Computer Programs
NEA-1857 PHITS-2.88.
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NEA-1857 PHITS-2.88.

PHITS-2.88, Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System

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Program name Package id Status Status date
PHITS-2.88 NEA-1857/06 Tested 08-OCT-2019

Machines used:

Package ID Orig. computer Test computer
NEA-1857/06 MAC,Linux-based PC,PC Windows,UNIX W.S. Linux-based PC,PC Windows
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The last version of PHITS is currently only available at


A PHITS forum is available at PHITS Forum (


PHITS can deal with the transport of almost all particles (nucleons, nuclei, mesons, photons, and electrons) over wide energy ranges, using several nuclear reaction models and nuclear data libraries (Iwase et al 2002, Niita et al 2006, Sihver et al 2010, Niita et al 2010, and Sato et al 2013). Geometrical configuration of the simulation can be set with GG (General Geometry). Various quantities such as heat deposition, track length and production yields can be deduced from the simulation, using implemented estimator functions called "tally". The code also has a function to draw 2D and 3D figures of the calculated results as well as the setup geometries, using a code ANGEL.


The physical processes included in PHITS can be divided into two categories, transport process and collision process. In the transport process, PHITS can simulate motion of particles under external fields such as magnetic and gravity. Without the external fields, neutral particles move along a straight trajectory with constant energy up to the next collision point. However, charge particles interact many times with electrons in the material losing energy and changing direction. PHITS treats ionization processes not as collision but as a transport process, using the continuous-slowing-down approximation. The average stopping power is given by the charge density of the material and the momentum of the particle taking into account the fluctuations of the energy loss and the angular deviation.


In the collision process, PHITS can simulate the elastic and inelastic interactions as well as decay of particles. The total reaction cross section, or the life time of the particle is an essential quantity in the determination of the mean free path of the transport particle. According to the mean free path, PHITS chooses the next collision point using the Monte Carlo method. To generate the secondary particles of the collision, we need the information of the final states of the collision. For neutron induced reactions in low energy region, PHITS employs the cross sections from evaluated nuclear data libraries JENDL-4.0 (Shibata et al 2011). For high energy neutrons and other particles, we have incorporated several models such as JAM (Nara et al 1999), INCL (Cugnon et al 2011), INCL-ELF (Sawada et al 2012) and JQMD (Niita et al 1995) to simulate nuclear reactions up to 100 GeV/u.


The special features of PHITS are the event generator mode (Iwamoto et al 2007) and the microdosimetric function (Sato et al 2009). Owing to the event generator mode, PHITS can determine the profiles of all secondary particles generated from a single nuclear interaction even using nuclear data libraries, taking the momentum and energy conservations into account. The microdosimetric function gives the probability densities of deposition energy in microscopic sites such as lineal energy y and specific energy z, using the mathematical model developed based on the results of the track structure simulation. These features are very important for various purposes such as the estimations of soft-error rates of semi-conductor devices induced by neutrons, and relative biological effectiveness of charged particles.


From version 2.64, Prompt gamma spectrum and isomer production rates can be precisely estimated, owing to the implementation of EBITEM (ENSDF-Based Isomeric Transition and isomEr production Model). The photo-nuclear reaction model was improved up to 140 MeV.


From version 2.76, electron and photon transport algorithm based on EGS5 (Hirayama et al. 2005) was incorporated. Models for describing photo-nuclear reaction above 140 MeV and muon-nuclear reaction were implemented. Event-generator mode version 2 was developed. Relativistic theory can be considered in the JQMD model.


From version 2.82, the function to read tetrahedral geometry (a kind of polygonal geometry) was implemented. Model for describing nuclear resonance florescence (NRF) was implemented. Point estimator tally (t-point) was developed.


From version 2.88, the functions to output the tally results in xyz-mesh in the input format of ParaView has been implemented. The RI source generation function and weight window generator have also been implemented.



  • Algorithm for de-excitation of nucleus after the evaporation process was improved by implementing EBITEM (ENSDF-Based Isomeric Transition and isomEr production Model). Prompt gamma spectrum can be precisely estimated, including discrete peaks. The isomer production rates can be properly estimated.

  • Quasi-deuteron disintegration, which is the dominant photo-nuclear mechanism between 25 to 140 MeV, was implemented in JQMD. Thus, PHITS2.60 can treat the photo-nuclear reaction up to 140 MeV. The evaporation process after the giant resonance of 6Li, 12C, 14N, 16O was improved by considering the isospin of excited nucleus. Thus the alpha emission is suppressed and neutron and proton emission is enhanced from the giant resonance of these nuclei.

  • Particle transport simulation in the combination field of electro-magnetic fields became available.

  • New energy mesh functions were implemented in [source] section in order to directly define differential energy spectrum in (/MeV) as well as discrete energy spectrum.

  • Several algorithms were optimized to reduce the computational time, especially for xyz mesh tally with istdev = 2. Furthermore, use of memory for tally and ANGEL was improved.

  • Minor revisions and bug fix.

  • Number of cells acceptable in [t-dchain] was increased.

  • The references of PHITS and INCL were changed.

  • 7-digit cell ID became acceptable.

  • Maximum dmax for electron and positron was changed from 1 GeV to 10 GeV.

  • Restart calculation became available even when PHITS did not stop properly.

  • Lattice cell became acceptable in [t-dchain].

  • Avoid the termination of PHITS when some strange error occurs in JAM.

  • New multiplier function k=-120 was added to weight the density.

  • Minor bug fix in SMM, user defined tally, range calculation, transform, electron lost particle, random number generation for MPI, delta-ray production.

  • Nuclear data for some nuclei was revised by following the revision of JENDL-4.0.

  • Bug in reading proton data library was fixed.


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The Monte Carlo method is used.

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PHITS cannot be used for microscopic track-structure simulation, since PHITS adopts the continuous- slowing-down approximation for the ionization process of charged particle.

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24 sec / 2,000 particles for "recommendation/shielding/shielding.inp"
21 sec / 2,000 particles for " recommendation/photontherapy/photontherapy.inp "
on Windows Vista, Intel Core2 Quad Q9550@ 2.83GHz, 4.0GB RAM system.

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The distribution package includes:


  • ANGEL: graphic software to draw 2D and 3D figures of the calculated results as well as the setup geometries.

  • Cross section data libraries: Neutron nuclear data library and photo- and electro-atomic data libraries evaluated mainly based on Japanese Evaluated Nuclear Data Library version 4 (JENDL-4.0).

  • DCHAIN-SP: Program for calculating the time dependence of activation during and after irradiations


The last version of PHITS is currently only available at


A PHITS forum is available at PHITS Forum (


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Package ID Status date Status
NEA-1857/06 08-OCT-2019 Tested at NEADB
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  • H. Hirayama, Y. Namito, A.F. Bielajew, S.J. Wilderman and W.R. Nelson: “The EGS5 Code System” SLAC-R-730 (2005) and KEK Report 2005-8 (2005)

  • Y. Iwamoto, K. Niita, Y. Sakamoto, T. Sato and N. Matsuda: "Validation of the event generator mode in the PHITS code and its application" International Conference on Nuclear Data for Science and Technology 2007, DOI: 10.1051/ndata:07417 (2007)

  • H. Iwase, K. Niita, T. Nakamura: "Development of general-purpose particle and heavy ion transport Monte Carlo code", J. Nucl. Sci. and Technol. 39, 1142 (2002).

  • Y. Nara, N. Otuka, A. Ohnishi, K. Niita, S. Chiba: "Relativistic nuclear collisions at 10A GeV energies from p+Be to Au+Au with the hadronic cascade model", Phys. Rev. C61, 024901 (1999).

  • J. Cugnon, A. Boudard, S. Leray, and D. Mancusi: "New Features of the INCL4 Model for Spallation Reactions", J. Korean Phys. Soc. 59, 955-958 (2011).

  • Y. Sawada, Y. Uozumi, S. Nogamine, T. Yamada, Y. Iwamoto, T. Sato and K. Niita: "Intranuclear cascade with emission of light fragment code implemented in the transport code system PHITS", Nucl. Instr. Meth. B 291, 38-44 (2012).

  • K. Niita, T. Sato, H. Iwase, H. Nose, H. Nakashima, L. Sihver: "PHITS- a particle and heavy ion transport code system", Radiation Measurements 41, 1080 (2006).

  • K. Niita, S. Chiba, T. Maruyama, H. Takada, T. Fukahori, Y. Nakahara and A. Iwamoto: "Analysis of the (N,Xn') reactions by quantum molecular dynamics plus statistical decay model", Phys. Rev. C 52, 2620 (1995)

  • T. Sato, Y. Kase, R. Watanabe, K. Niita and L. Sihver: "Biological dose estimation for charged-particle therapy using an improved PHITS code coupled with a microdosimetric kinetic model", Radiat. Res. 171, 107-117 (2009)

  • T. Sato, K. Niita, N. Matsuda, S. Hashimoto, Y. Iwamoto, S. Noda, T. Ogawa, H. Iwase, H. Nakashima, T. Fukahori, K. Okumura, T. Kai, S. Chiba, T. Furuta and L. Sihver, "Particle and Heavy Ion Transport Code System PHITS, Version 2.52", J. Nucl. Sci. Technol. 50, 913-923 (2013)

  • L. Sihver, T. Sato, K. Gustafsson, D. Mancusi, H. Iwase, K. Niita, H. Nakashima, Y. Sakamoto, Y. Iwamoto and N. Matsuda: "An update about recent developments of the PHITS code" Adv. Space Res. 45, 892-899 (2010).

  • K. Shibata, O. Iwamoto, T. Nakagawa, N. Iwamoto, A. Ichihara, S. Kunieda, S. Chiba, K. Furutaka, N. Otuka, T. Ohsawa, H. Matsunobu, A. Zukeran, S. Kamada and J. Katakura: "JENDL-4.0: A New Library for Nuclear Science and Engineering", J. Nucl. Sci. Technol. 48, 1-30 (2011).

NEA-1857/06, included references:
- Koji Niita, Norihiro Matsuda, Yosuke Iwamoto, Hiroshi Iwase, Tatsuhiko Sato,
Hiroshi Nakashima,Yukio Sakamoto And Lembit Sihver:
PHITS: Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System, Version 2.23 (October 4,
2010, JAEA-Data/Code 2010-022)
- PHITS Ver. 2.88 User's Manual
- ANGEL Ver. 4.31 User's Manual
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  • System memory: 1 GB or larger (more than 2 GB is recommended)

  • Hard disk: 6 GB or larger


Tested at the NEA Data Bank on:

  • COMPUTER: Dell Precision M6800 with Intel(R) Core (TM) i7-4800MQ CPU at 2.70 GHz x 8, RAM: 16.0 GB

  • OPERATING SYSTEM: Ubuntu 18.04

  • COMPUTER: Intel(R) Core (TM) i7-4770 CPU at 3.40 GHz x 4, RAM: 8.0 GB

  • OPERATING SYSTEM: Windows 10 Enterprise

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Package ID Computer language
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  • OS: Windows (XP or higher), Mac (OS X v10.5 or higher), Linux or Unix

  • Editor that can show the line number

  • EPS viewer such as Ghostscript and Gsview

  • Recommended Fortran compiler (optional): Intel Fortran 11.1 (or later) and gfortran 4.7 or 4.8.

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Koji Niita

Research Organization for Information Science and Technology, Tokai, Ibaraki, Japan


Norihiro Matsuda, Shintaro Hashimoto, Yosuke Iwamoto, Tatsuhiko Sato, Takuya Furuta, Tatsuhiko Ogawa, Shinichiro Abe, Hiroshi Nakashima, Tokio Fukahori, Keisuke Okumura and Tetsuya Kai

Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki, Japan


Hiroshi Iwase

High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan


Satoshi Chiba

Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan


Lembit Sihver

Technische Universität Wien, Austria

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readme-jpn.txt : Instruction in Japanese readme-eng.txt : Instruction in English

setup-jpn.vbs  : Setup file for Windows in Japanese setup-eng.vbs : Setup file
for Windows in English uninstall-jpn.vbs : Uninstaller for Windows in Japanese
uninstall-eng.vbs : Uninstaller for Windows in English mac folder : Setup folder

for Mac contains:
/bin : binary files and shell scripts
--- angel.bat : ANGEL batch file (its short-cut is created in sendto folder)
--- : ANGEL shell script for Mac/LINUX
--- angel_mac.exe : ANGEL executable file for Mac
--- angel_win.exe : ANGEL executable file for Windows
--- bin.sln : Solution file for MS visual studio 2005
--- libiomp5md.dll : Dynamic Link Library for Openmp Program Execution
--- phits.bat : PHITS batch file (its short-cut is created in sendto folder)
--- : PHITS shell script for Mac/LINUX
--- phits252_mac.exe : PHITS2.52 executable file for Mac
--- phits252_win.exe : PHITS2.52 executable file for Windows
--- phits252_mac_openmp.exe : PHITS2.52 Openmp-version for Mac
--- phits252_win_openmp.exe : PHITS2.52 Openmp-version for Windows
--- phits288_mac.exe : PHITS2.88 executable file for Mac
--- phits288_win.exe : PHITS2.88 executable file for Windows
--- phits288_mac_openmp.exe : PHITS2.88 Openmp-version for Mac
--- phits288_win_openmp.exe : PHITS2.88 Openmp-version for Windows
--- phits-intel.vfproj : Project file for Intel Fortran used in bin.sln
/data : data files for PHITS
--- material.dat : sample input for [material] section
--- trxcrd.dat  : database for gamma-decay, used for igamma = 1 (file(14))
--- xsdir.jnd : table of contents for nuclear & atomic data lib.(file(7))
/dchain-sp : folder for DCHAIN-SP
--- /bin : binary files for DCHAIN-SP
|--- bin.sln : Solution file for MS visual studio 2005
|--- bin.vfproj : Project file for Intel Fortran used in bin.sln
|--- dchain_win.exe : DCHAIN-SP executable file for Windows
|--- dchain_mac.exe : DCHAIN-SP executable file for Mac
|--- dchain280_win.exe : DCHAIN-SP executable file for Windows
|--- dchain280_mac.exe : DCHAIN-SP executable file for Mac
|--- dchain.bat : DCHAIN-SP batch file (its short-cut is created in sendto
|--- : DCHAIN-SP shell script for UNIX/LINUX
--- /data : folder for containing databases used in executing DCHAIN-SP
--- /manual : folder for manuals and documents of DCHAIN
--- /src: folder for source files of DCHAIN
/document : document files for PHITS
--- JAEA-DataCode-2010-022.pdf : Official reference of PHITS
--- phits250-upgrade-jp.ppt : Upgrade information on PHITS 2.50 in Japanese
--- phits252-upgrade-jp.doc : Upgrade information on PHITS 2.52 in Japanese
--- phits282-upgrade-jp.doc : Upgrade information on PHITS 2.82 in Japanese
--- phits282-upgrade-jp.doc : Upgrade information on PHITS 2.82 in English
--- phits288-upgrade-jp.pptx : Upgrade information on PHITS 2.88 in Japanese
--- phits288-upgrade-en.pptx : Upgrade information on PHITS 2.88 in English
--- phits-introduction-jp.ppt : introduction of PHITS in Japanese
--- phits-introduction-en.ppt : introduction of PHITS in English
---/advanced : ppt & input files for advanced courses of PHITS lecture
---/basic : ppt & input files for basic courses of PHITS lecture
---/exercise : ppt & input files for exercise in PHITS lecture
---/old-lecture : files used in former PHITS lectures
---/therapy : ppt & input files for therapy courses of PHITS lecture
---/source : lecture materials for source generation
/manual : folder for manuals of PHITS and ANGEL
-- manualE-angel4.pdf : English manual for ANGEL4
-- manualE-phits.pdf : English manual for PHITS
-- manualJ-angel4.pdf : Japanese manual for ANGEL4
-- manualJ-phits.pdf : Japanese manual for PHITS
--/old-version : old-version PHITS manuals
/recommendation : sample inputs and outputs with recommended setting
/src  : source files for PHITS
/utility : instructions for how to use utilities related to PHITS
/XS : nuclear and atomic data libraries
--- /egs : Database for EGS5
--- /ele : EEDL-based atomic data library for electrons in ACE format
--- /neu : JENDL-4.0 nuclear data library for neutrons in ACE format
--- /pho : JENDL-4.0 atomic data library for photons in ACE format
--- /tsl : JENDL-4.0 S(a,b) data library
--- /xdir : Table of contents (xsdir file) for each library
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  • J. Gamma Heating and Shield Design
  • W. Physics

Keywords: Monte Carlo method, heavy ions, nuclear data, nuclear reactions, particle transport.