<![CDATA[NEA publications]]> /tools/publication Fri, 18 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Fri, 18 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0200 contact@oecd-nea.org (OECD Nuclear Energy Agency) Copyright 2024 OECD/NEA /tools/images/nea.jpg <![CDATA[NEA publications]]> /tools/publication NEA Framework en-gb http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 1440 <![CDATA[Ensuring the Adequacy of Funding Arrangements for Decommissioning and Spent-Fuel Disposal]]> http://www.oecd-nea.org/tools/publication?id=7549 7549 operational lifetimes in the coming years. The adequacy of funding for decommissioning and radioactive
waste management (RMW) thus increasingly commands the attention of decision-makers.
This report by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) combines a solid conceptual framework with the
insights from twelve case studies of NEA member countries to propose a new approach to the adequacy of
funding that is both robust and flexible.
Current funding systems in NEA countries are overall adequate. The challenges ahead however are
formidable: decommissioning and RWM are moving from design to implementation, returns on assets
are low and societal preferences can evolve. The very long-term nature of the solutions, in particular
for radioactive waste disposal, is also not easily compatible with the economic lifetimes of the original
liability holders.
This requires that all elements of the system – accrued funds, expected future returns, the lifetimes of
nuclear power plants, the expected costs of politically sustainable technical solutions and the liabilities
for residual risks – are reviewed and realigned at regular intervals. Complementing existing approaches
with such a circular approach will strengthen funding arrangements and ensure their adequacy for decades
to come.]]>
Fri, 18 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0200
<![CDATA[Small Modular Reactors: Challenges and Opportunities]]> http://www.oecd-nea.org/tools/publication?id=7560 7560 as a promising nuclear technology. SMRs can be defined as nuclear reactors with a power output
between 10 MWe and 300 MWe that incorporate by design higher modularisation, standardisation and
factory-based construction levels enabling more predictable delivery models based on the economies
of series. Today, more than 50 concepts are under development covering a wide range of technology
approaches and maturity levels. The value proposition of the SMR technology also includes potential
financing and system integration benefits. These attractive features, however, rely on a business case
that requires the development of a global SMR market to become economically viable. Large-scale
deployment of SMRs faces several technical, economic, regulatory and supply chain challenges and
will need considerable governmental efforts and efficient international collaborative frameworks to be
realised in the next decade.]]>
Tue, 23 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0100
<![CDATA[Ten Years on from the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident]]> http://www.oecd-nea.org/tools/publication?id=7558 7558 accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, but significant challenges still remain.
This report presents the current situation at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant and the
responses by Japanese authorities and the international community since the accident. It will assist both
policymakers and the general public to understand the multi-dimensional issues stemming from the
accident. These include disaster recovery, compensation for damages, nuclear safety, nuclear regulation,
radiation protection, plant decommissioning, radioactive waste management, psycho-social issues in the
community and societal resilience.
Building on two previous reports released by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) in 2013 and 2016,
the report examines the plant’s future, that of the affected region and population, as well as outlining
areas for further improvement and how the international community can help.]]>
Thu, 04 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0100
<![CDATA[Nuclear Energy Data 2020 - Donnés sur l'énergie nucléaire 2020]]> http://www.oecd-nea.org/tools/publication?id=7556 7556 preparee par l?Agence de l?OCDE pour l?energie nucleaire, presentent la situation de l?energie nucleaire
dans les pays membres de l?AEN et dans la zone de l?OCDE. Les informations communiquees par les
gouvernements comprennent des statistiques sur la production d?electricite totale et nucleaire, les
capacites et les besoins du cycle du combustible et, lorsqu?elles sont disponibles, des projections jusqu?en
2040. Les rapports nationaux proposent une synthese des politiques energetiques, de la situation des
programmes electronucleaires et des evolutions du cycle du combustible.
En 2020, la pandemie de COVID-19 a mis en avant l?importance de la securite de l?approvisionnement
en electricite dans nos societes modernes. S?il est difficile d?evaluer les consequences a long terme sur
la production d?electricite, on observe que, pendant la crise, l?energie nucleaire a continue de soutenir la
securite d?approvisionnement et demeure, avec les renouvelables, l?une des sources d?electricite les plus
resilientes. En 2019, les centrales nucleaires ont continue de fournir de grandes quantites d?electricite en
base faiblement carbonee, et ce dans un contexte de forte concurrence avec les combustibles fossiles
bon marche et les energies renouvelables. Les pays decides a inclure ou conserver le nucleaire dans leur
bouquet energetique ont poursuivi leurs projets de deploiement ou d?augmentation de leur puissance
nucleaire installee. Ainsi, des projets de construction progressent en Finlande, en Hongrie,
au RoyaumeUni, en Russie et en Turquie. De plus amples informations sur ces evolutions et
d?autres developpements sont fournies dans les nombreux tableaux, graphiques et rapports nationaux
que contient cet ouvrage. Cette publication contient des < StatLinks >. Fonctionnant comme un lien internet,
un StatLink fournit l?acces a la feuille de calcul correspondante.]]>
Fri, 26 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0100
<![CDATA[Towards a Shared Understanding of Radiological Risks]]> http://www.oecd-nea.org/tools/publication?id=7554 7554 the health risks that radiation exposure may cause. In order to reach decisions that are effective and
sustainable, it is essential for nuclear safety regulators, governments, nuclear facility operators and other
nuclear energy decision makers to communicate scientific, technical and regulatory information regarding
radiological and other risks to all stakeholders. Communicating such information can be complex since
people judge and evaluate risks differently depending on the context and on their perceptions of risk.
In this context, the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) organised the “Stakeholder Involvement Workshop
on Risk Communication: Towards a Shared Understanding of Radiological Risks” in September 2019.
The workshop provided an opportunity for participants to share perspectives and lessons learnt in risk
communication, identifying what has been effective and what has been less effective in the various cases.
By understanding how situation-specific factors influence risk communication, a common framework
addressing such circumstances can begin to emerge.
This report attempts to capture the collective wisdom generated over the three days of interactions in the
hope that the knowledge gained from this workshop will benefit governments and citizens alike.]]>
Fri, 26 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0100
<![CDATA[Nuclear Fuel Cycle: Strategies and Considerations for the Back-end]]> http://www.oecd-nea.org/tools/publication?id=7469 7469 types, reactor types, used or spent nuclear fuel (SNF) treatments, and disposal schemes – and most
countries with active nuclear power programmes conduct some level of research and development
on advanced nuclear fuel cycles. However, perhaps because of the number of options that exist, it is
often difficult for policy makers to understand the nature and magnitude of the differences between
the various options.
This report explores the fuel cycle options and the differentiating characteristics of these options. It
also describes the driving factors for decisions related to both the development of the fuel cycle and
the characteristics resulting from implementing the option. It includes information on the current
status and future plans for power reactors, reprocessing facilities, disposal facilities, and the status of
research and development activities in several countries. It is designed for policy makers to understand
the differences among the fuel cycle options in a way that is concise, understandable, and based on
the existing technologies, while keeping technical discussions to a minimum.]]>
Wed, 24 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0100
<![CDATA[Methods for Assessing and Strengthening the Safety Culture of the Regulatory Body]]> http://www.oecd-nea.org/tools/publication?id=7535 7535 common goals regarding the safe operation of nuclear facilities and the safe use of nuclear material.
Regulatory bodies are no exception, as a key element of the interconnected system which includes
licensees, research institutions, technical support organisations, as well as governmental organisations
and other stakeholders. By their very nature, regulatory bodies deeply influence the safety culture and
the safety of the organisations they regulate and oversee. Based on their regulatory strategy, the way
they carry out their daily oversight work, the type of relationship they cultivate with licensees, the values
they convey and the importance they give to safety, regulatory bodies profoundly impact the licensees’
safety culture, their sense of responsibility for safety and, by extension, the safety of their installations.
Regulatory bodies apply a number of methods, practices and approaches to foster and sustain a healthy
safety culture. This report provides an overview and practical examples to build the regulatory bodies’
safety culture competence and to perform self-reflection and self-assessment with regard to their own
safety culture and its impact on the safety culture of the organisations they oversee. Drawing directly
from the experiences from OECD Nuclear Energy Agency member countries, the report discusses effective
methods to disseminate safety culture throughout the regulatory body, to build competence in safety
culture, and to develop self-reflection and self-assessment activities. Finally, the report presents ten
conclusions based on lessons learnt and best practices to inspire managers to continuously develop their
regulatory body’s safety culture.]]>
Mon, 22 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0100
<![CDATA[Uranium 2020: Resources, Production and Demand]]> http://www.oecd-nea.org/tools/publication?id=7551 7551 for the generation of significant amounts of low-carbon electricity and other uses, such as heat and
hydrogen production, for decades to come. Although a valuable commodity, major producing countries
limited total production in recent years in response to a depressed uranium market. Uranium production
cuts have unexpectedly deepened with the onset of the global COVID-19 pandemic in early 2020,
leading to some questions being raised about future uranium supply.
This 28th edition of the “Red Book”, a recognised world reference on uranium jointly prepared by the
Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), provides analyses and
information from 45 producing and consuming countries in order to address these and other questions.
The present edition reviews world uranium market fundamentals and presents data on global uranium
exploration, resources, production and reactor-related requirements. It offers updated information on
established uranium production centres and mine development plans, as well as projections of nuclear
generating capacity and reactor-related requirements through 2040.]]>
Thu, 24 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0100
<![CDATA[International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) Handbook 2020]]> http://www.oecd-nea.org/tools/publication?id=7520 7520 The evaluated criticality safety benchmark data in the 2020 edition contains 582 evaluations with benchmark specifications for 5 053 critical, near-critical or subcritical configurations, 45 criticality alarm placement/shielding configurations with multiple dose points for each, and 237 configurations which have been categorised as fundamental physics measurements that are relevant to criticality safety applications.
New to the handbook are the first experiments from the Thermal/Epithermal eXperiments (TEX) program that were performed at the National Critical Experiments Research Center (NCERC) in the USA.]]>
Thu, 24 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0100
<![CDATA[Two Decades of Safety Case Development: IGSC 20th Anniversary Brochure]]> http://www.oecd-nea.org/tools/publication?id=7559 7559 Mon, 21 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0100 <![CDATA[Projected Costs of Generating Electricity - 2020 Edition]]> http://www.oecd-nea.org/tools/publication?id=7531 7531
The detailed plant-level cost data for 243 power plants in 24 countries, both OECD and non-OECD, is based on the contributions of participating governments and has been treated according to a common methodology in order to provide transparent and comparable results. Low-carbon electricity systems are characterised by increasingly complex interactions of different technologies with different functions in order to ensure reliable supply at all times. The 2020 edition of Projected Costs of Generating Electricity thus puts into context the plain metric for plant-level cost, the levelised cost of electricity (LCOE). System effects and system costs are identified with the help of the broader value-adjusted LCOE, or VALCOE metric. Extensive sensitivity analyses and five essays treating broader issues that are crucial in electricity markets round out the complementary information required to make informed decisions. A key insight is the importance of the role the electricity sector plays in decarbonising the wider energy sector through electrification and sector coupling.

The key insight of the 2020 edition of Projected Costs of Generating Electricity is that the levelised costs of electricity generation of low-carbon generation technologies are falling and are increasingly below the costs of conventional fossil fuel generation. Renewable energy costs have continued to decrease in recent years and their costs are now competitive, in LCOE terms, with dispatchable fossil fuel-based electricity generation in many countries. The cost of electricity from new nuclear power plants remains stable, yet electricity from the long-term operation of nuclear power plants constitutes the least cost option for low-carbon generation. At the assumed carbon price of USD 30 per tonne of CO2 and pending a breakthrough in carbon capture and storage, coal-fired power generation is slipping out of the competitive range. The cost of gas-fired power generation has decreased due to lower gas prices and confirms the latter’s role in the transition. Readers will find a wealth of details and analysis, supported by over 100 figures and tables, that establish the continuing value of the Projected Costs of Generating Electricity as an indispensable tool for decision-makers, researchers and experts interested in identifying and comparing the costs of different generating options in today’s electricity sector.]]>
Thu, 10 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0100
<![CDATA[Two decades of Safety Case Development: An IGSC 20th Anniversary Brochure]]> http://www.oecd-nea.org/tools/publication?id=7562 7562 Wed, 02 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0100 <![CDATA[Final Report of the Expert Group on Waste Inventorying and Reporting Methodology]]> http://www.oecd-nea.org/tools/publication?id=7424 7424 The diversity in classification schemes across countries has restricted the possibility of comparing waste inventories and led to difficulties in interpreting waste management practices, both nationally and internationally. To help improve this situation, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) developed a methodology that ensures consistency of national radioactive waste and spent fuel inventory data by presenting them in a common scheme in direct connection with accepted management strategy and disposal routes. This report provides the final version of the methodology and presenting scheme for spent nuclear fuel and the radioactive waste of all existing types. Additionally, there are recommendations in the report on how to enhance the comparability of national inventory data using the NEA methodology. The NEA support for joint efforts of the International Atomic Energy Agency and the European Commission on harmonisation of the reporting process by member countries to the Joint Convention and European Council Directive 2011/70 EURATOM is also presented in the report.]]> Wed, 25 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0100 <![CDATA[Nuclear Law Bulletin No. 104]]> http://www.oecd-nea.org/tools/publication?id=7533 7533 Tue, 27 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0100 <![CDATA[Optimising the Management of Low-level Radioactive Waste and Materials from Decommissioning]]> http://www.oecd-nea.org/tools/publication?id=7425 7425 Decommissioning and Dismantling (WPDD) established an expert group in 2016 – the Task Group on Optimising Management of Low-Level Radioactive Materials and Waste from Decommissioning (TGOM) – to examine how countries manage (very) low-level radioactive waste and materials arising from decommissioning.
This report explores elements contributing to the optimisation of national approaches at a strategic level, describing the main factors and the relationships between them. It also identifies constraints in the practical implementation of optimisation based on
experience in NEA member countries.]]>
Fri, 23 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0200
<![CDATA[Recommendations for ionization chamber smoke detectors in implementation of radiation protection standards]]> http://www.oecd-nea.org/tools/publication?id=7550 7550 Tue, 13 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0200 <![CDATA[NEA News 38.1]]> http://www.oecd-nea.org/tools/publication?id=7548 7548 Mon, 05 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0200 <![CDATA[Storage of Radioactive Waste and Spent Fuel]]> http://www.oecd-nea.org/tools/publication?id=7406 7406
This report examines the predisposal phase of radioactive waste management programmes in NEA member countries for all types of waste from high-level to intermediate- and low-level waste, and spent fuel. It reviews regulations, policies, strategies and financial issues in member countries, as well as best practices both in terms of storage and transport. The report is primarily directed at decision makers with a technical knowledge of the subject.]]>
Tue, 08 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0200
<![CDATA[International Roundtable on the Final Disposal of High-Level Radioactive Waste and Spent Fuel: Summary Report]]> http://www.oecd-nea.org/tools/publication?id=7529 7529 The Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry of Japan, the United States Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy and the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency co-organised a forum for discussion with the aim of developing a strategy for addressing this challenge through international co-operation. At the International Roundtable meetings, policymakers from 15 countries and the International Atomic Energy Agency gathered and shared knowledge about public understanding and technological development related to final disposal.
This report is a summary of the discussions held and experiences shared during the two sessions of the International Roundtable on Final Disposal of High-Level Radioactive Waste and Spent Fuel, held on 14 October 2019 and 7 February 2020 in Paris, France.]]>
Tue, 04 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0200
<![CDATA[Bulletin de droit nucléaire n°100 – Volume 1/2018]]> http://www.oecd-nea.org/tools/publication?id=7370 7370
Ce numéro inclut notamment les articles suivants : « Les litiges relatifs à l’exploitation de réacteurs nucléaires au Japon” ; Le droit nucléaire vu de l’intérieur : réflexions sur l’élaboration des conventions sur la sûreté » ; « Le Programme nucléaire pacifique des Émirats arabes unis : contexte et histoire ».]]>
Wed, 08 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0200
<![CDATA[Unlocking Reductions in the Construction Costs of Nuclear]]> http://www.oecd-nea.org/tools/publication?id=7530 7530
This study assesses the policy and governance frameworks needed to drive positive learning and continuous industrial performance for nuclear new build. The study also explores the risk allocation and mitigation priorities needed to define adequate financing schemes for these projects. In the longer-term, it identifies cost reduction opportunities associated with the harmonisation of code and standards and licensing regimes and new innovative designs (i.e. small modular reactors and advanced reactors).]]>
Thu, 02 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0200
<![CDATA[Management and Disposal of High-Level Radioactive Waste: Global Progress and Solutions]]> http://www.oecd-nea.org/tools/publication?id=7532 7532
The government of each country has the absolute right and responsibility to implement the energy and environmental policies it believes are best. In the case of the disposal of radioactive waste, it is paramount that these debates should be informed by objective facts. This report therefore aims to provide the general reader with the current state of knowledge with regards to the management of high level radioactive waste in DGRs.]]>
Mon, 29 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0200
<![CDATA[Insights from Leaders in Nuclear Energy: Innovative Leadership]]> http://www.oecd-nea.org/tools/publication?id=7528 7528
William D. Magwood IV, Director-General of the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), sat down with Rumina Velshi, President and Chief Executive Officer of the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, on 17 January 2020. Ms Velshi has extensive experience in the energy sector, including its technical, regulatory and adjudicatory aspects. She visited the NEA to attend briefings on key programmes and activities and to have an open discussion on issues related to leadership in today’s nuclear energy sector. In a wide-ranging discussion, she shared her perspectives as a leader in nuclear safety, her long-standing involvement in nuclear energy regulation and her activities promoting careers in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). The conversation covered the important aspects of leadership, current issues affecting an organisation that promotes nuclear safety, preparation for future nuclear energy technologies and the achievement of a better gender balance in the workforce.]]>
Fri, 29 May 2020 00:00:00 +0200
<![CDATA[Specifications for the Generalised Nuclear Database Structure (GNDS)]]> http://www.oecd-nea.org/tools/publication?id=7519 7519 The ability to use increasingly high-fidelity nuclear physics, coupled to accurate uncertainties, is crucial for advanced simulations. This in turn requires more detailed and accurate data, then requiring improvements to the data storage standards, simultaneously enabling robust Quality Assurance and transfer of knowledge to the next generation.
In 2013, the NEA Working Party on International Nuclear Data Evaluation Co-operation (WPEC) launched a project to review the requirements for an international replacement for ENDF-6. The recommendations prompted the creation of a new Expert Group on a Generalised Nuclear Data Structure (GNDS) in 2016 that has used these requirements as the framework for a new format specification. Following rigorous international review, version 1.9 was unanimously approved as the first official published format.]]>
Mon, 25 May 2020 00:00:00 +0200
<![CDATA[Occupational Exposures at Nuclear Power Plants (2017)]]> http://www.oecd-nea.org/tools/publication?id=7510 7510 As of 31 December 2017, the ISOE programme included 76 participating utilities in 31 countries (346 operating units; 55 shutdown units; 8 units under construction), as well as 28 regulatory authorities in 26 countries. The ISOE database includes occupational exposure information for over 489 units, covering over 85% of the world’s operating commercial power reactors. This report includes global occupational exposure data and analysis collected in 2017, information on the programme events and achievements as well as principal events in participating countries.]]> Wed, 13 May 2020 00:00:00 +0200 <![CDATA[NEA 2019 Annual Report]]> http://www.oecd-nea.org/tools/publication?id=7517 7517 Tue, 12 May 2020 00:00:00 +0200 <![CDATA[Rapport annuel de l'AEN 2019]]> http://www.oecd-nea.org/tools/publication?id=7518 7518 Tue, 12 May 2020 00:00:00 +0200 <![CDATA[Legal Frameworks for Long-Term Operation of Nuclear Power Reactors: Synthèse]]> http://www.oecd-nea.org/tools/publication?id=7523 7523 Thu, 30 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0200 <![CDATA[Nuclear Power Plant Operating Experience 2015-2017]]> http://www.oecd-nea.org/tools/publication?id=7482 7482 Tue, 21 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0200 <![CDATA[Nuclear Law Bulletin No. 103 – Volume 2/2019]]> http://www.oecd-nea.org/tools/publication?id=7502 7502 Feature articles and studies in this issue include: “A perspective on key legal considerations for performance-based regulating” and “Technology-neutral licensing of advanced reactors: Evaluating the past and present NRC framework”.]]> Fri, 27 Mar 2020 00:00:00 +0100