Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage (Vienna Convention)

The Vienna Convention establishes a nuclear liability and compensation regime similar to that provided for under the Paris Convention. The Vienna Convention is open to any state.

  • Adopted: 21 May 1963
  • Opened for signature: 21 May 1963
  • Entered into force: 12 November 1977
  • Parties: 44 (see table below)

More information on the Vienna Convention, including the text and current status, is available here.

The following is a sampling of the articles related to the Vienna Convention that have been published in the Nuclear Law Bulletin and Principles and Practice of International Nuclear Law:

  • The Simultaneous Application of the Paris and Vienna Conventions in the Danish Draft Act, by Judge Spleth (NLB 6, p. 58).
  • International Co-operation in Providing Insurance Cover for Nuclear Damage to Third Parties and for Damage to Nuclear Installations, by J. Deprimoz (NLB 32, p. 33).
  • A Bridge Between two Conventions on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage: the Joint Protocol relating to the Application of the Vienna Convention and the Paris Convention, by O. Von Busekist (NLB 43, p. 10).
  • Towards a New Regime of State Responsibility for Nuclear Activities, by L. De La Fayette (NLB 50, p. 7).
  • Vienna Convention Revision: A Review of the Exercise and Insurance Implications in the Provisions under Discussion, by G. C. Warren (NLB 55, p. 9).
  • The Protocol Amending the 1963 Vienna Convention, by V. Lamm (NLB 61, p. 7).
  • Revised Paris and Vienna Nuclear Liability Conventions – Challenges for Insurers, by M. Tetley (NLB 77, p. 27).
  • International Pooling of Operators' Funds: An Option to Increase the Amount of Financial Security to Cover Nuclear Liability?, by N. Pelzer (NLB 79, p. 37).
  • Perspective on the Pros and Cons of a Pooling-type Approach to Nuclear Third Party Liability, by S. Carroll (NLB 81, p. 75).
  • The Brussels I Regulation and Liability for Nuclear Damage, by J. Handrlica (NLB 86, p. 29).
  • Progress towards a global nuclear liability regime (NLB 93, p. 9).
  • Recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments on civil liability for nuclear damage, by U. Magnus (NLB 106, p. 7).
  • Liability and compensation for third party damage resulting from a nuclear incident, by J.A. Schwartz (Principles and Practice of International Nuclear Law, p. 409).
  • Insurance of nuclear risks, by S. M. S. Reitsma and M. G. Tetley (Principles and Practice of International Nuclear Law, p. 445).
  • The qualification of nuclear substances and nuclear liability, by E. de Boissieu (NLB 108/109, p. 77).


Parties to the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage
Argentina* Cuba Mauritius Romania*
Armenia* Czech Republic* Mexico* Russia*
Belarus* Egypt Moldova Rwanda
Benin Estonia Montenegro Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Bolivia Ghana Morocco Saudi Arabia
Bosnia and Herzegovina Hungary* Niger Senegal
Brazil* Jordan Nigeria Serbia
Bulgaria* Kazakhstan North Macedonia Slovak Republic*
Cameroon Latvia Peru Trinidad and Tobago
Chile Lebanon Philippines Ukraine*
Croatia Lithuania Poland Uruguay

* Country with at least one nuclear power plant in operation.