo, E. Dimovasili, A. Fasso and M. Silari:
The response of a Bonner Sphere Spectrometer to charged hadrons
Radiation Protection Dosimetry 110, 161-168, 2004.

NEA-1552/26, bibliography:
SINBAD-CERF-RES.DOSE
====================
Background references:
[1] A. Fasso', A. Ferrari, J. Ranft and P.R. Sala:
" FLUKA: a multi-particle transport code", CERN-2005-10 (2005), INFN/TC_05/11, SLAC-R-773
[2] A. Fasso', A. Ferrari, S. Roesler, P.R. Sala, G. Battistoni, F. Cerutti, E. Gadioli, M.V. Garzelli, F. Ballarini, A. Ottolenghi, A. Empl and J. Ranft :
"The physics models of FLUKA: status and recent developments", Computing in High Energy and Nuclear Physics 2003 Conference (CHEP2003), La Jolla, CA, USA, March 24-28, 2003, (paper MOMT005), eConf C0303241 (2003), arXiv:hep-ph/0306267
[4] Mitaroff, A. and Silari, M.:
The CERN-EU high-energy reference field (CERF) facility for dosimetry at commercial flight altitudes and in space. Radiat. Prot. Dosim. 102, 7-22 (2002).
[5] M. Pelliccioni:
"Overview of fluence-to-effective dose and fluence-to-ambient dose equivalent conversion coefficients for high energy radiation calculated using the FLUKA code", Radiation Protection Dosimetry 88 (2000) 279-297
NEA-1552/26, included references:
- M.Brugger, H.Khater, S.Mayer, A.Prinz, S.Roesler, L.Ulrici and H.Vincke:
"Benchmark studies of induced radioactivity produced in LHC materials, Part II:
Remanent dose rates", Radiation Protection Dosimetry 116 (2005) 12-15

NEA-1552/27, bibliography:
SINBAD-CERF-RADIONUC
====================
Background references:
[1] A. Fasso', A. Ferrari, J. Ranft and P.R. Sala:
"FLUKA: a multi-particle transport  code", CERN-2005-10  (2005), INFN/TC_05/11, SLAC-R-773
[2] A. Fasso', A. Ferrari, S. Roesler, P.R. Sala, G. Battistoni, F. Cerutti, E. Gadioli, M.V. Garzelli, F. Ballarini, A. Ottolenghi, A. Empl and J. Ranft :
"The physics models of FLUKA: status and recent developments", Computing in High Energy and Nuclear Physics 2003 Conference (CHEP2003), La Jolla, CA, USA, March 24-28, 2003, (paper MOMT005), eConf C0303241 (2003), arXiv:hep-ph/0306267
[4] A. Mitaroff and M. Silari:
"The CERN-EU high-energy reference field (CERF) facility for dosimetry at commercial flight altitudes and in space", Radiat. Prot. Dosim. 102, 7-22 (2002)
NEA-1552/27, included references:
[3] M. Brugger, A. Ferrari, S. Roesler and L. Ulrici:
"Validation of the FLUKA Monte Carlo code for predicting induced radioactivity
at high-energy accelerators", Proceedings of the 7th International Conference
on Accelerator Applications, Venice, Italy (2005). Nuclear Instruments and
Methods A 562, 814-818 (2006).
[5] M.  Brugger, H.  Khater, S.  Mayer, A.  Prinz, S.  Roesler, L. Ulrici and
H. Vincke:
"Benchmark studies of induced radioactivity produced in LHC materials, Part I:
Specific Activities", Radiation Protection Dosimetry 116 (2005)

NEA-1552/28, bibliography:
SINBAD-CERF-120GEV/C
====================
Background reference:
[4] N. Nakao, S. Taniguchi. S. Roesler, M. Brugger, M. Hagiwara, H. Vincke, H. Khater, A.A. Prinz, S.H. Rokni and K. Kosako:
"Measurement and calculation of high-energy neutron spectra behind shielding at the CERF 120 GeV/c hadron beam facility", Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., B 266, 1 (2008) 93-106.
NEA-1552/28, included references:
[1] N. Nakao, S. Taniguchi, S.H. Rokni, S. Roesler, M. Brugger, M. Hagiwara, H.
Vincke, H. Khater and A.A. Prinz:
"Measurement of Neutron Energy Spectra behind Shielding of a 120 GeV/c Hadron
Beam Facility, CERF", SLAC RADIATION PHYSICS NOTE, RP-06-06 (2006)
[2] N. Nakao, S. Taniguchi, S.H. Rokni, S. Roesler, M. Brugger, M. Hagiwara, H.
Vincke, H. Khater and A.A. Prinz:
"Measurement of Neutron Energy Spectra behind Shielding of a 120 GeV/c Hadron
Beam Facility", Proc. of International Conference on Accelerator Application
(AccApp05), Venice, Italy, Aug.29-Sep.1 (2005);also SLAC-PUB-11569(2005)
[3] N. Nakao:
"MARS15 Monte Carlo Simulation for CERF Shielding Experiment", SLAC RADIATION
PHYSICS NOTE, RP-06-07, March 30, 2006.

NEA-1552/30, bibliography:
SINBAD-30/52MEV-P
=================
Background references:
[1] Nakamura T., Fujii M., and Shin K., "Neutron Production from Thick Targets of Carbon, Iron, Copper, and Lead by 30- and 52-MeV Protons," Nuclear Science and Engineering, Vol. 83, 444-458 (1983).  
  
[2] Nakamura T., Yoshida M., and Shin K., "Spectral Measurements of Neutrons and Photons from Thick Targets of C, Fe, Cu, and Pb by 52 MeV Protons," Nuclear Instruments and Methods, 151, 493-503 (1978).
  
[3] Shin K., Uwamino Y., and Hyodo T., Nucl. Technol., 53, 78 (1981).
  
[4] O'Dell R. "Specification and Atom Densities of Selected Materials" in Criticality Calculations with MCNP: A Primer, LA-12827-M, August 1994.
  
[5] H. Grady Hughes, Richard E. Prael, and Robert C. Little.: "MCNPX - The LAHET/MCNP Code Merger." Los Alamos National Laboratory Memorandum XTM-RN(U) 97-012, April 22, 1997.
  
[6] M.B. Chadwick, P.G. Young, S. Chiba, S.C. Frankle, G.M. Hale, H.G. Hughes, A.J. Koning, R.C. Little, R.E. MacFarlane, R.E. Prael and L.S. Waters. Cross Section Evaluations to 150 MeV for Accelerator-driven Systems and Implementation in MCNPX. Nucl. Sci. and Eng., 131(3), p. 293, March 1999.

NEA-1552/31, bibliography:
SINBAD-AVF-75MEV-P
==================
Background reference:
[1] Shin K., Ishii Y.,  Uwamino Y., Sakai H. and Numata S.: "Transmission of Medium Energy Neutrons Through Concrete Shields," Radiation Protection Dosimetry, Vol. 37, No. 3, 175-178 (1991).
  
[2] K. Shin et al., Nucl. Technol., 53, 78 (1981).
  
[3] Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory, Chart of the Nuclides, 12th Edition (1977)
  
[4] H. Grady Hughes, Richard E. Prael, and Robert C. Little.: "MCNPX - The LAHET/MCNP Code Merger." Los Alamos National Laboratory Memorandum XTM-RN(U) 97-012, April 22, 1997.
  
[5] M.B. Chadwick, P.G. Young, S. Chiba, S.C. Frankle, G.M. Hale, H.G. Hughes, A.J. Koning, R.C. Little, R.E. MacFarlane, R.E. Prael, and L.S. Waters. Cross Section Evaluations to 150 MeV for Accelerator-driven Systems and Implementation in MCNPX. Nucl. Sci. and Eng., 131(3):293, March 1999.
  
[6] Georgia Tech MCNPX Benchmarkng Homepage: http://epicws.epm.ornl.gov/pending_benchmarks/GTECH_ACCELERATOR/index.html
NEA-1552/32, included references:
[1] G.R. Stevenson, A. Fasso', J. Sandberg, A. Regelbrugge, A. Bonifas, A.
Muller, M. Nielsen:
"Measurements of the dose and hadron yield from copper targets in 200 GeV/c and
400 GeV/c extracted proton beams. An Atlas of the Results obtained", EUROPEAN
ORGANIZATION FOR NUCLEAR RESEARCH, TIS-RP/112 (1983)
[2] G.R. Stevenson, D. M. Squier, G. S. Levine:
"Measurements of the angular dependence of dose and hadron yield from targets
in 8 GeV and 24 GeV/c extracted proton beams, RHEL/MR 6 (1983)

NEA-1552/33, bibliography:
SINBAD-IHEAS-BENCHM
===================
Background references:
[1] Nakamura T. et al.: "Annotated References on Neutron and Photon Production from Thick Targets Bombarded by Charged Particles," Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables, 32, 471-501 (1985)
NEA-1552/33, included references:
- Hirayama H. et al.:
Annotated References of Shielding Experiment and Calculation of High Energy
Particles, KEK report 90-18 (1990)
- Hirayama H. et al.:
Accelerator Shielding Benchmark Problems, KEK report 92-17 (1993)
- H. Nakashima et al. :
Benchmark Problems for Intermediate and High Energy Accelerator
Shielding, JAERI-Data/Code 94-012 (September 1994)

NEA-1552/34, bibliography:
SINBAD-52
==========
Background references:
[3] K. Shin et al., Nucl. Technol., 53, 78 (1981).
[4] K. Hayashi, et al.: "Accelerator Shielding Benchmark Analysis and
    Future Items to be Solved", SATIF Proceedings of the Specialists
    Meeting, Arlington, USA, 28-29 April 1994, OECD 1995
[5] H. Nakashima, et al.: "Accelerator Shielding Benchmark Experiment
    Analyses", SATIF-2 Proceedings of the Specialists' Meeting, CERN,
    Geneva, Switzerland, 12-13 Oct. 1995, OECD 1996
[6] T. Nakamura and T. Kosako, Nucl. Sci. Eng., 77, 168 (1981)
NEA-1552/34, included references:
[1] Shin K., Uwamino Y., Yoshida M., Hyodo T. and Nakamura T.: Penetration of
Secondary Neutrons and Photons from a Graphite Assembly Exposed to 52-MeV
Protons, Nucl. Sci. Eng., 71, 294-300 (1979).
[2] Uwamino Y., Nakamura T. and Shin K.: Penetration Through Shielding
Materials of Secondary Neutrons and Photons Generated by 52-MeV Protons, Nucl.
Sci. Eng., 80, 360-369 (1982).
[8] H. Nakashima et al., Benchmark Problems for Intermediate and High Energy
Accelerator Shielding, JAERI 94-012 (Sept.1994).
[9] P. Ortego, Evaluation of Accelerator Experiments Performed at Tokyo
University with 52 MeV Protons (Nov. 2009).

NEA-1552/35, bibliography:
SINBAD-HIMAC
============
Background references:
[6] N. Nakao et al.:
Measurements of response function of organic liquid scintillator for neutron energy range up to 135 MeV, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Vol. A-362, p. 454 (1995)
NEA-1552/35, included references:
[1] T. Kurosawa et al.:
Measurements of Secondary Neutrons Produced from Thick Targets Bombarded by
High Energy Helium and Carbon Ions, Nuclear Science and Eng. vol. 132, p. 30
(1999)
[2] T. Kurosawa et al.:
Spectral measurements of neutrons, protons, deuterons and tritons produced by
100 MeV/nucleon He bombardment, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics
Research, Vol. A 430, p. 400 (1999)
[3] T. Kurosawa et al.:
Measurements of Secondary Neutrons Produced from Thick Target Bombarded by High
Energy Neon Ions, Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, vol. 36, p.41
(1999)
[4] T. Kurosawa et al.:
Neutrons yields from thick C, Al, Cu and Pb targets bombarded by 400
MeV/nucleon Ar, Fe, Xe and 800 MeV/nucleon Si ions, Physical Review C, vol. 62,
p. 044615-1 (2000)
[5] R.A. Cecil et al.:
Improved predictions of neutron detection efficiency for hydrocarbon
scintillators from 1 MeV to about 300 MeV, Nuclear Instrum. and Methods, Vol.
161, p. 439 (1979).
[7] T. Kurosawa, T. Nakamura and L. Heilbronn:
Experimental Data of Neutron Yields from Thick Targets Bombarded by 100 to 800
MeV/nucleon Heavy Ions.
[8] P. Ortego:
Benchmarking of MCNPX with the Experimental Measurements of High-Energy Helium
Ions in HIMAC Facility, also in Rad. Prot. Dosimetry, 116(1-4), Pp.43-49 (2005)
[9] P. Ortego, Evaluation of HIMAC Experiments with Different Projectiles and
Targets from 100 to 800MeV/Nucleon (Jan. 2010).

NEA-1552/36, bibliography:
SINBAD-HIMAC800-CONC
====================
Background references:
[2] M. Sasaki, N. Nakao, T. Nunomiya, T. Nakamura, T. Shibata, A. Fukumura:
Response Function Measurements of the Self-TOF Neutron Detector for Neutrons up to 800 MeV,
J. Nucl.Sci. Technol., Vol 38, No.1, 8(2001).
[3] N. Nakao, T. Nakamura, M. Baba, Y. Uwamino, N. Nakanishi, H. Nakashima and S. Tanaka:
Nucl. Instrum. and Methods, A362, 454(1995).
[4] M. Sasaki, N. Nakao, T. Nunomiya, T. Nakamura, T. Shibata, A. Fukumura:
Measurements of the response functions of the NE213 organic liquid scintillator to neutrons up to 800 MeV, Nucl. Instrum. and Methods, A480, 188(2002).
[5] E. Kim, T. Nakamura and A. Konno:
Measurements Neutrons Spallation Cross Sections of C-12 and Bi-209 in the 20 to 150 MeV Energy Range, Nucl. Sci. Eng. 129, 209(1998).
[6] Evauated Nuclear Data File, ENDF/B-VI, National Neutron Cross Section Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory (1990).
[7] T. Fukahori:
Proceedings of the 1990 Symposium on Nuclear Data, Tokai, Japan, JAERI-M 91-032, 106(1991).
[8] Y. Uno, Y. Uwamino, T.S. Soewarsono and T. Nakamura:
Measurements of the Neutron Activation Cross Sections of C-12, Si-30, Ti-47, Ti-48, Cr-52, Co-59 and Ni-58 between 15 and 40 MeV", Nucl. Sci. Eng. 122, 247(1996).
[9] R.E. Prael, H. Lichtenstein:
User Guide to LCS: The LAHET Code System", MS B226, LANL(1989).
[10] T. Kurosawa, N. Nakao, T. Nakamura, Y. Uwamino, T. Shibata, A. Fukumura and K. Murakami:
Measurements of Secondary Neutrons Produced from Thick Targets Bombarded by High-Energy Neon Ions,
Journal of Nucl. Sci. and Tech., 36, 41(1999).
[11] H.G. Hughes, et al.:
MCNPX for Neutron-Proton Transport, Proceedings of the Inter. Conf. on Mathematics and Computation, Reactor Physics & Environmental Analysis in Nuclear applications, American Nucl. Society, Madrid Spain, (1999).
[12] M.B. Chadwick, L.J. Cox, P.G. Young and A.S. Meigooni
Nucl. Sci. Eng. 123, 17(1996).
NEA-1552/36, included references:
[1] M. Sasaki, E. Kim, T. Nunomiya, T. Nakamura, N. Nakao, T. Shibata, Y.
Uwamino, S. Ito and A. Fukumura:
Measurements of high energy neutrons penetrated through concrete shields using
the self-TOF, NE213 and activation detectors", Nuclear Science and Engineering
Vol.141 Number 2 140-153(2002)
[13] P. Ortego, Evaluation of HIMAC Accelerator Experiments with 400
MeV/Nukleon Carbon Ions (Dec. 2009)

NEA-1552/37, bibliography:
SINBAD-HIMAC800-FE
==================
Background references:
[2] M. Sasaki, N. Nakao,T. Nunomiya, T. Nakamura, T. Shibata, A. Fukumura:
Response Function Measurements of the Self-TOF Neutron Detector for Neutrons up to 800 MeV" J. Nucl.Sci. Technol., Vol 38, No.1, 8(2001).
[3] N. Nakao,T. Nakamura, M. Baba, Y. Uwamino, N. Nakanishi, H. Nakashima and S. Tanaka:
Nucl.Instrum. and Methods, A362, 454(1995).
[4] M. Sasaki, N. Nakao,T. Nunomiya, T. Nakamura, T. Shibata, A. Fukumura:
Measurements of the response functions of the NE213 organic liquid scintillator to neutrons up to 800 MeV
Nucl.Instrum. and Methods, A480, 188(2002).
[5] T. Kurosawa, N. Nakao,T. Nakamura, Y. Uwamino,T. Shibata, A. Fukumura and K. Murakami:
Measurements of Secondary Neutrons Produced from Thick Targets Bombarded by High-Energy Helium and Carbon Ions
Nucl. Sci. Eng. 132, 30(1999).
[6] H.G. Hughes, et al.:
MCNPX for Neutron-Proton Transport,
Proceedings of the Inter. Conf. on Mathematics and Computation, Reactor Physics and Environmental Analysis in Nuclear applications, American Nucl. Society, Madrid spain,(September 1999).
[7] M.B. Chadwick, L.J. Cox, P.G. Young and A.S. Meigooni:
Nucl. Sci. Eng. 123, 17(1996)
NEA-1552/37, included references:
[1] M. Sasaki, N. Nakao, T. Nunomiya, T. Nakamura, A. Fukumura and M. Takada:
Measurements of high energy neutrons penetrated through iron shields using the
self-TOF detector and an NE213 organic liquid scintillator,
Nuclear Instruments and Methods B 196 113-124(2002)
[8] P. Ortego, Evaluation of HIMAC Accelerator Experiments with 400 MeV/Nukleon
Carbon Ions and Iron Shielding (Jan. 2010)

NEA-1552/38, bibliography:
SINBAD-ISIS800
==============
Background references:
[2]  'Evaluated Nuclear Data File', ENDF/B-VI, National Neutron Cross Section  Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory (1990).
[3]  M. Blann, Code ALICE/89, Private Communication (1989).
[4]  Y. Uwamino, T. Nakamura, A. Hara, 'Nucl. Instr. Meth.' A239 (1985) 299.
[5]  G. R. Stevenson, K. L. Liu and R. H. Thomas, 'Health Phys.' 43 (1982) 13.
[6]  S. Ban, H. Hirayama, K. Kondo, S. Miura, K. Hozumi, M. Taino, A. Yamamoto, H. Hirabayashi and K. Katoh, 'Nucl. Instr. Meth.' 174 (1980) 271.
[7]  J. S. Bull, J. B. Donahue and R. L. Burman, 'Proceeding of the fourth workshop on simulating accelerator radiation environments', Knoxville, Tennessee, (September 1998) 201.
[8]  A. Carne, G. H. Eaton, F. Atchison, T. A. Broome, D. J. Clarke, B. R. Diplock, B. H. Poulten and K. H. Roberts, 'SNS Target Station Safety Assessment (Support Document to SNS Target Station Hazard Survey SNS/ENV/N1/83 Rev.1)'. SNSPC/P6/82,(1983).
[9]  M. Kinno and S. Yokosuka, Fujita, Co., Japan, Private Communication (1999).
[10] E. Kim, T. Nakamura and A. Konno, 'Nucl. Sci. Eng.' 129 (1998) 209.
[11] Y. Uno, Y. Uwamino, T. S. Soewarsono and T. Nakamura, 'Nucl. Sci. Eng.' 122 (1996) 247.
[12] 'Evaluated Nuclear Data File', ENDF/B-VI, National Neutron Cross Section Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory (1990).
[13] T. Fukahori, Proceeding of the 1990 Symposium on Nuclear Data, Tokai, Japan, JAERI-M 91-032 (1991) 106.
[14] H. G. Hughes, et. al., 'MCNPX for Neutron-Proton Transport', Proceedings of the International Conference on Mathematics and Computation, Reactor Physics & Environmental Analysis in Nuclear Applications, American Nuclear Society, Madrid Spain, (September 1999).
[15] M. B. Chadwick, L. J. Cox, P. G. Young and A. S. Meigooni, 'Nucl. Sci. Eng.' 123 (1996) 17.
[16] International Commission on Radiological Protection, ICRP Publication 51, (1987).
[17] S. Ban, H. Hirayama and K. Katoh, "Nucl. Instr. Meth." 184 (1981) 409
[19] N. Nakao, T. Nunomiya, H. Iwase and T. Nakamura: MARS14 deep-Penetration calculation for the ISIS Target Station Shielding", Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 530 (2004) pp379-390.
NEA-1552/38, included references:
[1] T. Nunomiya, N. Nakao, P. Wright, T. Nakamura, E. Kim, T. Kurosawa, S.
Taniguchi, M. Sasaki, H. Iwase, T. Shibata, Y. Uwamino, S. Ito, and David R.
Perry:
Experimental Data of Deep-Penetration Neutrons through a Concrete and Iron
Shield at the ISIS Spallation Neutron Source Facility using an 800-MeV Proton
Beam, ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), United Kingdom
(1998).
[18] T. Nunomiya, N. Nakao, H. Iwase and T. Nakamura:
Deep-Penetration Calculation for the ISIS Target Station Shielding Using the
MARS Monte Carlo Code", KEK Report 2002-12 (Mar. 2003).
[20] P. Ortego, Evaluation of ISIS Accelerator Experiments with 800 MeV Protons
(Dec. 2009)
NEA-1552/39, included references:
[1] L. Heilbronn et al.
"Neutron Yields from 155 MeV/nucleon Carbon and Helium
Stopping in Aluminum", Nuclear Science & Engineering, vol. 132, p. 1 (1999)
[2] R.A. Cecil et al.
"Improved predictions of neutron detection efficiency
for hydrocarbon scintillators from 1 MeV to about 300 MeV", Nuclear
Instrumentation and Methods in Phys. Res. vol. 161, p. 439 (1979).
[3] P. Ortego, Evaluation of Accelerator Experiments Performed at Michigan
State University with 155 MeV/Nucleon He-4 and C-12 Ions (May 2009).
top ]
12. PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE(S) USED

No item found

top ]
15. NAME AND ESTABLISHMENT OF AUTHORS
NEA-1552/03
SINBAD-TIARA
============
Author/Organizer:
----------------
Experiment and analysis:
  
Hiroshi Nakashima, Yoshihiro Nakane, Yukio Sakamoto,
Shun-ichi Tanaka,
Hiroshi Takada and Shin-ichiro Meigo,
Neutron Science Center, Japan Atomic Energy Research
Institute(JAERI),
Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki-ken, 319-1195, Japan
   
Susumu Tanaka
Takasaki Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute(JAERI),
Watanuki-cho, Takasaki, Gunma-ken, 370-12, Japan
  
Noriaki Nakao
Radiation Science Center,
High Energy Accelerator Research Organization(KEK),
Oho 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-0801, Japan
  
Makoto Nakao
Kawasaki Heavy Industry Co. Ltd.
  
Takashi Nakamura
Department of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering,
Tohoku University,
Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai-shi, Miyagi-ken 980-8579, Japan
  
Kazuo Shin
Department of Nuclear Engineering, Kyoto University
Yoshidahonmachi, Sakyou-ku, Kyoto,  Japan
  
Mamoru Baba
Cyclotron Radioisotope Center(CYRIC), Tohoku University,
Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai-shi, Miyagi-ken 980-8578, Japan
  
Compiler of data for Sinbad:
I. Kodeli
Institute Jozef Stefan, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
  
Reviewer of compiled data:
Noriaki Nakao
Radiation Science Center,
High Energy Accelerator Research Organization(KEK),
Oho 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-0801, Japan

NEA-1552/08
SINBAD-65P
==========
Author/Organizer:
----------------
Experiment and analysis:
Shin K.(*), Ishii Y.(*), Miyahara K.(*), Uwamino Y.(**),
Sakai H.(***),
Numata S.(****):
(*) Dep. of Nuclear Engineering, Kyoto University                        
    Sankyo, Kyoto 606, Japan
(**) Institute for Physical and Chemical Research,
    Hirosawa 2-1, Wako 351-01, 188, Japan
(***) University of Tokyo, Dep. of Physics,
    Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113, Japan
(****) Shimizu Corporation, Institute for Technology,
    Echujima, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135, Japan
   
Compiler of data for Sinbad:
I. Kodeli
OECD/NEA, 12 bd des Iles, 92130 Issy les Moulineaux, France
  
Reviewer of compiled data:
Hamilton Hunter, Radiation Shielding Information Center,
Oak Ridge National
Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6362, USA

NEA-1552/10
SINBAD-ROESTI
=============
Author/Organizer:
----------------
Experiment:
G.R. Stevenson(*), A. Fasso(*), M. Bruzzi(**), C. Furetta(**),
P. Giubellino(***),
M.C. Nielsen(*), P.G. Rancoita(**), J.S. Russ(#), R. Steni(***),
L. Vismara(**)
  
Simulation:
A. Fasso(*), A. Ferrari(**), P.R. Sala(**), J. Ranft(##),
G.R. Stevenson(*),
J.M. Zazula(###)
  
(*) Radiation Protection Group, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23
     (Switzerland)
(**) Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Milano (Italy)  
***) Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Torino (Italy)
(#) Carnegie-Mellon University, Pittsburgh, USA
(##) Leipzig University, Germany
###) Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow, Poland
  
Compiler of data for Sinbad:
Alberto Fasso
CERN-EP/AIP, CH-1211 Geneve 23 (Switzerland)
  
Reviewer of compiled data:
I. Kodeli
OECD/NEA, 12 bd des Iles, 92130 Issy les Moulineaux, France

NEA-1552/12
SINBAD-BEVALAC
==============
Author/Organizer:
-----------------
Experiment and Analysis:
L. Heilbronn, K. Frankel, M.A. McMahan, W.H. Rathbun (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory),
R. Madey, M. Elaasar, M. Htun, B.D. Anderson, A.R. Baldwin, J. Jiang, D. Keane, A. Scott, Y. Shao, J.W. Watson, W.M. Zhang (Kent State University),
W.G. Gonng (MPI),
G.D. Westfall and S. Yennello (Michigan State Univ.).
  
Compiler of data for Sinbad:
P. Ortego
SEA, Shielding Engineering and Analysis S.L.
Avda. Atenas 75 Las Rozas, 28230 Madrid, Spain
  
Reviewer of Compiled Data
I. Kodeli
OECD/NEA, 12 bd. des Iles,
92130 Issy les Moulineaux, France

NEA-1552/14
SINBAD-RIKEN
============
Author/Organizer:
----------------
Noriaki Nakao, Tokushi Shibata:
High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tanashi Branch
Tanashi, Tokyo 188-8501, Japan
   
Yoshitomo Uwamino, Noriyoshi Nakanishi:
The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN)
Wako, Saitama 351-0198, Japan
  
Takashi Nakamura, Masashi Takada, Eunju Kim, Tadahiro Kurosawa:
Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center (CYRIC), Tohoku University,
Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578, Japan
  
Compiler of data for Sinbad:
S. Kitsos
OECD/NEA, 12 bd des Iles, 92130 Issy les Moulineaux, France
  
Reviewer of compiled data:
I. Kodeli
OECD/NEA, 12 bd des Iles, 92130 Issy les Moulineaux, France

NEA-1552/15
SINBAD-PSI-P590MEV
==================
Author/Organizer:
----------------
Experiment and analysis:
Cierjacks S.*, Raupp F., Howe S.D., Hino Y., Swinhoe M.T., Rainbow M.T. and Buth L.:
*Insitut f. Materialforschung I, Kernforschungszentrum,  Postfach 3640,
D-7500 KARLSRUHE, Germany
  
Compiler of data for Sinbad:
S. Kitsos
OECD/NEA, 12 bd des Iles, 92130 Issy les Moulineaux, France
  
Reviewer of compiled data:
I. Kodeli
OECD/NEA, 12 bd des Iles, 92130 Issy les Moulineaux, France

NEA-1552/16
SINBAD-AGS-P-N-RI
=================
Author/Organizer:
----------------
Experiment and analysis:
Yoshimi KASUGAI, Tetsuya KAI, Fujio MAEKAWA, Hiroshi NAKASHIMA,
Hiroshi TAKADA, Chikara KONNO, Masaharu NUMAJIRI*, Takashi INO*,
Kazutoshi TAKAHASHI*
  
Center for Proton Accelerator Facilities
Tokai Research Establishment
Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute
Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki-ken
* High Energy Accelerator Research Organization
  
Compilation of data for Sinbad to be carried out.

NEA-1552/19
SINBAD-TEPC-FLUKA
=================
Author/Organizer
----------------
Experiment and analysis:
M. Autischer(1), P. Beck(1), A. Ferrari(2), M. Latocha(1), M. Pelliccioni(3), S. Rollet(1) and R. Villari(3)
  
(1) Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf, A-2444 Seibersdorf, Austria
(2) CERN, 1211 Geneva 23, Switzerland
(3) INFN, Laboratori NAzionali di Frascati, 00044 Frascati, Italy
  
Compiler of data for Sinbad:
S. Rollet
Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf, A-2444 Seibersdorf, Austria
  
Reviewer of compiled data:
I. Kodeli
OECD/NEA, 12 bd des Iles, 92130 Issy les Moulineaux, France

NEA-1552/23
SINBAD-KENS-P500MeV
===================
Author/Organizer:
----------------
Experiment and analysis:
Noriaki Nakao
(Former Institution)
High energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK)
Oho 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 306-0801, Japan
(Present address)
Accelerator Physics / Accelerator Division,
Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory,
MS220, P.O.Box 500,  Batavia, IL 60510-0500, USA
  
Compiler of data for Sinbad:
I. Kodeli
OECD/NEA, 12 bd des Iles, 92130 Issy les Moulineaux, France
  
Reviewer of compiled data:
Noriaki Nakao
Accelerator Physics / Accelerator Division,
Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory,
MS220, P.O.Box 500,  Batavia, IL 60510-0500, USA

NEA-1552/24
SINBAD-CERF-BSS
===============
Author/Organizer:
----------------
Experiment and analysis:
S. Agosteo (1), E. Dimovasili (2), A. Fasso (3) and M. Silari (2)
(1) Politecnico di Milano, CESNEF, Via Ponzio 34/3, 20133 Milano, Italy
(2) CERN, 1211 Geneva 23, Switzerland
(3) SLAC, P.O. Box 4349, Stanford, CA 94309, USA
  
Compiler of data for Sinbad:
M. Silari
CERN, 1211 Geneva 23, Switzerland
  
Reviewer of compiled data:
I. Kodeli
OECD/NEA, 12 bd des Iles, 92130 Issy les Moulineaux, France

NEA-1552/26
SINBAD-CERF-RES.DOSE
====================
Author/Organizer:
----------------
Experiment:
-----------
M. Brugger, S. Mayer, S. Roesler, L. Ulrici
CERN SC-RP
CH-1211 Geneva 23
Switzerland
  
H. Khater, A.  Prinz, H. Vincke
SLAC, M.S.48
2575  Sand Hill Road
Menlo Park, CA 94025
U.S.A.
  
Compilation of data for SINBAD:
-------------------------------
M. Brugger, S. Roesler
CERN SC-RP
CH-1211 Geneva 23
Switzerland
  
Reviewer of compiled data:
--------------------------
I. Kodeli
OECD/NEA, 12 bd des Iles, 92130 Issy les Moulineaux, France

NEA-1552/27
SINBAD-CERF-RADIONUC
====================
Author/Organizer:
----------------
Experiment:
-----------
M. Brugger, S. Mayer, S. Roesler, L. Ulrici
CERN SC-RP
CH-1211 Geneva 23
Switzerland
  
H. Khater, A.  Prinz, H. Vincke  
SLAC, M.S.48
2575  Sand Hill Road
Menlo Park, CA 94025
U.S.A.
  
Compilation of data for SINBAD:
-------------------------------
M. Brugger, S. Roesler
CERN SC-RP
CH-1211 Geneva 23
Switzerland
  
Reviewer of compiled data:
--------------------------
I. Kodeli
OECD/NEA, 12 bd des Iles, 92130 Issy les Moulineaux, France

NEA-1552/28
SINBAD-CERF-BSS
===============
Author/Organizer:
----------------
Experiment and analysis:
Noriaki Nakao
High energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) (Former Institution)
Oho 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 306-0801, Japan
  
Accelerator Physics / Accelerator Division, (Present address)
Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory,
MS220, P.O.Box 500,  Batavia, IL 60510-0500, USA
Phone:1-630-840-3315    Fax:1-630-840-6039
  
Compiler of data for Sinbad:
B. Maidou
URANUS, 78 470 St Remy les Chevreuse, France
  
Screened by:
I. Kodeli
OECD/NEA, 12 bd des Iles, 92130 Issy les Moulineaux, France

NEA-1552/30
SINBAD-30/52MEV-P
=================
Author/Organizer:
----------------
Experiment and analysis:
  
Compiler of data for Sinbad:
B. Maidou
URANUS, 78 470 St Remy les Chevreuse, France
  
Screened by:
I. Kodeli
OECD/NEA, 12 bd des Iles, 92130 Issy les Moulineaux, France

NEA-1552/31
SINBAD-AVF-75MEV-P
==================
Author/Organizer:
----------------
Experiment and analysis:
  
Compiler of data for Sinbad:
B. Maidou
URANUS, 78 470 St Remy les Chevreuse, France
  
Screened by:
I. Kodeli
OECD/NEA, 12 bd des Iles, 92130 Issy les Moulineaux, France

NEA-1552/32
SINBAD-200/400GEV-P
===================
Author/Organizer:
----------------
Experiment and analysis:
G.R.Stevenson, A.Fasso', J.Sandberg, A.Regelbrugge, A.Bonifas, A.Muller and M.Nielsen
CERN
CH-1211 Geneva 23
Switzerland
  
Compiler of data for Sinbad: to be carried out
  
Screened by:
I. Kodeli
OECD/NEA, 12 bd des Iles, 92130 Issy les Moulineaux, France
  
Note:
-----
Two reports on the experiments were kindly contributed by Alberto Fasso' and Markus Brugger.
The compilation and review are still to be carried out. Contributions would be highly appreciated.

NEA-1552/33
SINBAD-IHEAS-BENCHM
===================
Author/Organizer:
----------------
  H. NAKASHIMA
  Shielding Laboratory
  Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute
  Tokai Research Establishment
  Tokai-Mura, Maka-Gun, Ibaraki-ken
  JAPAN
  
Compilation of data for Sinbad to be carried out.

NEA-1552/34
SINBAD-52P
==========
Author/Organizer:
----------------
Experiment and analysis:
Uwamino Y.(*), Nakamura T.(**) and Shin K.(***):
(*) Institute for Physical and Chemical Research,
    Hirosawa 2-1, Wako 351-01, 188, Japan
(**) Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center, Tohoku University,
     Aramaki, Aoba, Sendai, 980, Japan
(***) Dep. of Nuclear Engineering, Kyoto University Sankyo,
     Kyoto, 606, Japan
   
Compiler of data for Sinbad:
I. Kodeli, OECD/NEA, 12 bd des Iles, 92130 Issy les Moulineaux,
France
  
Reviewer of compiled data:
Hamilton Hunter, Radiation Shielding Information Center,
Oak Ridge National
Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6362, USA

NEA-1552/35
SINBAD-HIMAC
============
Author/Organizer:
----------------
Experiment and Analysis:
T. Kurosawa, T. Nakamura, H. Iwase and H. Sato (Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center of Tohoku University),
N. Nakao and T. Shibata (High Energy Accelerator Research Organization),
Y. Uwamino and N. Nakanishi (The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research),
A. Fukumura and  K. Murakami (National Institute of Radiological Sciences).
  
Compiler of data for Sinbad:
P. Ortego
SEA, Shielding Engineering and Analysis S.L.,
Avda. Atenas 75,
Las Rozas, 28230 Madrid, Spain
  
Reviewer of compiled data:
I. Kodeli
OECD/NEA, 12 bd des Iles, 92130 Issy les Moulineaux, France

NEA-1552/36
SINBAD-HIMAC800-CONC
====================
Author/Organizer:
----------------
Experiment and analysis:
M. Sasaki, E. Kim, T. Nunomiya, T. Nakamura*, N. Nakao, T. Shibata, Y. Uwamino, S. Ito and A. Fukumura
*Department of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, Tokohu
University Aoba 01, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579, Japan
Phone : +81 (22) 217-7805
Fax : +81 (22) 217-7809

Compiler of data for Sinbad:
S. Kitsos
OECD/NEA, 12 bd des Iles, 92130 Issy les Moulineaux, France

Quality assessment:
P. Ortego
SEA, Shielding Engineering and Analysis S.L., Avda. Atenas 75, Las Rozas, 28230 Madrid, Spain
Phone: +34 91.631.7807
Fax: +34 91.631.8266

Reviewer of compiled data:
I. Kodeli
Jozef tefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljqana, Slovenia

NEA-1552/37
SINBAD-HIMAC800-FE
==================
Author/Organizer
----------------
Experiment and analysis:
M. Sasaki, N. Nakao, T. Nunomiya, T. Nakamura*, A. Fukumura and M. Takada
*Department of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, Tokohu
University Aoba 01, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579, Japan
Phone : +81 (22) 217-7805
Fax : +81 (22) 217-7809

Compiler of data for Sinbad:
S. Kitsos
OECD/NEA, 12 bd des Iles, 92130 Issy les Moulineaux, France

Quality assessment:
P. Ortego
SEA, Shielding Engineering and Analysis S.L., Avda. Atenas 75,
Las Rozas, 28230 Madrid, Spain
Phone: +34 91.631.7807
Fax: +34 91.631.8266

Reviewer of compiled data:
I. Kodeli
Jozef tefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljqana, Slovenia

NEA-1552/38
SINBAD-ISIS800
==============
Author/Organizer
----------------
Experiment and analysis:
T. Nunomiya, N. Nakao*, P. Wright, T. Nakamura, E. Kim, T. Kurosawa, S. Taniguchi, M. Sasaki, H. Iwase, T. Shibata, Y. Uwamino, S. Ito, and David R. Perry
*High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK),
Oho 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-0801, Japan
Phone: +81-298-79-6004

Compiler of data for Sinbad:
S. Kitsos
OECD/NEA, 12 bd des Iles, 92130 Issy les Moulineaux, France

Quality assessment:
P. Ortego
SEA, Shielding Engineering and Analysis S.L., Avda. Atenas 75,
Las Rozas, 28230 Madrid, Spain
Phone: +34 91.631.7807
Fax: +34 91.631.8266

Reviewer of compiled data:
I. Kodeli
Jozef tefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljqana, Slovenia

NEA-1552/39
SINBAD-MSU/155 HE-C
===================
Author/Organizer:
-----------------

Experiment and analysis:
L. Heilbronn, M. Cronqvist, K. Frankel and C. Zeitlin (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory), R.S. Cary and C.E. Stronach (Virginia State Univ. Dept. of Physics), F. Deak, A. Horvath and A. Kiss (Eotvos Univ.), A. Galonsky, J. Kruse, R.M. Roningen, J. Wang and P. Zecher (Michigan State Univ., National Superconducting Cyclotron Lab.), K. Holabird (San Francisco State University), H. Schelin (CEFET-PR), and Z. Seres (KFKI).

Phone (Heilbronn): +1.510.486.4002
Fax (Heilbronn):  +1.510.486.6949

Compiler of data for Sinbad:
P. Ortego
SEA, Shielding Engineering and Analysis S.L., Avda. Atenas 75,
Las Rozas, 28230 Madrid, Spain
Phone: +3491.631.7807
Fax: +3491.631.8266

Quality assessment:
P. Ortego
SEA, Shielding Engineering and Analysis S.L., Avda. Atenas 75,
Las Rozas, 28230 Madrid, Spain
Phone: +34 91.631.7807
Fax: +34 91.631.8266

Reviewer of compiled data:
I. Kodeli
Jozef tefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljqana, Slovenia
top ]
16. MATERIAL AVAILABLE
NEA-1552/01
SINBAD ACCELERATOR FULL SET

NEA-1552/03
Abstract
Description of Experiment and Results
Fig. 1: Cross sectional view of TIARA facility
Fig. 2: Experimental setup for iron and concrete test shield (top view)
Fig. 3: Experimental setup with additional iron collimator for iron and concrete
test shield (top view)
Fig. 4: Experimental setup for polyethylene test shield
Fig. 5: Experimental setup with additional collimator for polyethylene test
shield (top view)
Fig. 6: Source neutron energy spectra
Fig. 7: Bonner sphere spectrometer
Fig. 8: Calculational geometry for MORSE and HETC
References

NEA-1552/08
Abstract
Description of Experiment
Figure 1: Experimental arrangement (preview and high quality)
Figure 2: Neutron and photon spectra (preview and high quality)  
Figure 3: Neutron and photon spectra (preview and high quality)
Figure 4: Neutron and photon spectra (preview and high quality)
Figure 5: Neutron and photon spectra (preview and high quality)
Figure 6: Neutron and photon spectra (preview and high quality)
Figure 7: Neutron and photon spectra (preview and high quality)
Figure 8: Neutron and photon spectra (preview and high quality)
Figure 9: Neutron and photon spectra (preview and high quality)
Reference

NEA-1552/10
Abstract
rosti1.exp   Rosti I experimental data
rosti2.exp   Rosti II experimental data
rosti3.exp   Rosti III experimental data
fl24fe1.inp  Input data for FLUKA92 code, iron dump, 24 GeV
fl24fe2.inp  Input data for FLUKA92 code, iron dump, 24 GeV
fl200fe1.inp Input data for FLUKA92 code, iron dump, 200 GeV
fl200fe2.inp Input data for FLUKA92 code, iron dump, 200 GeV
fl-24pb.inp  Input data for FLUKA92 code, lead dump, 24 GeV
fl-200pb.inp Input data for FLUKA92 code, lead dump, 200 GeV
Fig-1.gif    Fig. 1: Sketch of the Rosti dump assemblies
Fig-2.gif    Fig. 2: Al sample plate with Al detector sample positions
Fig-3.gif    Fig. 3: Sketch of the Rosti III dump assembly
rpl.jpg      Fig. 4: RPL dosimeter
rosti1.sim   FLUKA92 simulation results for Rosti I
rosti2.sim   FLUKA92 simulation results for Rosti II
rosti3.sim   FLUKA92 simulation results for Rosti III
References

NEA-1552/12
beval-a.htm     Abstract
beval-e.htm     Experimental results
prc-58.pdf      Paper in Physical Review
nim-161.pdf     Cecil paper on detector efficiency

NEA-1552/14
riken-a.htm  Abstract
riken-e.htm   Description of experiment
riken-f1.jpg  Fig. 1: Experimental arrangement of RIKEN ring cyclotron
riken-f2.jpg  Fig. 2: Cross-sectional view of the neutron-beam course
riken-f3.gif  Fig. 3: Neutron detection efficiencies of a NE213 scintillator
riken-f4.jpg  Fig. 4: Neutron energy spectra measured by TOF method
riken-r1.pdf  Reference

NEA-1552/15
p590-abs.htm   This information file
p590-exp.htm   Description of experiment
p590-cal.htm   Description of transport calculations
Fig1: Experimental arrangement for SIN TOF experiment
Fig2: Neutron spectra from the lead target for 590 MeV proton
Fig3: Measured and HETC calculated neutron spectra at 90-deg.
Fig4: MCNPX neutron spectra emitted at 90-deg.
Fig5: Measured and MCNPX calculated neutron spectra at 90-deg.
mcnpx.inp      Input data for MCNPX calculations
icans-v.pdf    Reference

NEA-1552/16
JAERI-Research 2003-034 report in 4 parts (Word format) and PDF

NEA-1552/19
tepc-fluka.htm Abstrat
tepc-fluka.pdf Detailed description and reference paper for comparison with
standard sources
cosmic-fluka.pdf Detailed description and reference paper for comparison onboard

of aircraft
fig1.pdf Sketch of the geometry layout of a HAWK simulated with FLUKA
fig2.pdf Simulated Microdosimetric spectra y d(y) for photon sources at
different energies
fig3.pdf Microdosimetric spectra y d(y) for a 60Co source
fig4.pdf Microdosimetric spectra y d(y) for a 0.5 MeV neutron source
fig5.pdf Microdosimetric spectra y d(y) for an 241AmBe source
fig6.pdf Microdosimetric spectra y d(y) for the reference source at CERF
tepc-geo.jpg TEPC geometry
tepc-mat.xls TEPC material composition
meas_raw.xls Raw data of TEPC measurements at CERF (position CT10)
CERF-comp.xls Comparison between measurements and simulations data at CERF (plot

and data)
phospc.dat Photon energy spectrum at CT10 (data)
phospc.pdf Photon energy spectrum at CT10 (plot)
neuspc.dat Neutron energy spectrum at CT10 (data)
neuspc.pdf Neutron energy spectrum at CT10 (plot)
prispc.pdf Plot of the primary energy spectra at the top of the atmosphere
(particles with Z up to 26)
fig1a.pdf Simulated spectral neutron fluence
fig1b.pdf Simulated microdosimetric neutron spectra yd(y) as seen by TEPC
fig2a.pdf Simulated spectral proton fluence
fig2b.pdf Simulated microdosimetric proton spectra yd(y) as seen by TEPC
fig3a.pdf Simulated spectral photon fluence
fig3b.pdf Simulated microdosimetric photon spectra yd(y) as seen by TEPC
fig4a.pdf Simulated spectral electron+positron fluence
fig4b.pdf Simulated microdosimetric electron+positron spectra yd(y) as seen by
TEPC
cosm.pdf  Simulated microdosimetric spectra yd(y) for all particles + total
flight-comp.pdf  Microdosimetric spectra yh(y) comparison between simulation (in

free atmosphere) and measurements (inside the aircraft)

NEA-1552/23
kenssh-a.htm   Abstract
kenssh-e.htm   Tables with numerical data
mars.inp       Input data for MARS14 code
beg1_src.f     Source routine for the MARS calculation
reg1.f         Geometry routine for the MARS calculation
KENS-geo.jpg   Fig.1: Experimental Geometry
KENS-geo.pdf  Experimental Geometry (target, shield and source term simulation)
KENS-source.xy.xls  Tab. 2: Neutron source distributions (in XLS format)
KENS-source.jpg  Fig. 2: MARS14 neutron source spectra for different directions
kens-foil.jpg   Tab. 3: Activation detector arrangement inside concrete
KENSdetectors.jpg  Fig. 3: Detectors used in the experiment
act-xs.jpg     Fig. 4: Activation cross section data
KENS-exp.xls   Tab. 5: Measured reaction rates (in XLS format)
KENS-results.jpg        Fig. 5: Comparison calculation-measurement
rpd116-KENS-Nakao.pdf   Ref. [1]
PPT-KENS-ICRS10.pdf     Ref. [1] - ppt presentation
Proc-ISORD2-nakao.pdf   Ref. [2]

NEA-1552/24
cerfbss-a.htm         Abstract
CERF-RPD102_2002.pdf  Description of the CERF facility
Neudos9(DivRep).pdf   Reference paper with description of experiment, response
matrix to charged hadrons of the BSS.
He3.jpg FLUKA model of Centronics SP9 He-3 proportional counter
bss233.jpg  FLUKA model of the 233 mm (outer diameter)pure polyethylene sphere
stanlio.pdf  Cut through the moderator of the lead-modified Bonner Sphere
Stanlio
stanlio2.jpg  Figure of the FLUKA model of Stanlio
ollio.pdf  Cut through the moderator of the lead-modified Bonner Sphere Ollio
ollio.jpg   Figure of the FLUKA model of Ollio
results.pdf  Comparison between experimental data and FLUKA predictions
results.txt  Comparison between experimental data and FLUKA predictions
FLUKA input files

NEA-1552/26
cerf_dr3-a.htm           Information file
cerf_dr3-e.htm           Tables with numerical data
NewFullCERFGeometry.pdf  Fig. 1: Experimental Geometry
aug03c3.pdf              Fig. 2: Irradiation configuration
geometryDescription.htm  Geometry description
DR-SSZ_04ICRSpencil.pdf  Fig. 3: Residual dose rate from an iron sample (pencil
beam source)
DR-Fe_03ICRSnooff.pdf    Fig. 4: Residual dose rate from an iron sample (z-axis
alligned source)
aug03c1offp-neweva.inp   FLUKA input data for Monte Carlo Simulation
Experimental results, FLUKA input and output files listed in cerf_dr3-e.htm
slac-pub-11812.pdf       Ref. [3]

NEA-1552/27
cerf_ac5-a.htm  Information file
cerf_ac5-e.htm   Tables with numerical data
NewFullCERFGeometry.pdf  Fig. 1: Experimental Geometry
aug03c3.pdf       Fig. 2: Irradiation configuration
geometryDescription.htm  Geometry description
DR-SSZ_04ICRSpencil.pdf  Fig. 3: Residual dose rate from an iron sample (pencil
beam source)
DR-Fe_03ICRSnooff.pdf    Fig. 4: Residual dose rate from an iron sample (z-axis
alligned source)
aug03c1offp-neweva.inp   FLUKA input data for Monte Carlo Simulation
FLUKA input files listed in cerf_ac5-e.htm
RefAC.pdf        Ref. [3]
slac-pub-11811.pdf   Ref. [5]

NEA-1552/28
cerf-a.htm        Information file
cerf-e.htm        Tables with numerical data
cerf-geo.jpg      Fig. 1: Experimental Geometry
Exp-arrangement   Experimental arrangement
CERFforist        Files for unfolding analysis
MARS-input        MARS15 Monte Carlo Simulation Files
cerf-spec.jpg     Fig. 2: Measured spectra
RP-06-06.pdf      Ref. [1]
slac-pub-11569.pdf  Ref. [2]
RP-06-07.pdf      Ref. [3]

NEA-1552/30
30-52-a.html  This information file
30-52-e.html  Tables with numerical data
Figure_1.gif  SF Cyclotron Experimental Arrangement
Figure_2.gif  FM Cyclotron Experimental Arrangement
Figure_3.gif  Measured Angular spectrum from 30 MeV protons on carbon
Figure_4.gif  Measured Angular spectrum from 30 MeV protons on iron
Figure_5.gif  Measured Angular spectrum from 30 MeV protons on copper
Figure_6.gif  Measured Angular spectrum from 30 MeV protons on lead
Figure_7.gif  Measured angular distributions of neutrons integrated from 3-MeV
to 30-MeV from 30-MeV protons on four targets
Figure_8.gif  Measured Angular spectrum from 52 MeV protons on carbon
Figure_9.gif  Measured Angular spectrum from 52 MeV protons on iron
Figure_10.gif  Measured Angular spectrum from 52 MeV protons on copper
Figure_11.gif  Measured Angular spectrum from 52 MeV protons on lead
Figure_12.gif  Measured angular distributions of neutrons integrated from 5-MeV
to 52-MeV from 52-MeV protons on four targets
Figure_13.gif  Angular distribution of neutron spectra from 30-MeV protons on
carbon
Figure_14.gif  Angular distribution of neutron spectra from 30-MeV protons on
iron
Figure_15.gif  Angular distribution of neutron spectra from 30-MeV protons on
copper
Figure_16.gif  Angular distribution of neutron spectra from 30-MeV protons on
lead
Figure_17.gif  Angular distributions of neutrons integrated from 3-MeV to 30-MeV

from 30-MeV protons
Figure_18.gif  Angular distribution of neutron energy spectra from 52-MeV
protons on carbon.
Figure_19.gif  Angular distribution of neutron energy spectra from 52-MeV
protons on iron.
Figure_20.gif  Angular distribution of neutron energy spectra from 52-MeV
protons on copper.
Figure_21.gif  Angular distribution of neutron energy spectra from 52-MeV
protons on lead.
Figure_22.gif  Angular distributions of neutrons integrated from 5-MeV to 52-MeV

from 52-MeV protons.

NEA-1552/31
AVF75-a.html      Information file
AVF75-e.html      Tables with numerical data
Figure_1.html     Fig. 1: Experimental Setup
Figure_2.html     Fig. 2: Source Neutron Spectra
Figure_3.html     Fig. 3: Transmitted Neutron Spectra
Figure_4.html     Fig. 4: Measured Neutron Spectrum
Figure_5.html     Fig. 5: Calculated Neutron Spectrum
appendix_A.html   Appendix A: The MCNPX model used to calculate source
appendix_B.html   Appendix B: The MCNPX model
Figure_6.html     Fig. 6: Calculated Transmission Neutron Spectrum behind
Concrete Shields

NEA-1552/32
cerf-a.htm   Information file
ActivationReport1983_Graham_1.pdf  Ref. [1]
ActivationReport1983_Graham_2.pdf  Ref. [2]

NEA-1552/33
INTRO   Introduction and preface (WP5 and TXT formats)
CP2     Thick Target Neutron Yield Problems (WP5 and TXT formats)
CH3     Secondary Neutron and Photon Transmission Problems (WP5 and TXT formats)

APP     Reaction Cross Sections for Benchmark Problems (Appendix) (WP5 and TXT)
CECIL.TXT  Absolute neutron yield for each targets (Table 1.2.3)
           Low energy neutron yields (Tables 1.2.4 and 1.2.5)
BAN.TXT   Measured distribution of saturated activities in the beam stop (Tables

2.3.1 and 2.3.2)
          Densities and atomic composition (Table 2.3.4)
EYSS.TXT  Neutron production cross sections for six primary electron energies
between 150 and 266 MeV (Table 1.3.1)
MEIER.TXT Absolute neutron yields for each target (Tables 1.1.3 through 1.1.6)
SHIN.TXT  Neutron source spectrum (Table 2.2.2) photon source spectrum above 1.8

MeV at 383 cm point from the target (Table 2.2.3)
          Absolute energy spectra of neutrons and photons transmitted through
the shield materials (Tables 2.2.4 through 2.2.8)
UWAMINO.TXT The source neutron spectra from the graphite target are given by the

measurement performed with the same detection system at 0, 15, 30 and 70 degree
(Table 2.1.2)
            The source photon spectrum at 0 degree (Table 2.1.3)
            The absolute energy spectra of neutrons and photons at the detector
located in contact with the rear face of the assemblies (Tables 2.1.4 through
2.1.11)
KEK report 90-18 (1990) in PDF
KEK report 92-17 (1993) in PDF
JAERI-Data/Code 94-012 (September 1994) in PDF

NEA-1552/34
p52-abs.htm          Abstract.
p52-exp.htm          Description of Experiment.
P52-fig1.gif         Figure 1: Experimental arrangement. (preview)
P52-fig2.gif         Figure 2: Neutron spectra in graphite.(preview)
P52-fig3.gif         Figure 3: Neutron spectra in iron. (preview)
P52-fig4.gif         Figure 4: Neutron spectra in water. (preview)
P52-fig5.gif         Figure 5: Neutron spectra in ordinary concrete. (preview)
P52-fig6.gif         Figure 6: Photon spectra in graphite. (preview)
P52-fig7.gif         Figure 7: Photon spectra in iron. (preview)
P52-fig8.gif         Figure 8: Photon spectra in water. (preview)
P52-fig9.gif         Figure 9: Photon spectra in ordinary concrete. (preview)
P52-FIG1.TIF         Figure 1: Experimental arrangement. (hq)
P52-FIG2.TIF         Figure 2: Neutron spectra in graphite. (hq)
P52-FIG3.TIF         Figure 3: Neutron spectra in iron. (hq)
P52-FIG4.TIF         Figure 4: Neutron spectra in water. (hq)
P52-FIG5.TIF         Figure 5: Neutron spectra in ordinary concrete. (hq)
P52-FIG6.TIF         Figure 6: Photon spectra in graphite. (hq)
P52-FIG7.TIF         Figure 7: Photon spectra in iron. (hq)
P52-FIG8.TIF         Figure 8: Photon spectra in water. (hq)
P52-FIG9.TIF         Figure 9: Photon spectra in ordinary concrete. (hq)
J94_012.PDF          Reference
52P_1.PDF            Reference
52P_2.PDF            Reference
ITEC_SEA_19_Rev0.pdf Quality evaluation report

NEA-1552/35
himac-a.htm           Abstract
himac-e1.htm          1st. part of experiment description
himac-e2.htm          2nd. part of descrip. (Ne tables)
himac-e3.htm          3rd. part of descrip. (Ar-Si tables)
HIMFig1.pdf           Plane view of the experiment
mcnpxhim.015          MCNPX input file (P. Ortego) - 0 to 15 deg.
mcnpxhim.390          MCNPX input file (P. Ortego) - 30 to 90 deg.
HIMAC_PO.xls          Calculational results by P. Ortego
nse-132.pdf           Paper Nucl. Sci. & Eng.
nima-430.pdf          Paper N. Instr. and Methods
nst-36.pdf            Paper J. of N. Science & Technol.
prc-62.pdf            Paper Physical Review C vol. 62
nim-161.pdf           Cecil et al. on detector efficiency
m001.pdf              Paper by T. Kurosawa et al.
p_ortego.pdf          Paper by P. Ortego
ITEC_SEA_23_Rev0.pdf  Quality evaluation report

NEA-1552/36
himac-conc-abs.htm    Abstract
himac-conc-exp.htm    Description of the experiment
conc-f1a.gif          Fig. 1a: Experimental arrangement at HIMAC
                      of the self-TOF detector
conc-f1b.gif          Fig. 1b: Experimental arrangement at HIMAC
                      of the NE213 detector
conc-f1c.gif          Fig. 1c: Experimental arrangement at HIMAC
                      of the Bi and C Activation detectors
conc-f2.gif           Fig. 2: Schematic drawing of the Self-TOF detector
conc-f3.gif           Fig. 3: Comparison of self-TOF measured
                      and LAHET calculated spectra
conc-f4.gif           Fig. 4: Comparison of NE213 (A) measured
                      and MCNPX calculated spectra
conc-f5.gif           Fig. 5: Comparison of NE213 (B) measured
                      and MCNPX calculated spectra  
conc-f6.gif           Fig. 6: Comparison of Bi and C measured
                      and MCNPX calculated spectra
conc-f7.gif           Fig. 7: Neutron energy spectra with
                      and without the simulation of room floor
conc-f8.gif           Fig. 8: Attenuation profiles of neutron fluences
                      for each detector
conc-f9a.gif          Fig. 9a: Calculational geometry of the MCNPX code
                      - NE213 detector
conc-f9b.gif          Fig. 9b: Calculational geometry of the MCNPX code
                      - activation detectors
mcnp-bi.i             Input data for MCNPX calculations for NE213 detector
                      (behind concrete shield, Bi activation detector)  
conc-sTOF.xls         Neutron spectra by self-TOF tables
                      using Microsoft Excel(tm) format
conc-NE213.xls        Neutron spectra by NE213 tables
                      using Microsoft Excel(tm) format
conc-bi.xls           Neutron spectra by Bi and C tables
                      using Microsoft Excel(tm) format
nse.pdf               Reference
ITEC_SEA_20_Rev0.pdf  Quality evaluation report

NEA-1552/37
himac_fe-abs.htm       Abstract
himac_fe-exp.htm       Description of the experiment
fe-f1a.gif             Fig. 1a: Experimental arrangement at HIMAC
                       of the self-TOF detector
fe-f1b.gif             Fig. 1b: Experimental arrangement at HIMAC
                       of the NE213 detector
fe-f2.gif              Fig. 2: Schematic drawing of the Self-TOF detector
fe-f3.gif              Fig. 3: Comparison of self-TOF measured
                       and MCNPX calculated spectra
fe-f4.gif              Fig. 4: Comparison of NE213 (A) measured
                       and MCNPX calculated spectra
fe-f5.gif              Fig. 5: Comparison of NE213 (B) measured
                       and MCNPX calculated spectra  
fe-f6.gif              Fig. 6: Comparison of measured spectra obtained
                       by self-TOF and NE213 (B) detectors
fe-f7.gif              Fig. 7: Neutron energy spectra with
                       and without the simulation of room floor
fe-f8.gif              Fig. 8: Attenuation profiles of neutron fluences
                       for each detector
fe-f9a.gif             Fig. 9a: Calculational geometry of the MCNPX code
                       - Self-TOF detector
fe-f9b.gif             Fig. 9b: Calculational geometry of the MCNPX code
                       - NE213 detector
mcnp-ne08.i            Input data for MCNPX calculationsc for NE213 detector
                       without concrete floor (behind 80cm-thick iron shield)
mcnp-ne08f.i           Input data for MCNPX calculations for NE213 detector
                       with concrete floor (behind 80cm-thick iron shield)
mcnp-stof04.i          Input data for MCNPX calculations for Self-TOF detector
                       (behind 40cm-thick iron shield)
iron-NE213.xls         Neutron spectra by NE213 tables
                       using Microsoft Excel(tm) format
iron-sTOF.xls          Neutron spectra by self-TOF tables
                       using Microsoft Excel(tm) format
nim-b.pdf              Reference
ITEC_SEA_22_Rev0.pdf   Quality evaluation report

NEA-1552/38
isis-abs.htm         This information file
isis-exp.htm         Description of Experiment
isis-fig1.gif        Fig. 1: Cross-sectional view of the neutron spallation
                     target station with an 800-MeV proton beam
                     at ISIS.(preview)
isis-fig1.tif        Fig. 1: high quality tif
isis-fig2.gif        Fig. 2: Sketches of tantalum target and target assembly
                     with reflectors and moderators(preview)
isis-fig2.tif        Fig. 2: high quality tif
isis-fig3.gif        Fig. 3: Cross-sectional view of the shielding plug above
                     the target vessel.(preview)
isis-fig3.tif        Fig. 3: high quality tif
isis-fig4.gif        Fig. 4: Horizontal and vertical cross-sectional views of
                     iron igloo and additional shield. The five detector
                     positions of "center", "up", "down", "left" and "right"
                     are shown as white circles in the upper figure.(preview)
isis-fig4.tif        Fig. 4: high quality tif
isis-fig5.gif        Fig. 5: Cross-sectional view of the disk
                     and Marinelli-type graphite activation detectors.(preview)
isis-fig5.tif        Fig. 5: high quality tif
isis-fig6.gif        Fig. 6: Cross section data of the 27Al(n,a)24Na
                     reaction from ENDF/B-VI calculated by Fukahori
                     using the ALICE code. (preview)
isis-fig6.tif        Fig. 6: high quality tif
isis-fig7.gif        Fig. 7: Cross-sectional view of indium-oxide
                     multimoderator activation detectors.(preview)
isis-fig7.tif        Fig. 7: high quality tif
isis-fig8.gif        Fig. 8: Comparison of various data on the neutron
                     attenuation length for concrete as a function of the
                     incident proton energy.(preview)
isis-fig8.tif        Fig. 8: high quality tif
isis-fig9.gif        Fig. 9: Experimental setup with a 120-cm-thick additional
                     concrete shield and surrounding iron igloo at the top
                     center of the target station.(preview)
isis-fig9.tif        Fig. 9: high quality tif
isis-fig10.gif       Fig. 10: Experimental setup with a 60-cm-thick additional
                     concrete shield using activation detectors and a Bonner
                     sphere.(preview)
isis-fig10.tif       Fig. 10: high quality tif
isis-fig11.gif       Fig. 11: Experimental setup with a 10-cm-thick additional
                     concrete shield using activation detectors.(preview)
isis-fig11.tif       Fig. 11: high quality tif
isis-fig12.gif       Fig. 12: Measured cross section data of the 12C(n, 2n)
                     reaction (preview)
isis-fig12.tif       Fig. 12: high quality tif
isis-fig13.gif       Fig. 13: Measured and calculated cross section data of the
                     209Bi(n, xn) (x=4~10) reaction.(preview)
isis-fig13.tif       Fig. 13: high quality tif
isis-fig14.gif       Fig. 14: Response functions of indium-loaded
                     multi-moderator detectors and a comparison
                     with the measured data.(preview)
isis-fig14.tif       Fig. 14: high quality tif
isis-fig15.gif       Fig. 15: Proton beam-current history measured at the RIKEN
                     and graph plotted at the accelerator control room (preview)

isis-fig15.tif       Fig. 15: high quality tif
isis-fig16.gif       Fig. 16: Spatial distribution of the 12C(n,2n)11C
                     reaction rate with the thickness of an additional
                     concrete shield.(preview)
isis-fig16.tif       Fig. 16: high quality tif
isis-fig17.gif       Fig. 17: Spatial distribution of the 12C(n,2n)11C
                     reaction rate with the thickness of an
                     additional iron shield.(preview)
isis-fig17.tif       Fig. 17: high quality tif
isis-fig18.gif       Fig. 18: Attenuation profiles of the 12C(n,2n)11C
                     reaction rates as a function of the distance from
                     the shield top at the "center", "up", "down", "left"
                     and "right" positions.(preview)
isis-fig18.tif       Fig. 18: high quality tif
isis-fig19.gif       Fig. 19: Attenuation profiles of the 209Bi(n,xn)210-xBi
                     (x=4~10) reactions at the "center" position for an
                     additional concrete shield and iron shield.(preview)
isis-fig19.tif       Fig. 19: high quality tif
isis-fig20.gif       Fig. 20: Attenuation profiles of the neutron and
                     gamma-ray dose equivalents at the "center" position
                     compared with the 12C(n, 2n) reaction rate for an
                     additional concrete shield and iron shield.(preview)
isis-fig20.tif       Fig. 20: high quality tif
isis-fig21.gif       Fig. 21: Neutron energy spectra on the shield top
                     floor, 60-cm-thick additional concrete shield and
                     30-cm-thick additional iron shield.(preview)
isis-fig21.tif       Fig. 21: high quality tif
isis_nse.pdf         Reference  
KEKrep2002-12.pdf    Reference
ITEC_SEA_21_Rev0.pdf Quality evaluation report

NEA-1552/39
msu-abs.htm            Abstract
msu-exp.htm            Experiment Description
msufig1.pdf            Plane view of the experiment
mcnpxmsu3.i            MCNPX input file (P. ortego)
MSU_MCNPX.xls          Results obtained using the above MCNPX input (P. ortego)
nse-132-1.pdf          Paper N. S. and Eng.
nim-161.pdf            Paper of Cecil et al
ITEC_SEA_18_Rev0.pdf   Quality evaluation report
top ]
17. CATEGORIES
  • Y. Integral Experiments Data, Databases, Benchmarks

Keywords: accelerators, benchmarks, data base systems, data library, experimental data, neutron, photons, shielding.