List of titles sorted by date
Towards a Shared Understanding of Radiological Risks (2020)
Summary Report of the NEA Stakeholder Involvement Workshop on Risk Communication
Unlocking Reductions in the Construction Costs of Nuclear (2020)
A Practical Guide for Stakeholders

Detailed publication list

2021 | 2020 | 2019 | 2018 | page top

Ensuring the Adequacy of Funding Arrangements for Decommissioning and Spent-Fuel Disposal
English, published: 06/18/21
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org
The world’s nuclear power reactors are ageing, with the majority approaching the end of their planned
operational lifetimes in the coming years. The adequacy of funding for decommissioning and radioactive
waste management (RMW) thus increasingly commands the attention of decision-makers.
This report by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) combines a solid conceptual framework with the
insights from twelve case studies of NEA member countries to propose a new approach to the adequacy of
funding that is both robust and flexible.
Current funding systems in NEA countries are overall adequate. The challenges ahead however are
formidable: decommissioning and RWM are moving from design to implementation, returns on assets
are low and societal preferences can evolve. The very long-term nature of the solutions, in particular
for radioactive waste disposal, is also not easily compatible with the economic lifetimes of the original
liability holders.
This requires that all elements of the system – accrued funds, expected future returns, the lifetimes of
nuclear power plants, the expected costs of politically sustainable technical solutions and the liabilities
for residual risks – are reviewed and realigned at regular intervals. Complementing existing approaches
with such a circular approach will strengthen funding arrangements and ensure their adequacy for decades
to come.
Ten Years on from the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident
English, published: 03/04/21
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org
Much has been learnt in the ten years since the Great Eastern Japan Earthquake and the subsequent
accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, but significant challenges still remain.
This report presents the current situation at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant and the
responses by Japanese authorities and the international community since the accident. It will assist both
policymakers and the general public to understand the multi-dimensional issues stemming from the
accident. These include disaster recovery, compensation for damages, nuclear safety, nuclear regulation,
radiation protection, plant decommissioning, radioactive waste management, psycho-social issues in the
community and societal resilience.
Building on two previous reports released by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) in 2013 and 2016,
the report examines the plant’s future, that of the affected region and population, as well as outlining
areas for further improvement and how the international community can help.

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Small Modular Reactors: Challenges and Opportunities
English, published: 03/23/21
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org
Small Modular Reactors (SMRs) are gaining recognition among policymakers and industry players
as a promising nuclear technology. SMRs can be defined as nuclear reactors with a power output
between 10 MWe and 300 MWe that incorporate by design higher modularisation, standardisation and
factory-based construction levels enabling more predictable delivery models based on the economies
of series. Today, more than 50 concepts are under development covering a wide range of technology
approaches and maturity levels. The value proposition of the SMR technology also includes potential
financing and system integration benefits. These attractive features, however, rely on a business case
that requires the development of a global SMR market to become economically viable. Large-scale
deployment of SMRs faces several technical, economic, regulatory and supply chain challenges and
will need considerable governmental efforts and efficient international collaborative frameworks to be
realised in the next decade.
Nuclear Energy Data 2020 - Donnés sur l'énergie nucléaire 2020
English, published: 02/26/21
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org
Les Donnees sur l?energie nucleaire, compilation annuelle de statistiques et de rapports nationaux
preparee par l?Agence de l?OCDE pour l?energie nucleaire, presentent la situation de l?energie nucleaire
dans les pays membres de l?AEN et dans la zone de l?OCDE. Les informations communiquees par les
gouvernements comprennent des statistiques sur la production d?electricite totale et nucleaire, les
capacites et les besoins du cycle du combustible et, lorsqu?elles sont disponibles, des projections jusqu?en
2040. Les rapports nationaux proposent une synthese des politiques energetiques, de la situation des
programmes electronucleaires et des evolutions du cycle du combustible.
En 2020, la pandemie de COVID-19 a mis en avant l?importance de la securite de l?approvisionnement
en electricite dans nos societes modernes. S?il est difficile d?evaluer les consequences a long terme sur
la production d?electricite, on observe que, pendant la crise, l?energie nucleaire a continue de soutenir la
securite d?approvisionnement et demeure, avec les renouvelables, l?une des sources d?electricite les plus
resilientes. En 2019, les centrales nucleaires ont continue de fournir de grandes quantites d?electricite en
base faiblement carbonee, et ce dans un contexte de forte concurrence avec les combustibles fossiles
bon marche et les energies renouvelables. Les pays decides a inclure ou conserver le nucleaire dans leur
bouquet energetique ont poursuivi leurs projets de deploiement ou d?augmentation de leur puissance
nucleaire installee. Ainsi, des projets de construction progressent en Finlande, en Hongrie,
au RoyaumeUni, en Russie et en Turquie. De plus amples informations sur ces evolutions et
d?autres developpements sont fournies dans les nombreux tableaux, graphiques et rapports nationaux
que contient cet ouvrage. Cette publication contient des < StatLinks >. Fonctionnant comme un lien internet,
un StatLink fournit l?acces a la feuille de calcul correspondante.
Towards a Shared Understanding of Radiological Risks
Summary Report of the NEA Stakeholder Involvement Workshop on Risk Communication
English, published: 02/26/21
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org
The decisions made about exposure to ionising radiation tend to be driven by subjective judgements about
the health risks that radiation exposure may cause. In order to reach decisions that are effective and
sustainable, it is essential for nuclear safety regulators, governments, nuclear facility operators and other
nuclear energy decision makers to communicate scientific, technical and regulatory information regarding
radiological and other risks to all stakeholders. Communicating such information can be complex since
people judge and evaluate risks differently depending on the context and on their perceptions of risk.
In this context, the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) organised the “Stakeholder Involvement Workshop
on Risk Communication: Towards a Shared Understanding of Radiological Risks” in September 2019.
The workshop provided an opportunity for participants to share perspectives and lessons learnt in risk
communication, identifying what has been effective and what has been less effective in the various cases.
By understanding how situation-specific factors influence risk communication, a common framework
addressing such circumstances can begin to emerge.
This report attempts to capture the collective wisdom generated over the three days of interactions in the
hope that the knowledge gained from this workshop will benefit governments and citizens alike.
Methods for Assessing and Strengthening the Safety Culture of the Regulatory Body
English, published: 02/22/21
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org
It is essential that organisations in the nuclear community maintain a healthy safety culture to achieve
common goals regarding the safe operation of nuclear facilities and the safe use of nuclear material.
Regulatory bodies are no exception, as a key element of the interconnected system which includes
licensees, research institutions, technical support organisations, as well as governmental organisations
and other stakeholders. By their very nature, regulatory bodies deeply influence the safety culture and
the safety of the organisations they regulate and oversee. Based on their regulatory strategy, the way
they carry out their daily oversight work, the type of relationship they cultivate with licensees, the values
they convey and the importance they give to safety, regulatory bodies profoundly impact the licensees’
safety culture, their sense of responsibility for safety and, by extension, the safety of their installations.
Regulatory bodies apply a number of methods, practices and approaches to foster and sustain a healthy
safety culture. This report provides an overview and practical examples to build the regulatory bodies’
safety culture competence and to perform self-reflection and self-assessment with regard to their own
safety culture and its impact on the safety culture of the organisations they oversee. Drawing directly
from the experiences from OECD Nuclear Energy Agency member countries, the report discusses effective
methods to disseminate safety culture throughout the regulatory body, to build competence in safety
culture, and to develop self-reflection and self-assessment activities. Finally, the report presents ten
conclusions based on lessons learnt and best practices to inspire managers to continuously develop their
regulatory body’s safety culture.
Uranium 2020: Resources, Production and Demand
English, published: 12/24/20
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org
Uranium is the raw material used to produce fuel for long-lived nuclear power facilities, necessary
for the generation of significant amounts of low-carbon electricity and other uses, such as heat and
hydrogen production, for decades to come. Although a valuable commodity, major producing countries
limited total production in recent years in response to a depressed uranium market. Uranium production
cuts have unexpectedly deepened with the onset of the global COVID-19 pandemic in early 2020,
leading to some questions being raised about future uranium supply.
This 28th edition of the “Red Book”, a recognised world reference on uranium jointly prepared by the
Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), provides analyses and
information from 45 producing and consuming countries in order to address these and other questions.
The present edition reviews world uranium market fundamentals and presents data on global uranium
exploration, resources, production and reactor-related requirements. It offers updated information on
established uranium production centres and mine development plans, as well as projections of nuclear
generating capacity and reactor-related requirements through 2040.
International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) Handbook 2020
English, published: 12/24/20
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.orgdownload/science/icsbep-handbook/CD2020/
The International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) Handbook contains criticality safety benchmark specifications that have been derived from experiments that were performed at various critical facilities around the world. The benchmark specifications are intended for use by criticality and safety analysts as well as nuclear data evaluators to validate calculational techniques and data. The handbook is produced by the ICSBEP working group, under the aegis of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA). While co-ordination and administration of the ICSBEP is undertaken by the NEA, each participating country is responsible for the administration, technical direction, and priorities of the project within their respective countries.
The evaluated criticality safety benchmark data in the 2020 edition contains 582 evaluations with benchmark specifications for 5 053 critical, near-critical or subcritical configurations, 45 criticality alarm placement/shielding configurations with multiple dose points for each, and 237 configurations which have been categorised as fundamental physics measurements that are relevant to criticality safety applications.
New to the handbook are the first experiments from the Thermal/Epithermal eXperiments (TEX) program that were performed at the National Critical Experiments Research Center (NCERC) in the USA.
Two Decades of Safety Case Development: IGSC 20th Anniversary Brochure
English, published: 12/21/20
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org
Projected Costs of Generating Electricity - 2020 Edition
English, published: 12/10/20
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org
This joint report by the International Energy Agency (IEA) and the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) is the ninth in a series of studies on electricity generating costs. As countries work towards ensuring an electricity supply that is reliable, affordable and increasingly low carbon, it is crucial that policymakers, modellers and experts have at their disposal reliable information on the cost of generation. This report includes cost data on power generation from natural gas, coal, nuclear, and a broad range of renewable technologies. For the first time, information on the costs of storage technologies, the long-term operation of nuclear power plants and fuel cells is also included. Also for the first time, the report is also accompanied by an online Levelised Cost of Electricity Calculator. The calculator allows for easy download of all data tables in the report, and empowers the user to examine the impact of changing select variables, such as the discount rate, fuel prices or the cost of carbon.

The detailed plant-level cost data for 243 power plants in 24 countries, both OECD and non-OECD, is based on the contributions of participating governments and has been treated according to a common methodology in order to provide transparent and comparable results. Low-carbon electricity systems are characterised by increasingly complex interactions of different technologies with different functions in order to ensure reliable supply at all times. The 2020 edition of Projected Costs of Generating Electricity thus puts into context the plain metric for plant-level cost, the levelised cost of electricity (LCOE). System effects and system costs are identified with the help of the broader value-adjusted LCOE, or VALCOE metric. Extensive sensitivity analyses and five essays treating broader issues that are crucial in electricity markets round out the complementary information required to make informed decisions. A key insight is the importance of the role the electricity sector plays in decarbonising the wider energy sector through electrification and sector coupling.

The key insight of the 2020 edition of Projected Costs of Generating Electricity is that the levelised costs of electricity generation of low-carbon generation technologies are falling and are increasingly below the costs of conventional fossil fuel generation. Renewable energy costs have continued to decrease in recent years and their costs are now competitive, in LCOE terms, with dispatchable fossil fuel-based electricity generation in many countries. The cost of electricity from new nuclear power plants remains stable, yet electricity from the long-term operation of nuclear power plants constitutes the least cost option for low-carbon generation. At the assumed carbon price of USD 30 per tonne of CO2 and pending a breakthrough in carbon capture and storage, coal-fired power generation is slipping out of the competitive range. The cost of gas-fired power generation has decreased due to lower gas prices and confirms the latter’s role in the transition. Readers will find a wealth of details and analysis, supported by over 100 figures and tables, that establish the continuing value of the Projected Costs of Generating Electricity as an indispensable tool for decision-makers, researchers and experts interested in identifying and comparing the costs of different generating options in today’s electricity sector.
Nuclear Law Bulletin No. 104
English, published: 10/27/20
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org,-Flagship&text=The%20Nuclear%20Law%20Bulletin%20is,information%20on%20nuclear%20law%20developments.
The Nuclear Law Bulletin is a unique international publication for both professionals and academics in the field of nuclear law. It provides readers with authoritative and comprehensive information on nuclear law developments. Published free online twice a year in both English and French, it features topical articles written by renowned legal experts, covers legislative developments worldwide and reports on relevant case law, bilateral and international agreements as well as regulatory activities of international organisations.
International Roundtable on the Final Disposal of High-Level Radioactive Waste and Spent Fuel: Summary Report
English, published: 08/04/20
Available online at:
Worldwide consensus exists within the international community that geological repositories can provide the necessary long-term safety and security to isolate long-lived radioactive waste from the human environment over long timescales. Such repositories are also feasible to construct using current technologies. However, proving the technical merits and safety of repositories, while satisfying societal and political requirements, has been a challenge in many countries.
The Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry of Japan, the United States Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy and the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency co-organised a forum for discussion with the aim of developing a strategy for addressing this challenge through international co-operation. At the International Roundtable meetings, policymakers from 15 countries and the International Atomic Energy Agency gathered and shared knowledge about public understanding and technological development related to final disposal.
This report is a summary of the discussions held and experiences shared during the two sessions of the International Roundtable on Final Disposal of High-Level Radioactive Waste and Spent Fuel, held on 14 October 2019 and 7 February 2020 in Paris, France.
Unlocking Reductions in the Construction Costs of Nuclear
A Practical Guide for Stakeholders
English, published: 07/02/20
Available online at:
Today, with the completion of First-of-a-Kind Gen-III nuclear reactors, the nuclear sector is at a critical juncture. These reactors have led in several parts of the world to delays and construction costs overruns that have challenged the competitiveness of nuclear power and are driving the risk perception of future projects. Against this background, a review of historical and recent lessons learnt from nuclear and non-nuclear project offers ample evidence that nuclear new build can be delivered cost and time-effectively.

This study assesses the policy and governance frameworks needed to drive positive learning and continuous industrial performance for nuclear new build. The study also explores the risk allocation and mitigation priorities needed to define adequate financing schemes for these projects. In the longer-term, it identifies cost reduction opportunities associated with the harmonisation of code and standards and licensing regimes and new innovative designs (i.e. small modular reactors and advanced reactors).
Management and Disposal of High-Level Radioactive Waste: Global Progress and Solutions
English, published: 06/29/20
Available online at:
Radioactive waste results from many different activities in health care, industry, research, and power production. All such waste must be managed safely, with the protection of human health and the environment as the highest priority. After decades of research, the international scientific community is now confident that placing high level radioactive waste in deep geological repositories (DGRs) is both safe and effective.

The government of each country has the absolute right and responsibility to implement the energy and environmental policies it believes are best. In the case of the disposal of radioactive waste, it is paramount that these debates should be informed by objective facts. This report therefore aims to provide the general reader with the current state of knowledge with regards to the management of high level radioactive waste in DGRs.
Insights from Leaders in Nuclear Energy: Innovative Leadership
English, published: 05/29/20
Available online at:
Insights from Leaders in Nuclear Energy shares personal insights through a series of in-depth conversations between the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency Director-General and leading figures in the sector. Each conversation explores the current issues and offers new ways to address challenges and aim for excellence.

William D. Magwood IV, Director-General of the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), sat down with Rumina Velshi, President and Chief Executive Officer of the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, on 17 January 2020. Ms Velshi has extensive experience in the energy sector, including its technical, regulatory and adjudicatory aspects. She visited the NEA to attend briefings on key programmes and activities and to have an open discussion on issues related to leadership in today’s nuclear energy sector. In a wide-ranging discussion, she shared her perspectives as a leader in nuclear safety, her long-standing involvement in nuclear energy regulation and her activities promoting careers in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). The conversation covered the important aspects of leadership, current issues affecting an organisation that promotes nuclear safety, preparation for future nuclear energy technologies and the achievement of a better gender balance in the workforce.
Specifications for the Generalised Nuclear Database Structure (GNDS)
English, published: 05/25/20
Available online at:
Knowledge of basic nuclear physics data is essential for the modelling and safe operation of all types of nuclear facilities. The de facto international standard format, Evaluated Nuclear Data File 6 (ENDF-6) format, was designed originally for 1960s era punch-card readers. The replacement of the system of codes built off this format has been recognised as an important initiative.
The ability to use increasingly high-fidelity nuclear physics, coupled to accurate uncertainties, is crucial for advanced simulations. This in turn requires more detailed and accurate data, then requiring improvements to the data storage standards, simultaneously enabling robust Quality Assurance and transfer of knowledge to the next generation.
In 2013, the NEA Working Party on International Nuclear Data Evaluation Co-operation (WPEC) launched a project to review the requirements for an international replacement for ENDF-6. The recommendations prompted the creation of a new Expert Group on a Generalised Nuclear Data Structure (GNDS) in 2016 that has used these requirements as the framework for a new format specification. Following rigorous international review, version 1.9 was unanimously approved as the first official published format.

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Nuclear Fuel Cycle: Strategies and Considerations for the Back-end
English, published: 02/24/21
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org
A wealth of technical information exists on nuclear fuel cycle options – combinations of nuclear fuel
types, reactor types, used or spent nuclear fuel (SNF) treatments, and disposal schemes – and most
countries with active nuclear power programmes conduct some level of research and development
on advanced nuclear fuel cycles. However, perhaps because of the number of options that exist, it is
often difficult for policy makers to understand the nature and magnitude of the differences between
the various options.
This report explores the fuel cycle options and the differentiating characteristics of these options. It
also describes the driving factors for decisions related to both the development of the fuel cycle and
the characteristics resulting from implementing the option. It includes information on the current
status and future plans for power reactors, reprocessing facilities, disposal facilities, and the status of
research and development activities in several countries. It is designed for policy makers to understand
the differences among the fuel cycle options in a way that is concise, understandable, and based on
the existing technologies, while keeping technical discussions to a minimum.
Final Report of the Expert Group on Waste Inventorying and Reporting Methodology
English, published: 11/25/20
Available online at:
Radioactive waste inventory data are an essential element in the development of a national radioactive waste management programme since these data affect the design and selection of the ultimate disposal methods. Inventory data are generally presented as an amount of radioactive waste under various waste classes, according to the waste classification scheme developed and adopted by the country or national programme in question. Various waste classification schemes have thus evolved in most countries, and these schemes classify radioactive waste according to its origin, to criteria related to the protection of workers or the physical, chemical and radiological properties of the waste and the planned disposal method(s).
The diversity in classification schemes across countries has restricted the possibility of comparing waste inventories and led to difficulties in interpreting waste management practices, both nationally and internationally. To help improve this situation, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) developed a methodology that ensures consistency of national radioactive waste and spent fuel inventory data by presenting them in a common scheme in direct connection with accepted management strategy and disposal routes. This report provides the final version of the methodology and presenting scheme for spent nuclear fuel and the radioactive waste of all existing types. Additionally, there are recommendations in the report on how to enhance the comparability of national inventory data using the NEA methodology. The NEA support for joint efforts of the International Atomic Energy Agency and the European Commission on harmonisation of the reporting process by member countries to the Joint Convention and European Council Directive 2011/70 EURATOM is also presented in the report.
Optimising the Management of Low-level Radioactive Waste and Materials from Decommissioning
English, published: 10/23/20
Available online at:
Low-level and very low-level waste represent the vast majority of radioactive waste by volume from decommissioning activity at nuclear facilities around the world, but they are only a small fraction of the radiological inventory. The availability of the appropriate waste management infrastructure, including a robust process and procedures for managing waste, waste disposal routes and an appropriate safety culture, are key components of an optimal approach to decommissioning. Recognising the important role of an effective waste management strategy in the delivery of a successful decommissioning programme, the former NEA Working Party on
Decommissioning and Dismantling (WPDD) established an expert group in 2016 – the Task Group on Optimising Management of Low-Level Radioactive Materials and Waste from Decommissioning (TGOM) – to examine how countries manage (very) low-level radioactive waste and materials arising from decommissioning.
This report explores elements contributing to the optimisation of national approaches at a strategic level, describing the main factors and the relationships between them. It also identifies constraints in the practical implementation of optimisation based on
experience in NEA member countries.

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Storage of Radioactive Waste and Spent Fuel
English, published: 09/08/20
Available online at:
Safety remains the most important factor in managing radioactive waste and spent fuel resulting from the generation of nuclear energy. General consensus has emerged worldwide that deep geological repositories are the safest option for long-lived radioactive waste, and that constructing repositories is feasible using current technologies. However, until repositories become available, radioactive waste must be managed safely and securely so that the risks posed to human health and to the environment over the long timescales involved are minimised.

This report examines the predisposal phase of radioactive waste management programmes in NEA member countries for all types of waste from high-level to intermediate- and low-level waste, and spent fuel. It reviews regulations, policies, strategies and financial issues in member countries, as well as best practices both in terms of storage and transport. The report is primarily directed at decision makers with a technical knowledge of the subject.