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The subject of aerosols goes back many years and enters into many aspects of science and technology. Optics, heat transfer, biology, meteorology, manufacturing, climate change, infections due to of airborne viruses, and pollution are just a few areas where the behavior of small particles suspended in a gas is of vital importance. With concerns about the consequences of accidents in nuclear reactors and the effects of global nuclear war (i.e., nuclear winter), a great deal of research effort has also been directed towards the dispersal of radioactive aerosols both in closed containers and in the atmosphere.
The purpose of this book is twofold. First, it is intended to give a thorough treatment of the fundamentals of aerosol behavior with rigorous proofs and detailed derivations of the basic equations and removal mechanisms. Second, it is intended to provide practical examples with special attention to radioactive particles and their distribution in size following a radioactive release arising from an accident with a nuclear system.
The book starts with a brief introduction to the applications of aerosol science and the characteristics of aerosols in Chapter 1. The Chapter 2 is devoted to single and two particle motion with respect to both translation and rotation. Chapter 3 contains extensive discussion of the aerosol general dynamical equation and the dependences of aerosol distributions on size, shape, space, composition, radioactivity, and charge are fully detailed. Important particle rate processes of coagulation, condensation, and deposition/resuspension are discussed in the chapters 4, 6 and 7, respectively. The literature in each of these areas is substantial and both the classical and the more recent works as well as the areas where additional research efforts are needed are described. Chapter 5 provides a thorough treatment of the analytical and numerical methods used in solving the various forms of the aerosol dynamical equation. The importance and applications of aerosol science to nuclear technology and, in particular, the nuclear source term are discussed in Chapter 8. The focus in this chapter is on discussions of nuclear accidents that can potentially release large amounts of radioactivity to environment. Natural as well as engineered aerosol processes that limit or affect such releases are discussed.
While there exist several excellent texts on aerosol science and technology, most of the present text covers material that has not been discussed elsewhere with this rigor or in this depth. The book is intended to be useful both as a text and as a reference.
Note to the user: Prof. M.M.R Williams and Prof. Sudarshan K. Loyalka own the copyright of this book and they authorise the OECD/NEA Data Bank to distribute it in PDF format at no cost to requesters, in particular to students.
This book shall neither be further copied nor sold.
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Emeritus Professor of Nuclear Engineering
University of London
Electrowatt Engineering Services (UK) Ltd.
Horsham, Sussex, U.K.
SUDARSHAN K. LOYALKA
Professor of Nuclear, Chemical, and Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering
Particulate Systems Research Center
University of Missouri-Columbia
Columbia, Missouri, U.S.A.
Keywords: aerosols, legacy, radioactive aerosols.