Computer Programs
CCC-0750 SCALE 6.
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CCC-0750 SCALE 6.

SCALE 6, Modular system for criticality, shielding, source term, fuel depletion/decay, inventories, reactor physics

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The SCALE system was developed for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to satisfy a need for a standardized method of analysis for the evaluation of nuclear fuel facility and package designs. In its present form, the system has the capability to perform criticality, shielding, radiation source term, spent fuel depletion/decay, reactor physics, and sensitivity/uncertainty analyses using well-established functional modules tailored to the SCALE system. See the developers' website and the SCALE 6 electronic notebook for news on SCALE, updates, and tips on running the code.
What's New in SCALE6?
SCALE website:
SCALE electronic notebook:
The CSAS5 control module contains criticality safety analysis sequences that calculate the neutron multiplication factor for one-dimensional (XSDRNPM) and multidimensional (KENO V.a) system models. The CSAS5 module also has the capability to perform criticality searches (optimum, minimum, or specified values of k-eff) on geometry dimensions or nuclide concentrations in KENO V.a. The CSAS6 control module contains criticality safety analysis sequences using the KENO-VI module for multidimensional models with more complex geometries, including hexagonal arrays. Sequences that provide problem-dependent multigroup cross sections for use in stand-alone codes are also available in the CSAS5 module. Both KENO modules can perform continuous energy calculations in SCALE 6.
In addition, sensitivity and uncertainty (S/U) analysis capabilities for criticality safety are included in SCALE. Both 1-D and 3-D sequences plus several auxiliary codes have been developed into a suite of sensitivity and uncertainty analysis codes called TSUNAMI (Tools for Sensitivity and Uncertainty Analysis Methodology Implementation). TSUNAMI contains a number of codes that were developed primarily to assess the degree of applicability of benchmark experiments for use in criticality code validations. However, the sensitivity and uncertainty data produced by these codes can be used in a wide range of studies. Sensitivity coefficients produced by the TSUNAMI sensitivity analysis sequences predict the relative changes in a system's calculated keff value due to changes in the neutron cross-section data. Both TSUNAMI-1D and TSUNAMI-3D fold the sensitivity data with cross-section covariance data to calculate the uncertainty in the calculated keff value due to tabulated uncertainties in the cross-section data. The applicability of benchmark experiments to the criticality safety validation of a given application can be assessed using S/U-based integral indices. The TSUNAMI-IP (Indices and Parameters) code utilizes sensitivity data and cross-section covariance data to produce a number of relational integral indices that can be used to assess system similarity.
Two-dimensional (2-D) spent fuel depletion is available in the TRITON control module. TRITON couples ORIGEN-S depletion calculations with the 2-D flexible mesh discrete ordinates code NEWT. TRITON supports branch calculations that allow calculation of cross sections and their first derivatives with respect to fuel and moderator temperature, moderator density, soluble boron concentration, and control rod insertion, as a function of burnup. These cross sections are stored in a database format that can be retrieved and processed as appropriate for use by core analysis codes. The rigor of the NEWT solution in estimating angular flux distributions combined with the world-recognized accuracy of ORIGEN-S depletion gives TRITON the capability to perform rigorous burnup-dependent physics calculations with few implicit approximations.
Three-dimensional (3-D) Monte Carlo spent fuel depletion is available in SCALE via the TRITON and TRITON6 control modules. TRITON couples ORIGEN-S depletion calculations with KENO V.a, while TRITON6 uses KENO-VI.

ORIGEN-ARP is an automated depletion decay sequence for both Windows and Unix/Linux systems. It includes a Windows graphical user interface (GUI) for ORIGEN-S and ARP (Automated Rapid Processing), which automatically interpolates cross sections on enrichment, burnup, and optionally moderator density using a set of standard basic cross-section libraries for LWR and MOX fuel assembly designs. The interpolated cross sections are passed to ORIGEN-S. Utility codes are provided so users can generate their own ORIGEN-ARP basic cross-section libraries via TRITON.
Other automated criticality safety related sequences include the STARBUCS 3-D burnup credit sequence (combining ORIGEN-ARP with KENO V.a or KENO-VI) and the SMORES 1-D material optimization sequence for criticality safety.
A new general purpose 3-D radiation shielding sequence has been developed for SCALE 6. The MAVRIC control module uses the new Monaco Monte Carlo shielding module to perform analyses with the automated 3-D variance reduction CADIS methodology using module xkba (eXecutable Koch-Baker-Alcouffe) of the new Denovo 3-D discrete ordinates code system. This automated scheme generates 3-D Monte Carlo biasing parameters that enable MAVRIC to calculate accurate doses with outstanding efficiency. The Monaco geometry input is identical to KENO-VI. In addition, the capability to perform criticality accident alarm system (CAAS) analysis using KENO-VI coupled with MAVRIC is provided.
Two other shielding analysis sequences are provided in SCALE. SAS1 analyzes general 1-D shielding problems via XSDRNPM-S. The QADS module analyzes 3-D gamma-ray shielding problems via the point kernel code, QAD-CGGP.
SCALE Standard Composition Library
44-group cross sections based on ENDF/B-V
238-group cross sections based on ENDF/B-V
238-group cross sections based on ENDF/B-VI
238-group cross sections based on ENDF/B-VII
27n, 19g coupled cross sections based on ENDF/B-VII
200n, 47g coupled cross sections based on ENDF/B-VI
200n, 47g coupled cross sections based on ENDF/B-VII
ENDF/B-V continuous energy cross sections for CENTRM
ENDF/B-VI continuous energy cross sections for KENO and CENTRM
ENDF/B-VII continuous energy cross sections for KENO and CENTRM
Albedos and weighting functions for use by KENO
Various cross-section, decay, and yield libraries for ORIGEN-S
ORIGEN-ARP basic cross-section libraries:
- Siemens 14x14
- Westinghouse CE 14x14, 16x16
- Westinghouse 14x14, 15x15, 17x17, 17x17 OFA (Optimized Fuel Assembly)
- GE 7x7, 8x8, 9x9, 10x10
- ABB 8x8
- ATRIUM-9 (9x9), ATRIUM-10 (10x10)
- SVEA-64 (8x8), SVEA-100 (10x10)
- VVER-440 flat enrichment (1.6% - 3.6%)
- VVER-440 profiled enrichment, average 3.82%
- VVER-440 profiled enrichment, average 4.25%
- VVER-440 profiled enrichment, average 4.38%
- VVER-1000
- CANDU 28- and 37-element bundles (previously released as RSICC data package DLC-210)
- AGR (Advanced Gas Cooled Reactor)
- Magnox
- Mixed oxide (MOX) fuel: 8x8, 9x9-1, 9x9-9, 10x10, 14x14, 15x15, 16x16, 17x17, 18x18
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The SCALE system consists of easy-to-use analytical sequences which are automated to perform the necessary data processing and manipulation of well-established computer codes required by the sequence. Thus the user is able to select an analytical sequence characterized by the type of analysis (criticality, shielding, or heat transfer) to be performed and the geometric complexity of the system being analyzed. The user then prepares a single set of input for the control module corresponding to this analytical sequence. The control module input is in terms of easily visualized engineering parameters specified in a simplified, free-form format. The control modules use this information to derive additional parameters and prepare the input for each of the functional modules in the analytical sequence. Provisions have also been made to allow the user to execute the functional modules on a stand-alone basis. The radiation transport codes employ either discrete ordinates or Monte Carlo methods.
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Modeling assumptions that limit or restrict the usefulness or accuracy of the individual module are discussed in the documentation.
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Runtimes for sample problems vary from approximately 12 hours to 24 hours depending on the speed of the machine. Running times are extremely problem dependent and depend heavily on the sequence used and the cross-section library selected. They range from less than one minute for a simple 1-D criticality or depletion/decay problem to several hours for a complex 3-D shielding or sensitivity/uncertainty analysis or 3-D Monte Carlo depletion case.
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The Linux version of SCALE was fully tested on Linux and Intel Mac OSX. It requires approximately 30 GB of disk space to create executables and data libraries and run sample problems.
The Windows version runs on Pentium personal computers with a minimum of 1 GB RAM (4 GB recommended). Nominal hard disk requirements are 30 GB for a complete installation, including space for running sample problems. SCALE runs on Windows XP or later.
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No specified programming language
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Included Windows executables were created using the Intel F95 Fortran compiler for Windows version 10.1 on a 32-bit Pentium 4 under Windows XP. Linux (both 64-bit and 32-bit binaries) and Mac OSX executables created on the systems listed below are included. This version was tested on the following systems.
- Intel Xeon running Fedora Core 5 with Intel Fortran 95 version 11.0 and GNU gcc 4.1.2
- AMD Opteron running RedHat Enterprise Linux 4 with Intel ifort version 10.1 and GNU gcc 3.4.6
- Intel Mac OS X with Intel Fortran 10.1 compiler and GNU gcc 4.0.1
- Windows XP Service Pack 2
- Windows Vista Service Pack 1
If the user chooses to compile executables, note that the xkba module of Denovo uses several GNU General Public License (GPL) open-source vendors. Many of these vendors support options that are not part of the SCALE6 release (parallelism, parallel I/O, high end visualization support, etc.). The following GPL vendor software required to build Denovo for SCALE6 are included in the installation package:
- GNU Scientific Library (GSL) (1.9)
- Trilinos (8.0.4)
- GNU C/C++ and FORTRAN compilers, Versions 4.3.2
For the SCALE 6 release, Denovo has been extensively tested using gcc (4.2.2 and greater) and Intel compilers (10.008 and greater). In general, it is necessary to build the GPL vendor software with the same compiler suite as Denovo. If the SCALE build system cannot find these compilers, it will automatically build them as part of the installation. Intel provides the Math Kernel Library (MKL) that includes a LAPACK/BLAS implementation.
Note that Makefiles are included for creating executables, installing libraries and running sample problems on Unix and Linux. Binary (big endian format) AMPX master libraries are included in this distribution. The "little endian" machines are able to read "big endian" ordered files using options specified in the script that sets necessary environmental variables for this to happen.
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Contributed by: Radiation Safety Information Computational Center
                Oak Ridge National Laboratory
                Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA
Developed by:   Oak Ridge National Laboratory
                Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA
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Keywords: Monte Carlo method, burnup, calculations, complex geometry, continuous energy, criticality, cross sections, depletion, discrete ordinates, dose, gamma ray source, isotope inventory, multigroup, neutron, plotting, sensitivity analysis, spent fuel characterisation, uncertainty analysis.