RELATED NEWS: The 2004 Protocol to enter into force on 1 January 2022
Given the modifications effected by the adoption of the 2004 Protocol to Amend the Paris Convention, particularly the increase in liability amounts, it was necessary to make corresponding amendments to the Brussels Supplementary Convention. On 12 February 2004, the Contracting Parties to the Convention adopted the Protocol to Amend the Brussels Convention Supplementary to the Paris Convention of 29 July 1960, as amended. The 2004 Protocol has not yet entered into force.
The revised Brussels Supplementary Convention will continue to be subject to the provisions of the revised Paris Convention, including those, which define "nuclear installation", "nuclear incident" and "nuclear damage". Similarly, there has been no change to the requirement that no State may become or remain a party to the Brussels Supplementary Convention unless it is a Party to the Paris Convention.
For those Paris Convention States which are also party to the Brussels Supplementary Convention, additional compensation made up of public funds will be available to compensate victims of nuclear damage where the amounts under the Paris Convention are insufficient. The revised Brussels Supplementary Convention will maintain its basic three-tier compensation system but with significantly increased amounts: the first tier will continue to come from the operator's financial security but will be at least €700 million; the second tier will be provided by the State in whose territory the liable operator's installation is situated and will be up to €500 million; and the third tier will be made available by all of the Contracting Parties and be up to €300 million. Thus, the total compensation available to victims of a nuclear incident under the combined Paris-Brussels regime will be not less than €1.5 billion.
The method of calculating each Contracting Party's financial contribution to the third tier will also be changed. While the existing Convention's formula calls for contributions based 50% on gross national product and 50% on installed nuclear capacity, the new method of calculation is based 35% on gross domestic product and 65% on installed nuclear capacity, reflecting the sense of responsibility which BSC states place on nuclear power generating states.
|Operator liability amounts under the revised Brussels Supplementary Convention|
|Before revision||After revision|
|First tier||National limit (SDR 5 million* minimum)||€700 million minimum|
|Second tier||Difference between the first tier and SDR 175 million||€500 million|
|Third tier||SDR 125 million minimum||€300 million|
The revised Brussels Supplementary Convention will also contain provisions, which extend the existing scope of application of the Convention, making it applicable, under specified circumstances, to nuclear damage suffered in or above maritime areas beyond the territorial sea of a Contracting Party or in or above a Contracting Party's exclusive economic zone. However, because the funds to be provided under the second and third tiers are considered "public" money, compensation under the revised Brussels Supplementary Convention will continue to be made available only to compensate victims in states that have agreed to participate in the supplementary regime.
*The unit of account used in the Paris Convention is the Special Drawing Right (SDR), a unit of account defined by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) based upon a basket of key international currencies. The currency value of the SDR is calculated daily and the valuation basket is reviewed and adjusted every five years.
Read more on the 2004 Protocol to Amend the Brussels Supplementary Convention on our Multilateral agreement website.
The Brussels Supplementary Convention establishes a scheme to provide compensation supplementary to that required by the Paris Convention. The BSC is open only to contracting parties to the Paris Convention.
The Convention on the Establishment of a Security Control in the Field of Nuclear Energy ("Security Control Convention") and the Protocol on the Tribunal established by the Security Control Convention ("Protocol on the Tribunal") were adopted on 20 December 1957. The Convention came into force on 22 July 1959 and the first judges were appointed on 1 January 1960. The implementation of the security control system (designed to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons) has been suspended since the 1970s in order to avoid duplication with similar systems established by Euratom and the International Atomic Energy Agency. For the time being, the jurisdiction of the Tribunal has been limited to resolving differences concerning the interpretation or application of the above-mentioned Paris and Brussels Conventions.
The Paris Convention establishes a nuclear liability and compensation regime to compensate victims of a nuclear accident. The PC is open to OECD member countries as of right and non-member countries with the consent of all the contracting parties to the Paris Convention.