Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (Non-Proliferation Treaty or NPT)

The NPT aims to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons and weapons technology (non-proliferation), to promote co-operation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy (peaceful uses) and to further the goal of achieving nuclear disarmament and general and complete disarmament (disarmament).


Adopted: 12 June 1968

Opened for signature: 1 July 1968 (London, Moscow and Washington)

Entered into force: 5 March 1970

Extended indefinitely: 11 May 1995

Parties: 191 (see table below)


More information on the NPT, including the text, is available here.

The current status of the NPT is available here.

The following articles related to the NPT were published in the Nuclear Law Bulletin:

  • Non-Proliferation Treaty 1990 Review Conference: Looking Towards 1995, by L. Rockwood (NLB 46, p. 25).
  • Nuclear Testing and the Future of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, by B. M. Carnahan (NLB 49, p. 7).
  • The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty: A Permanent Commitment to Disarmament and Non-Proliferation, by L. Rockwood (NLB 56, p. 9).
  • Inspection for Clandestine Nuclear Activities: Does the Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty Provide Legal Authority for the IAEA's Proposals for Reform?, by G. Bunn (NLB 57, p. 9).
  • Preventing the Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons: 50 Years of Atoms for Peace, by T. Vandem Borre and R. Carchon (NLB 57, p. 23).
  • A Short History of Nuclear Non-Proliferation, by B. Sanders (NLB 62, p. 7).
  • The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons and the Process for Its Enhanced Review on the Eve of the 2000 Review Conference, by C. Pinel (NLB 65, p. 13).
  • The Nuclear Weapon Non-Proliferation Treaty and Terrorism: The Consequences of 11 September 2001 on the Treaty Review Process, by G. Arbellot Du Repaire (NLB 71, p. 15).
  • Critical Reflections on the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, by Q. Michel (NLB 80, p. 21).
  • Between Shadow and Light: The treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons Forty Years On, by A. Biad (NLB 86, p. 5).
  • Nuclear arbitration: Interpreting non-proliferation agreements, by P. Tzeng (NLB 95, p. 41).
  • Towards nuclear disarmament: State of affairs in the international legal framework, by S. Fanielle (NLB 97, p. 35).
  • In search of the elusive conflict: The (in-)compatibility of the Treaties on the Non-Proliferation and Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons, by M.J. Moffatt (NLB 102, p. 7).


Parties to the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons
Afghanistan Djibouti Libya Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Albania Dominica Liechtenstein Samoa
Algeria Dominican Republic Lithuania San Marino
Andorra Ecuador Luxembourg Sao Tome and Principe
Angola Egypt Madagascar Saudi Arabia
Antigua and Barbuda El Salvador Malawi Senegal
Argentina* Equatorial Guinea Malaysia Serbia
Armenia* Eritrea Maldives Seychelles
Australia Estonia Mali Sierra Leone
Austria Ethiopia Malta Singapore
Azerbaijan Fiji Marshall Islands Slovak Republic*
Bahamas Finland* Mauritania Slovenia*
Bahrain France* Mauritius Solomon Islands
Bangladesh Gabon Mexico* Somalia
Barbados Gambia Micronesia South Africa*
Belarus* Georgia Moldova Spain*
Belgium* Germany* Monaco Sri Lanka
Belize Ghana Mongolia Sudan
Benin Greece Montenegro Suriname
Bhutan Grenada Morocco Swaziland
Bolivia Guatemala Mozambique Sweden*
Bosnia and Herzegovina Guinea Myanmar Switzerland*
Botswana Guinea-Bissau Namibia Syria
Brazil* Guyana Nauru Tajikistan
Brunei Darussalam Haiti Nepal Thailand
Bulgaria* Holy See Netherlands* Timor-Leste
Burkina Faso Honduras New Zealand Togo
Burundi Hungary* Nicaragua Tonga
Cambodia Iceland Niger Trinidad and Tobago
Cameroon Indonesia Nigeria Tunisia
Canada* Iraq North Macedonia Turkey
Cape Verde Ireland Norway Turkmenistan
Central African Republic Iran* Oman Tuvalu
Chad Italy Palau Uganda
Chile Jamaica Palestinian Authority Ukraine*
China* Japan* Panama United Arab Emirates*
Colombia Jordan Papua New Guinea United Kingdom*
Comoros Kazakhstan Paraguay Tanzania
Congo Kenya Peru United States*
Costa Rica Korea* Philippines Uruguay
Côte d'Ivoire Kiribati Poland Uzbekistan
Croatia Kuwait Portugal Vanuatu
Cuba Kyrgyzstan Qatar Venezuela
Cyprus Lao People's Democratic Republic Romania* Viet Nam
Czech Republic* Latvia Russia* Yemen
Democratic People's Republic of Korea Lebanon Rwanda Zambia
Democratic Republic of the Congo Lesotho Saint Kitts and Nevis Zimbabwe
Denmark Liberia Saint Lucia  

* Country with at least one nuclear power plant in operation.