Radioactive Waste Management Publications


List of titles sorted by date
Stakeholder Confidence in Radioactive Waste Management (2013)
An Annotated Glossary of Key Terms
Reversibility and Retrievability in Planning for Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste (2012)
Proceedings of the "R&R" International Conference and Dialogue, 14-17 December 2010, Reims, France
The Long-term Radiological Safety of a Surface Disposal Facility for Low-level Waste in Belgium (2012)
An International Peer Review of Key Aspects of ONDRAF/NIRAS' Safety Report of November 2011 in Preparation for the License Application
核設施除役 (2012)
可行且有成功案例 (Chinese translation of Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities)
Stockage géologique des déchets radioactifs : Engagement national, participation locale et régionale (2012)
Déclaration collective du Comité de la gestion des déchets radioactifs de l'Agence de l'OCDE pour l'énergie nucléaire, adoptée en mars 2012
Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste: National Commitment, Local and Regional Involvement (2012)
A Collective Statement of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency Radioactive Waste Management Committee Adopted March 2012
The Post-closure Radiological Safety Case for a Spent Fuel Repository in Sweden (2012)
An International Peer Review of the SKB License-application Study of March 2011
Reversibility of Decisions and Retrievability of Radioactive Waste (2012)
Considerations for National Geological Disposal Programmes
Réversibilité des décisions et récupérabilité des déchets radioactifs (2012)
Éléments de réflexion pour les programmes nationaux de stockage géologique
Avveckling av kärntekniska anläggningar (2011)
Det har gjorts och kan göras igen
Cost Estimation for Decommissioning (2010)
An International Overview of Cost Elements, Estimation Practices and Reporting Requirements
Démantèlement des installations nucléaires (brochure) (2010)
C'est possible et cela a été fait
Stockage des déchets radioactifs et territoires d'accueil : envisager l'avenir ensemble (2010)
Synthèse de l’atelier du FSC et des rencontres avec les collectivités locales, Bar-le-Duc, France, 7-9 avril 2009
Radioactive Waste Repositories and Host Regions: Envisaging the Future Together (2010)
Synthesis of the FSC National Workshop and Community Visit, Bar-le-Duc, France, 7-9 April 2009
Partenariats pour la gestion à long terme des déchets radioactifs (2010)
Evolution et pratique actuelle dans treize pays
Partnering for Long-term Management of Radioactive Waste (2010)
Evolution and Current Practice in Thirteen Countries
Il Decommissioning degli Impianti Nucleari (2010)
Si può, ed é stato fatto
Optimisation des stockages géologiques de déchets radioactifs (2010)
Recommandations nationales et internationales et futurs thèmes de discussions
Optimisation of Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste (2010)
National and International Guidance and Questions for Further Discussion
Towards Transparent, Proportionate and Deliverable Regulation for Geological Disposal (2010)
Workshop Proceedings, Tokyo, Japan, 20-22 January 2009
Réglementation et lignes directrices pour l'évacuation des déchets radioactifs en formation géologique (2010)
Revue de la littérature et des initiatives de la dernière décennie
Regulation and Guidance for the Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste (2010)
A Review of the Literature and Initiatives of the Past Decade
Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities (brochure) (2009)
It can and has been done
A Common Objective, a Variety of Paths (2009)
Synthesis and Main Lessons:Third International Conference on Geological Repositories, Berne, Switzerland, 15-17 October 2007
A Common Objective, a Variety of Paths (2009)
Third International Conference on Geological Repositories, Berne, Switzerland, 15-17 October 2007
Regional Development and Community Support for Radioactive Waste Management (web only) (2009)
Synthesis of the FSC National Workshop and Community Visit, Tengelic and Bataapati, Hungary, 14-17 November 2006
Regulating the Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities (2008)
Relevant Issues and Emerging Practices
Progresser sur la voie du stockage géologique des déchets radioactifs (2008)
Déclaration collective du Comité de la gestion des déchets radioactifs (RWMC) de l'AEN
Moving Forward with Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste (2008)
A Collective Statement by the NEA Radioactive Waste Management Committee (RWMC)
Safety Cases for Deep Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste: Where Do We Stand? (2008)
Symposium Proceedings, Paris, France, 23-25 January 2007
Réglementation de la sûreté à long terme du stockage géologique (2008)
Vers une compréhension commune des objectifs principaux et des fondements des critères de sûreté
Regulating the Long-term Safety of Geological Disposal (2007)
Towards a Common Understanding of the Main Objectives and Bases of Safety Criteria
Engineered Barrier Systems (EBS) in the Safety Case: Design Confirmation and Demonstration (2007)
Workshop Proceedings, Tokyo, Japan, 12-15 September 2006
Radioactive Waste Management in Spain: Co-ordination and Projects (2007)
FSC Workshop Proceedings, L'Hospitalet de l'Infant, Spain, 21-23 November 2005
Linkage of Geoscientific Arguments and Evidence in Supporting the Safety Case (2007)
Second AMIGO Workshop Proceedings, Toronto, Canada, 20-22 September 2005
Engineered Barrier Systems (EBS) in the Safety Case: The Role of Modelling (2007)
Workshop Proceedings, La Coruna, Spain, 24-26 August 2005
The Roles of Storage in the Management of Long-lived Radioactive Waste (2006)
Practices and Potentialities in OECD Countries
Sûreté du stockage géologique de déchets radioactifs HAVL en France (2006)
Examen international par des pairs du "Dossier 2005 Argile" concernant le stockage dans la formation du Callovo-Oxfordien
Safety of Geological Disposal of High-level and Long-lived Radioactive Waste in France (2006)
An International Peer Review of the “Dossier 2005 Argile” Concerning Disposal in the Callovo-Oxfordian Formation
Disposal of Radioactive Waste: Forming a New Approach in Germany (2006)
FSC Workshop Proceedings, Hitzacker and Hamburg, Germany, 5-8 October 2004
Comprendre les attentes de la société dans la gestion des déchets radioactifs et s'y adapter (2006)
Enseignements principaux et expériences du Forum sur la confiance des parties prenantes
Favoriser la participation des parties prenantes (2005)
Guide pratique des outils et bibliographie annotée
International Peer Reviews for Radioactive Waste Management (2005)
General Information and Guidelines
Engineered Barrier Systems (EBS) in the Context of the Entire Safety Case (2005)
Process Issues - Workshop Proceedings, Las Vegas, United States, 14-17 September 2004
NEA Sorption Project Phase II (2005)
Interpretation and Prediction of Radionuclide Sorption onto Substrates Relevant for Radioactive Waste Disposal Using Thermodynamic Sorption Models
Stability and Buffering Capacity of the Geosphere for Long-term Isolation of Radioactive Waste (2005)
Application to Argillaceous Media - "Clay Club" Workshop Proceedings, Braunschweig, Germany, 9-11 December 2003
Management of Uncertainty in Safety Cases and the Role of Risk (2005)
Workshop Proceedings, Stockholm, Sweden, 2-4 February 2004
Geological Repositories: Political and Technical Progress (2005)
Workshop Proceedings, Stockholm, Sweden, 8-10 December 2003
Dealing with Interests, Values and Knowledge in Managing Risk (2004)
Workshop Proceedings, Brussels, Belgium, 18-21 November 2003
Stakeholder Involvement Techniques (2004)
A Short Guide and Annotated Bibliography
Dissattivazione e Smantellamento degli Impianti Nucleari (2004)
Stato dell'arte, strategie, problematiche
Decommissioning degli Impianti Nucleari (2004)
Si può fare ed è stato fatto
Learning and Adapting to Societal Requirements for Radioactive Waste Management (2004)
Key Findings and Experience of the Forum on Stakeholder Confidence
Decommissioning of Nuclear Power Facilities (2004)
It can and has been done
Strategy Selection for the Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities (2004)
Seminar Proceedings, Tarragona, Spain, 1-4 September 2003
Le contrôle réglementaire de la gestion des déchets radioactifs (2004)
Panorama de 15 pays membres de l'AEN
Geological Disposal: Building Confidence Using Multiple Lines of Evidence (2004)
First AMIGO Workshop Proceedings, Yverdon-les-Bains, Switzerland, 3-5 June 2003
Engineered Barrier Systems (EBS): Design Requirements and Constraints (2004)
Workshop Proceedings,Turku, Finland, 26-29 August 2003
Safety of Disposal of Spent Fuel, HLW and Long-lived ILW in Switzerland (2004)
An International Peer Review of the Post-closure Radiological Safety Assessment for Disposal in the Opalinus Clay of the Zürcher Weinland
Die Sicherheit der geologischen Tiefenlagerung von BE, HAA und LMA in der Schweiz (2004)
Eine internationale Expertenprüfung der radiologischen Langzeitsicherheitsanalyse der Tiefenlagerung im Opalinuston des Zürcher Weinlands
Gestion des échelles de temps dans l'évaluation de la sûreté en phase post-fermeture (2004)
Enseignements tirés de l'atelier d'avril 2002 à Paris, France
The Regulatory Control of Radioactive Waste Management (2004)
Overview of 15 NEA Member Countries
The Handling of Timescales in Assessing Post-closure Safety (2004)
Lessons Learnt from the April 2002 Workshop in Paris, France
The Regulator's Evolving Role and Image in Radioactive Waste Management (2003)
Lessons Learnt within the NEA Forum on Stakeholder Confidence
Public Confidence in the Management of Radioactive Waste: The Canadian Context (2003)
Workshop Proceedings, Ottawa, Canada, 14-18 October 2002
Image et rôle des autorités réglementaires dans la gestion des déchets radioactifs (2003)
Enseignements tirés par le Forum de l'AEN sur la confiance des parties prenantes
Programme français de R-D sur le stockage géologique de déchets radioactifs (2003)
Revue internationale par des pairs du Dossier 2001 Argile
Public Information, Consultation and Involvement in Radioactive Waste Management (2003)
An International Overview of Approaches and Experiences
The French R&D Programme on Deep Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste (2003)
An International Peer Review of the "Dossier 2001 Argile"
Engineered Barrier System (EBS) in the Context of the Entire Safety Case (2003)
Workshop Proceedings, Oxford, U.K., 25-27 September 2002
The Handling of Timescales in Assessing Post-closure Safety of Deep Geological Disposal (2002)
Workshop Proceedings, Paris, France,16-18 April 2002
Stepwise Decision Making in Finland for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel (2002)
Workshop Proceedings, Turku, Finland, 15-16 November 2001
Déclassement et démantèlement des installations nucléaires (2002)
Etat des lieux, démarches, défis
The Decommissioning and Dismantling of Nuclear Facilities (2002)
Status, Approaches, Challenges
An International Peer Review of the Yucca Mountain Project (2002)
Total System Performance Assessment for the Site Recommendation (TSPA-SR)
Radionuclide Retention in Geologic Media (2002)
Workshop Proceedings, Oskarshamn, Sweden, 7-9 May 2001
Scenario Development Methods and Practices (2001)
An Evaluation Based on the NEA Workshop on Scenario Development, Madrid, Spain, May 1999
Gas Generation and Migration in Radioactive Waste Disposal (2001)
Safety-relevant Issues Workshop Proceedings, Reims, France, 26-28 June 2000
Nuclear Waste Bulletin (2001)
Update on Waste Management Policies and Programmes, No. 14 - 2000 Edition
Confidence in Models of Radionuclide Transport for Site-specific Assessment (2001)
Workshop Proceedings, Carlsbad, New Mexico, USA, 14-17 June 1999
Stakeholder Confidence and Radioactive Waste Disposal (2000)
Workshop Proceedings, Paris, France, 28-31 August 2000
Evacuation géologique des déchets radioactifs (2000)
Bilan des dix dernières années
Ou en est l'evacuation des dechets radioactifs en formations geologiques ? (1999)
Une evaluation internationale des progres recents
Water-conducting Features in Radionuclide Migration (1999)
Workshop Proceedings, Barcelona, Spain, 10-12 June 1998
Nuclear Waste Bulletin (1999)
Update on Waste Management Policies and Programmes, No.13 - December 1998
Decontamination Techniques Used in Decommissioning Activities (1999)
A Report by the NEA Task Group on Decontaminaton
Strategic Areas in Radioactive Waste Management (1999)
The Viewpoint and Work Orientations of the NEA Radioactive Waste Management Committee
Use of Hydrogeochemical Information in Testing Groundwater Flow Models (1999)
Workshop Proceedings, Borgholm, Sweden, 1-3 September 1997
Domaines stratégiques de la gestion des déchets radioactifs (1999)
Position du Comité de l'AEN de la gestion des déchets radioactifs et oreintations de ses travaux
Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste (1999)
Review of Developments in the Last Decade
Fluid Flow through Faults and Fractures in Argillaceous Formations (1998)
Proceedings of a Joint NEA/EC "Clay Club" Workshop, Bern, Switzerland, 10-12 June 1996
Modelling the Effects of Spatial Variability on Radionuclide Migration (1998)
Workshop Proceedings, Paris, France 9-11 June 1997
Field Tracer Experiments: Role in the Prediction of Radionuclide Migration (1997)
Proceedings of the 1st NEA/EC GEOTRAP Workshop, Cologne, Germany - 28-30 August 1996
Probabilistic System Assessment Group (The) (1997)
History and Achievement - 1985-1994
Nuclear Waste Bulletin (1997)
No. 12 - June 1997
Recycling and Reuse of Scrap Metals (1996)
A Report by a Task Group of the NEA Co-operative Programme on Decommissioning
Characterisation of Long-Term Geological Changes for Disposal Sites (1996)
Proceedings of an NEA Workshop, Paris, France, 19-21 September 1994
Environmental and Ethical Aspects of Long-Lived Radioactive Waste Disposal (1995)
Proceedings of an International Workshop by the NEA and the Environment Directorate, Paris, France, 1-2 September 1994
Hydraulic and Hydrochemical Characterisation of Argillaceous Rocks (1995)
Proceedings of an International Workshop, Nottingham, United Kingdom, 7-9 June 1994
Fondements environnementaux et éthiques de l'évacuation géologique (1995)
Opinion collective du Comité de la gestion des déchets radioactifs de l'AEN
Environmental and Ethical Basis of Geological Disposal (The) (1995)
A Collective Opinion of the NEA Radioactive Waste Management Committee
Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste: Geochemical Processes (1982)
A Review of the Current Technical Understanding of Geochemical Processes Related to Geological Dispsoal of Radioactive Waste, October 1982

Detailed publication list

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Stakeholder Confidence in Radioactive Waste Management
An Annotated Glossary of Key Terms
English, 64 pages, published: 03/01/2013
NEA#6988
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/docs/2013/6988-fsc-glossary.pdf
The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) Forum on Stakeholder Confidence (FSC) Annotated Glossary is a review of concepts central to societal decision making about radioactive waste management. It records the evolution in understanding that has taken place in the group as the FSC has worked with these concepts over time. This should be a useful resource not only for new FSC participants but also for others: this annotated glossary forms a good reference handbook for future texts regarding societal aspects of radioactive waste management and its governance.

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The Evolving Role and Image of the Regulator in Radioactive Waste Management
Trends over Two Decades
English, 28 pages, published: 12/31/2012
NEA#7083, ISBN: 978-92-64-99186-6
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/docs/2012/7083-evolving-role-and-image.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Image et rôle de l'autorité de sûreté nucléaire dans la gestion des déchets radioactifs
In the area of radioactive waste management, the regulator or safety authority has emerged in recent years as a principal actor in the eyes of civil society. This study shows how regulators are increasing their interaction with society while still retaining – or ­reinforcing – their independence and how they play their role within the stepwise ­licensing and decision-making processes now adopted in most countries. Safety is ensured by a “regulatory system”, in which a host of players, including local ­stakeholders, have a vital role to play. The technical regulator has come to be considered as the “people’s expert”, concentrating knowledge useful to local communities as they deliberate the hosting of a waste storage or disposal facility.
This report provides a useful update on the changing role of the regulator as well as insights that will be helpful to the many countries that are considering, or are preparing for, storage or disposal of radioactive waste either in near-surface facilities or deeper underground. While it focuses on the developments in waste management and disposal, the trends it describes are probably relevant throughout the nuclear field.
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Image et rôle de l'autorité de sûreté nucléaire dans la gestion des déchets radioactifs
Tendances sur 20 ans
Français, 32 pages, published: 12/31/2012
NEA#7124, ISBN: 978-92-64-99194-1
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/docs/2012/7124-image-et-role.pdf

Other language(s):
- English: The Evolving Role and Image of the Regulator in Radioactive Waste Management
Dans le domaine de la gestion des déchets radioactifs, les dernières années ont vu émerger l’autorité de sûreté comme un acteur central aux yeux de la société civile. Cette étude montre comment les autorités de sûreté ont développé leurs interactions avec la société civile tout en conservant – voire en renforçant – leur indépendance et comment elles jouent leur rôle au sein du processus d’autorisation et de prise de décision par étapes adopté aujourd’hui dans la plupart des pays. La sûreté est assurée par un « système réglementaire », dans lequel tout un ensemble d’acteurs, dont les parties prenantes locales, ont un rôle essentiel à jouer. L’autorité de sûreté est de plus en plus souvent considérée comme « l’expert du public », car elle réunit des connaissances utiles pour les communes qui envisagent d’accueillir une installation de stockage ou d’entreposage de déchets.
Cette étude offre une mise à jour opportune sur l’évolution du rôle de l’autorité de sûreté, et les éclairages apportés pourront aider les nombreux pays qui envisagent ou préparent l’entreposage ou le stockage des déchets radioactifs dans des installations en subsurface ou plus grande profondeur. Alors que l’étude est centrée sur les avancées relatives à la gestion et au stockage des déchets, les tendances décrites sont probablement pertinentes dans le domaine nucléaire au sens large.
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Reversibility and Retrievability in Planning for Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste
Proceedings of the "R&R" International Conference and Dialogue, 14-17 December 2010, Reims, France
English, 236 pages, published: 12/31/2012
NEA#6993, ISBN: 978-92-64-99185-9
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/docs/2012/6993-proceedings-rr-reims.pdf
Deep geological repositories of radioactive waste are designed and licensed based on a model of long-term safety which does not require the active presence of man. During the period of stepwise development of such repositories, reversibility of decisions and retrievability of the waste are widely thought to be beneficial. Reversibility and retrievability are not requirements for long-term safety. They are instead about implementing a process that responds to ethical and precautionary obligations without compromising safety. How are the concepts of reversibility and retrievability understood in the various nuclear countries? How do they appear in national waste management legislation, regulation and operational programmes, and how can they be implemented?
The “R&R” project of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) culminated in an International Conference and Dialogue on Reversibility and Retrievability in December 2010. This open meeting brought together regulators, policy makers, elected officials, experts in social sciences, and representatives of civil society and stakeholder groups in addition to waste management professionals. These proceedings include the texts of 50 presentations and the “International Retrievability Scale” – a tool to support dialogue with stakeholders and to help establish a common international framework.
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The Long-term Radiological Safety of a Surface Disposal Facility for Low-level Waste in Belgium
An International Peer Review of Key Aspects of ONDRAF/NIRAS' Safety Report of November 2011 in Preparation for the License Application
English, 100 pages, published: 10/08/2012
NEA#7086, ISBN: 978-92-64-99196-5
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2012/7086-Belgian-peer-review.pdf
An important activity of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) in the field of radioactive waste management is the organisation of independent, international peer reviews of national studies and projects. This report provides an international peer review of the long-term safety strategy and assessment being developed by the Belgian Agency for Radioactive Waste and Enriched Fissile Materials, ONDRAF/NIRAS, as part of the licence application for the construction and operation of a surface disposal facility for short-lived, low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste in the municipality of Dessel, Belgium. The review was carried out by an International Review Team comprised of seven international specialists, all of whom were free of conflict of interest and chosen to bring complementary expertise to the review. To be accessible to both specialist and non-specialist readers, the review findings are provided at several levels of detail.
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核設施除役
可行且有成功案例 (Chinese translation of Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities)
Chinese, 8 pages, published: 08/31/2012
NEA#7126
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2012/nea7126-decommissioning-ch.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Démantèlement des installations nucléaires (brochure)
- Italian: Il Decommissioning degli Impianti Nucleari
- English: Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities (brochure)
- Swedish: Avveckling av kärntekniska anläggningar
- German: Stilllegung kerntechnischer Anlagen (decommissioning brochure)
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Stockage géologique des déchets radioactifs : Engagement national, participation locale et régionale
Déclaration collective du Comité de la gestion des déchets radioactifs de l'Agence de l'OCDE pour l'énergie nucléaire, adoptée en mars 2012
Français, 24 pages, published: 07/18/2012
NEA#7037, ISBN: 978-92-64-99184-2
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2012/7037-stock-geo-dechets.pdf

Other language(s):
- English: Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste: National Commitment, Local and Regional Involvement
Le stockage dans des installations construites dans des couches géologiques stables et profondes constitue la solution de référence pour isoler de la biosphère humaine de manière permanente les déchets radioactifs à vie longue. Cette méthode de gestion est prévue pour être intrinsèquement sûre et finale, c’est-à-dire ne nécessitant aucune présence ou intervention humaine pour remplir son objectif de sûreté. L’implantation de stockages géologiques soulève un ensemble de questions touchant aux connaissances scientifiques, aux capacités techniques, aux valeurs éthiques, à l’aménagement du territoire, à la qualité de vie locale et plus encore. Mener à bien un projet de stockage est une tâche qui demande des décennies et exige à la fois un engagement national fort et une participation significative aux niveaux régional et local.
Cette déclaration collective du Comité de la gestion des déchets radioactifs de l’Agence de l’OCDE pour l’énergie nucléaire reconnaît les avancées réalisées vers davantage de transparence et de dialogue entre les diverses parties prenantes concernées, et identifie les éléments fondamentaux indispensables à l’engagement national et au soutien de l’implication territoriale. Elle tire comme conclusion que les partenaires techniques et sociétaux peuvent développer une confiance partagée dans la sûreté des stockages géologiques et porter conjointement ces projets de l’avant.
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Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste: National Commitment, Local and Regional Involvement
A Collective Statement of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency Radioactive Waste Management Committee Adopted March 2012
English, 24 pages, published: 07/18/2012
NEA#7082, ISBN: 978-92-64-99183-5
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2012/7082-geo-disposal-statement.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Stockage géologique des déchets radioactifs : Engagement national, participation locale et régionale
Disposal in engineered facilities built in stable, deep geological formations is the reference solution for permanently isolating long-lived radioactive waste from the human biosphere. This management method is designed to be intrinsically safe and final, meaning that it is not dependent on human presence or intervention in order to fulfil its safety goal. Selecting the site of a waste repository brings up a range of issues involving scientific knowledge, technical capacity, ethical values, territorial planning, community well-being and more. Bringing to fruition the multi-decade task of siting and developing a repository demands a strong national commitment and significant regional and local involvement.
This collective statement by the Radioactive Waste Management Committee of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency recognises the advances made towards greater transparency and dialogue among the diverse stakeholders concerned and identifies the fundamental elements needed to support national commitment and to foster territorial involvement. It concludes that technical and societal partners can develop shared confidence in the safety of geological repositories and jointly carry these projects forward.
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The Post-closure Radiological Safety Case for a Spent Fuel Repository in Sweden
An International Peer Review of the SKB License-application Study of March 2011
English, 156 pages, published: 07/05/2012
NEA#7084, ISBN: 978-92-64-99191-0
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/docs/2012/nea7084-peer-review-sweden.pdf
Sweden is at the forefront among countries developing plans for a deep geological repository of highly radioactive waste. There is no such repository in operation yet worldwide, but Sweden, Finland and France are approaching the licensing stage. At the request of the Swedish government, the NEA organised an international peer review of the post-closure radiological safety case produced by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) in support of the application for a general licence to construct and operate a spent nuclear fuel geological repository in the municipality of Östhammar. The purpose of the review was to help the Swedish government, the public and relevant organisations by providing an international reference regarding the maturity of SKB’s spent fuel disposal programme vis-à-vis best practices in long-term disposal safety and radiological protection. The International Review Team (IRT) consisted of ten international specialists, who were free of conflict of interest with the SKB and brought complementary expertise to the review. This report provides the background and findings of the international peer review. The review’s findings are presented at several levels of detail in order to be accessible to both specialist and non-specialist readers.
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Methods for Safety Assessment of Geological Disposal Facilities for Radioactive Waste
Outcomes of the NEA MeSA Initiative
English, 240 pages, published: 06/21/2012
NEA#6923, ISBN: 978-92-64-99190-3
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2012/nea6923-MESA-initiative.pdf
Safety assessment is an interdisciplinary approach that focuses on the scientific understanding and performance assessment of safety functions as well as the hazards associated with a geological disposal facility. It forms a central part of the safety case, and the results of the safety assessments provide evidence to support decision making. The goals of the NEA project on “Methods for Safety Assessment for Geological Disposal Facilities for Radioactive Waste” (MeSA) were to examine and document methods used in safety assessment for radioactive waste disposal facilities, to generate collective views based on the methods’ similarities and differences, and to identify future work. The project reviewed a number of approaches used by various national and international organisations. Following the comprehensive review, a generic safety case with a safety assessment flowchart was developed and is presented herein. The elaboration of the safety concept, the use of safety functions, the implication of uncertainties and the formulation of scenarios are also discussed.
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Thermodynamic Sorption Modelling in Support of Radioactive Waste Disposal Safety Cases
NEA Sorption Project Phase III
English, 152 pages, published: 05/04/2012
NEA#6914, ISBN: 978-92-64-17781-9
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/docs/2013/6914-sorption-III.pdf
A central safety function of radioactive waste disposal repositories is the prevention or sufficient retardation of radionuclide migration to the biosphere. Performance assessment exercises in various countries, and for a range of disposal scenarios, have demonstrated that one of the most important processes providing this safety function is the sorption of radionuclides along potential migration paths beyond the engineered barriers. Thermodynamic sorption models (TSMs) are key for improving confidence in assumptions made about such radionuclide sorption when preparing a repository's safety case. This report presents guidelines for TSM development as well as their application in repository performance assessments. They will be of particular interest to the sorption modelling community and radionuclide migration modellers in developing safety cases for radioactive waste disposal.
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Reversibility of Decisions and Retrievability of Radioactive Waste
Considerations for National Geological Disposal Programmes
English, 28 pages, published: 03/09/2012
NEA#7085, ISBN: 978-92-64-99169-9
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2012/7085-reversibility.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Réversibilité des décisions et récupérabilité des déchets radioactifs
The most widely adopted solution for the definitive management of high-level radioactive waste involves its emplacement in deep geological repositories whose safety should not depend on the active presence of man. In this context, national programmes are considering whether and how to incorporate the concepts of reversibility of decisions and retrievability of waste, including to what extent retrieval can or should be facilitated at the design stage of a repository, and if so over what timescales.
This brochure delivers the key findings and observations of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) project on reversibility and retrievability conducted from 2007 to 2011 with the participation of 15 countries and 2 international organisations. It outlines the activities undertaken and points to further resources. While focused on deep geological disposal, the pragmatic and precise information provided may also be pertinent to sub-surface disposal and to decision-making processes more generally. This brochure, and related project documents, will be of interest to technical and policy professionals and civil society stakeholders concerned with radioactive waste disposal.
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Réversibilité des décisions et récupérabilité des déchets radioactifs
Éléments de réflexion pour les programmes nationaux de stockage géologique
Français, 32 pages, published: 03/09/2012
NEA#7105, ISBN: 978-92-64-99170-5
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2012/7105-reversibilite.pdf

Other language(s):
- English: Reversibility of Decisions and Retrievability of Radioactive Waste
La solution la plus communément adoptée en matière de gestion définitive des déchets radioactifs de haute activité consiste à placer ces déchets dans des centres de stockage en couche géologique profonde dont la sûreté ne devra pas être tributaire de la présence active de l’homme. C’est dans ce contexte que les programmes nationaux de stockage géologique étudient s’il est opportun d’incorporer les concepts de réversibilité des décisions et de récupérabilité des déchets et comment. On y regarde notamment dans quelle mesure le retrait peut ou doit être facilité dès la conception d'un centre de stockage et, dans ce cas, sur quelle échelle de temps.
Cette brochure fournit les résultats principaux et les observations du projet de l’Agence de l’OCDE pour l’énergie nucléaire (AEN) relatif à la réversibilité et la récupérabilité, mené de 2007 à 2011 avec la participation de 15 pays et 2 organisations internationales. Elle décrit les activités entreprises dans le cadre de ce projet et propose des ressources complémentaires. Bien que portant sur le stockage en formation géologique profonde, elle contient des informations pratiques et précises qui ont aussi leur pertinence pour le stockage en sub-surface et pour la prise de décision en général. Cette brochure, et les autres documents relatifs au projet, intéresseront les professionnels traitant des questions techniques et stratégiques, les décideurs politiques ainsi que les parties prenantes concernés par le stockage des déchets radioactifs.
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International Structure for Decommissioning Costing (ISDC) of Nuclear Installations
English, 192 pages, published: 03/02/2012
NEA#7088, ISBN: 978-92-64-99173-6
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2012/ISDC-nuclear-installations.pdf
Cost estimation for the decommissioning of nuclear facilities can vary considerably in format, content and practice both within and across countries. These differences may have legitimate reasons but make the process of reviewing estimates complicated and the estimates themselves difficult to defend. Hence, the joint initiative of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the European Commission (EC) was undertaken to propose a standard itemisation of decommissioning costs either directly for the production of cost estimates or for mapping estimates onto a standard, common structure for purposes of comparison. This report updates the earlier itemisation published in 1999 and takes into account experience accumulated thus far. The revised cost itemisation structure has sought to ensure that all costs within the planned scope of a decommissioning project may be reflected. The report also provides general guidance on developing a decommissioning cost estimate, including detailed advice on using the structure.

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Att skapa en hållbar relation mellan en avfallsanläggning för hantering av radioaktivt avfall och dess värdkommun
Mervärde genom design och process
Swedish, 60 pages, published: 05/04/2011
NEA#7023
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2011/nea7023-fostering-swedish.pdf

Other language(s):
- English: Fostering a Durable Relationship between a Waste Management Facility and its Host Community
- Français: Créer un lien durable entre une installation de gestion de déchets et sa collectivité d'accueil
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Avveckling av kärntekniska anläggningar
Det har gjorts och kan göras igen
Swedish, 8 pages, published: 02/11/2011
NEA#6983
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2011/nea6983-decommissioning-SWE.pdf

Other language(s):
- English: Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities (brochure)
- Italian: Il Decommissioning degli Impianti Nucleari
- German: Stilllegung kerntechnischer Anlagen (decommissioning brochure)
- Français: Démantèlement des installations nucléaires (brochure)
- Chinese: 核設施除役

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Rôle des informations géoscientifiques dans le dossier de sûreté pour la gestion des déchets radioactifs
Principales conclusions du Projet AMIGO
Français, 56 pages, published: 09/24/2010
NEA#6396, ISBN: 978-92-64-99139-2
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2010/nea6396-AMIGO-f.pdf

Other language(s):
- English: Geoscientific Information in the Radioactive Waste Management Safety Case
À toutes les phases du cycle du combustible nucléaire, mais aussi lorsque l'on utilise des substances radioactives dans l’industrie, la recherche et en médecine, on produit des déchets radioactifs. La solution la plus largement étudiée à travers le monde est, pour les déchets les plus dangereux et à vie longue, le stockage en formation géologique, c’est-à-dire dans des ouvrages aménagés à de grandes profondeurs. L'importance des informations géoscientifiques pour la sélection des sites de stockage géologique est connue depuis longtemps. Mais on a pris conscience progressivement du rôle plus vaste qu'elles peuvent jouer lorsqu’il s’agit d’évaluer et de documenter la sûreté d’un ouvrage de stockage. Le projet de l’OCDE/AEN sur les Procédures et méthodes d’intégration des informations géologiques dans le dossier de sûreté (AMIGO) a démontré que les données et la compréhension géologiques ont de nombreuses fonctions dans un dossier de sûreté. Le projet, qui s’est déroulé de 2002 à 2008, a mis en évidence l’importance d’intégrer des informations géoscientifiques à l’élaboration d’un dossier de sûreté et, de plus en plus, au processus global d’aménagement du stockage y compris, par exemple, s’agissant des décisions d’implantation et de la vérification de la faisabilité pratique de l’architecture et de la conception technique du stockage.
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Geoscientific Information in the Radioactive Waste Management Safety Case
Main Messages from the AMIGO Project
English, 56 pages, published: 09/24/2010
NEA#6395, ISBN: 978-92-64-99138-5
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2010/nea6395-AMIGO.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Rôle des informations géoscientifiques dans le dossier de sûreté pour la gestion des déchets radioactifs
Radioactive waste is associated with all phases of the nuclear fuel cycle as well as the use of radioactive materials in medicine, research and industry. For the most hazardous and long-lived waste, the solution being investigated worldwide is disposal in engineered repositories deep underground. The importance of geoscientific information in selecting a site for geological disposal has long been recognised, but there has been growing acknowledgement of the broader role of this information in assessing and documenting the safety of disposal. The OECD/NEA Approaches and Methods for Integrating Geological Information in the Safety Case (AMIGO) project has demonstrated that geological data and understanding serve numerous roles in safety cases. The project, which ran from 2002 to 2008, underscored the importance of integrating geoscientific information in the development of a disposal safety case and increasingly in the overall process of repository development, including, for example, siting decisions and ensuring the practical feasibility of repository layout and engineering.
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Stilllegung kerntechnischer Anlagen (decommissioning brochure)
Machbar und gemacht.
German, published: 09/21/2010
NEA#6922
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2010/nea6822-stilllegung-planche.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Démantèlement des installations nucléaires (brochure)
- Italian: Il Decommissioning degli Impianti Nucleari
- English: Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities (brochure)
- Swedish: Avveckling av kärntekniska anläggningar
- Chinese: 核設施除役
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Decommissioning Considerations for New Nuclear Power Plants
English, 16 pages, published: 06/07/2010
NEA#6833, ISBN: 978-92-64-99132-3
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2010/nea6833-decommissioning-considerations.pdf
Experience from decommissioning projects suggests that the decommissioning of nuclear power plants could be made easier if this aspect received greater consideration at the design stage and during operation of the plants. Better forward planning for decommissioning results in lower worker doses and reduced costs. When appropriate design measures are not taken at an early stage, their introduction later in the project becomes increasingly difficult. Hence, their early consideration may lead to smoother and more effective decommissioning operations. This report provides an overview of key decommissioning issues which are useful to consider when designing new nuclear power plants.
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Self-sealing of Fractures in Argillaceous Formations in the Context of Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste
Review and Synthesis
English, 312 pages, published: 06/01/2010
NEA#6184, ISBN: 978-92-64-99095-1
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2010/nea6184-self-sealing.pdf
Disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel in engineered facilities, or repositories, located deep underground in suitable geological formations is being developed worldwide as the reference solution to protect humans and the environment both now and in the future. Assessing the long-term safety of geological disposal requires developing a comprehensive understanding of the geological environment. The transport pathways are key to this understanding. Of particular interest are fractures in the host rock, which may be either naturally occurring or induced, for example, during the construction of engineered portions of a repository. Such fractures could provide pathways for migration of contaminants.

In argillaceous (clay) formations, there is evidence that, over time, fractures can become less conductive and eventually hydraulically insignificant. This process is commonly termed “self-sealing”. The capacity for self-sealing relates directly to the function of clay host rocks as migration barriers and, consequently, to the safety of deep repositories in those geological settings.

This report – conducted under the auspices of the NEA Clay Club – reviews the evidence and mechanisms for self-sealing properties of clays and evaluates their relevance to geological disposal. Results from laboratory tests, field investigations and geological analogues are considered. The evidence shows that, for many types of argillaceous formations, the understanding of self-sealing has progressed to a level that could justify its inclusion in performance assessments for geological repositories.
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Cost Estimation for Decommissioning
An International Overview of Cost Elements, Estimation Practices and Reporting Requirements
English, 80 pages, published: 05/17/2010
NEA#6831, ISBN: 978-92-64-99133-0
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2010/nea6831-cost-estimation-decommissioning.pdf
This report is based on a study carried out by the NEA Decommissioning Cost Estimation Group (DCEG) on decommissioning cost elements, estimation practices and reporting requirements. Its findings indicate that cost methodologies need to be updated continuously using cost data from actual decommissioning projects and hence, systematic approaches need to be implemented to collect these data. The study also concludes that changes in project scope may have the greatest impact on project costs. Such changes must therefore be identified immediately and incorporated into the estimate. Finally, the report notes that more needs to be done to facilitate the comparison of estimates, for example by providing a reporting template for national estimates.
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Démantèlement des installations nucléaires (brochure)
C'est possible et cela a été fait
Français, 8 pages, published: 04/22/2010
NEA#6830
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2010/nea6830-demantelement.pdf

Other language(s):
- Italian: Il Decommissioning degli Impianti Nucleari
- German: Stilllegung kerntechnischer Anlagen (decommissioning brochure)
- Swedish: Avveckling av kärntekniska anläggningar
- English: Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities (brochure)
- Chinese: 核設施除役
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Applying Decommissioning Experience to the Design and Operation of New Nuclear Power Plants
English, 56 pages, published: 04/21/2010
NEA#6924, ISBN: 978-92-64-99118-7
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2010/nea6924-applying-decommissioning.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Intégration du retour d'expérience du démantèlement à la conception et l'exploitation des futures centrales nucléaires
Experience from decommissioning projects suggests that the decommissioning of nuclear power plants could be made easier if it received greater consideration at the design stage and during the operation of the plants. Better forward planning for decommissioning results in lower worker doses and reduced costs. When appropriate design measures are not taken at an early stage, their introduction later in the project becomes increasingly difficult. Hence, their early consideration may lead to smoother and more effective decommissioning.

It is now common practice to provide a preliminary decommissioning plan as part of the application for a licence to operate a nuclear facility. This means, in turn, that decommissioning issues are being considered during the design process. Although many design provisions aiming at improved operation and maintenance will be beneficial for decommissioning as well, designers also need to consider issues that are specific to decommissioning, such as developing sequential dismantling sequences and providing adequate egress routes. These issues and more are discussed in this report.
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Intégration du retour d'expérience du démantèlement à la conception et l'exploitation des futures centrales nucléaires
Français, 68 pages, published: 04/16/2010
NEA#6946, ISBN: 978-92-64-99130-9
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2010/nea6946-integration-conception.pdf

Other language(s):
- English: Applying Decommissioning Experience to the Design and Operation of New Nuclear Power Plants
L’expérience des projets de démantèlement de centrales nucléaires laisse entendre que l'on pourrait simplifier ces opérations si l'on y accordait davantage d'attention au moment de la conception ou pendant l'exploitation de l'installation. Mieux planifier le démantèlement est en effet synonyme de doses réduites et de moindres coûts. Or les adaptations de la conception qui n'ont pas été effectuées dès l'origine sont difficiles à introduire ultérieurement. C'est pourquoi, leur prise en compte précoce est gage d'un démantèlement plus facile et plus efficace.

Il est dorénavant de pratique courante de produire un plan de démantèlement préliminaire avec la demande d'autorisation d’exploitation d'une centrale nucléaire. Cela signifie que les questions de démantèlement sont prises en compte pendant la conception. Toutefois, si les dispositions de conception adoptées pour l’exploitation et la maintenance améliorent souvent les conditions de démantèlement aussi, les concepteurs doivent également considérer les aspects spécifiques à ces opérations, établir des séquences d'opérations de démantèlement et prévoir des voies d'évacuation adaptées par exemple. Ce rapport approfondit ces questions et bien d'autres encore.
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Au-delà des seules réalités concrètes : la dimension symbolique de la gestion des déchets radioactifs
Français, 40 pages, published: 04/15/2010
NEA#6870, ISBN: 978-92-64-99106-4
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2010/nea6870-symbolique.pdf

Other language(s):
- English: More than Just Concrete Realities: The Symbolic Dimension of Radioactive Waste Management
Les concepts clés de la gestion des déchets radioactifs, tels la sûreté, le risque, la réversibilité et la récupérabilité, ont des connotations différentes pour la communauté scientifique et pour les parties prenantes de formation non technique. De manière similaire, des concepts socio-économiques, dont la communauté, le paysage et les avantages sociaux, sont interprétés différemment suivant les groupes sociaux. Les opinions et les comportements ne sont pas simplement une image fidèle de la prise de décision, des événements réels et des messages communiqués ; la perception et l’interprétation des événements et des objets jouent aussi un rôle. Ce rapport présente les questions clés et des exemples permettant de développer la prise de conscience de l’importance des symboles et du symbolisme dans la communication sur les perceptions et les interprétations. Il accentue le constat que la communication entre les parties prenantes est modelée par des dimensions qui vont au-delà du sens commun et sont fondées sur les traditions et les conventions sociales. Une meilleure compréhension de ces réalités moins évidentes ou flagrantes devrait aider à trouver des moyens additionnels pour créer des relations constructives entre les parties prenantes.
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More than Just Concrete Realities: The Symbolic Dimension of Radioactive Waste Management
English, 36 pages, published: 04/15/2010
NEA#6869, ISBN: 978-92-64-99105-7
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2010/nea6869-symbolic.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Au-delà des seules réalités concrètes : la dimension symbolique de la gestion des déchets radioactifs
Key concepts of radioactive waste management, such as safety, risk, reversibility and retrievability, carry different meanings for the technical community and for non-technical stakeholders. Similarly, socio-economic concepts, including community, landscape and benefit packages, are interpreted differently by diverse societal groups. Opinions and attitudes are not simply a faithful reflection of decision making, actual events and communicated messages; perceptions and interpretations of events and objects also play a role. This report presents key issues and examples in order to build awareness of the importance of symbols and symbolism in communicating about perceptions and interpretations. It adds to the recognition that dialogue amongst stakeholders is shaped by dimensions of meaning that reach beyond dictionary definitions and are grounded in tradition and social conventions. A better understanding of these less obvious or conspicuous realities should help find additional ways of creating constructive relationships amongst stakeholders.
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Stockage des déchets radioactifs et territoires d'accueil : envisager l'avenir ensemble
Synthèse de l’atelier du FSC et des rencontres avec les collectivités locales, Bar-le-Duc, France, 7-9 avril 2009
Français, 60 pages, published: 04/13/2010
NEA#6939, ISBN: 978-92-64-99129-3
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2010/nea6939-stockage-avenir.pdf

Other language(s):
- English: Radioactive Waste Repositories and Host Regions: Envisaging the Future Together
La thématique de ce 7e atelier du Forum sur la confiance des parties prenantes (FSC) concernait la mise en œuvre du programme français de gestion des déchets de haute activité et de moyenne activité à vie longue. Au cours des différentes sessions, ont été abordés le contexte historique et législatif français, l’information du public, la réversibilité, la surveillance de l’environnement ainsi que la conservation de la mémoire. Des représentants des collectivités locales et régionales, des représentants d’organisations de la société civile, des universités, des agences de gestion des déchets et des délégués de 13 pays y ont participé. Ce rapport présente une synthèse des délibérations de l’atelier.
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Radioactive Waste Repositories and Host Regions: Envisaging the Future Together
Synthesis of the FSC National Workshop and Community Visit, Bar-le-Duc, France, 7-9 April 2009
English, 56 pages, published: 04/12/2010
NEA#6925, ISBN: 978-92-64-99128-6
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2010/nea6925-repositories-host-regions.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Stockage des déchets radioactifs et territoires d'accueil : envisager l'avenir ensemble
This 7th Forum on Stakeholder Confidence (FSC) workshop focused on the territorial implementation of France’s high-level and long-lived intermediate-level waste management programme. Sessions addressed the French historical and legislative context, public information, reversibility, environmental monitoring and the issue of memory. Amongst the participants were representatives of local and regional governments, civil society organisations, universities, waste management agencies, institutional authorities and delegates from 13 countries. This report provides a synthesis of the workshop deliberations.
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Partenariats pour la gestion à long terme des déchets radioactifs
Evolution et pratique actuelle dans treize pays
Français, 150 pages, published: 04/06/2010
NEA#6824, ISBN: 978-92-64-08371-4
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/pubs/2010/6824-partenariats-gestion.pdf

Other language(s):
- English: Partnering for Long-term Management of Radioactive Waste
Les programmes nationaux de gestion des déchets radioactifs se trouvent à des phases diverses dans la recherche de sites d’implantation d’installations et se fondent sur des approches techniques distinctes adaptées aux différentes catégories de déchets. Dans tous les cas, il est nécessaire que les acteurs institutionnels et la communauté d’accueil, actuelle ou potentielle, établissent entre eux une relation sérieuse et viable. Les formules de partenariat permettent de réaliser un équilibre entre les exigences d’une représentation équitable et d’une participation éclairée. Avec l'appui de la communauté d’accueil, elles contribuent également à l'association souhaitable d’un site et d’un concept de gestion pouvant être autorisés au plan réglementaire ainsi qu'à un bon équilibre entre l'octroi de compensations, le contrôle local et les possibilités de développement. Ce rapport présente les informations les plus récentes sur les expériences de partenariat avec les communautés d’accueil dans 13 pays. Les caractéristiques, les avantages et les objectifs de telles formules de partenariat y sont décrits ainsi que l'évolution du concept sur les dix dernières années.
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Partnering for Long-term Management of Radioactive Waste
Evolution and Current Practice in Thirteen Countries
English, 132 pages, published: 04/06/2010
NEA#6823, ISBN: 978-92-64-08369-1
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/pubs/2010/6823-partnering-management.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Partenariats pour la gestion à long terme des déchets radioactifs
National radioactive waste management programmes are in various phases of siting facilities and rely on distinct technical approaches for different categories of waste. In all cases, it is necessary for institutional actors and the potential or actual host community to build a meaningful, workable relationship. Partnership approaches are effective in achieving a balance between the requirements of fair representation and competent participation. With host community support, they also help ensure the desirable combination of a licensable site and management concept as well as a balance between compensation, local control and development opportunities. This report provides up-to-date information on experience with local partnership arrangements in 13 countries. The characteristics, advantages and aims of community partnerships are also described in addition to the concept's evolution over the past decade.
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Il Decommissioning degli Impianti Nucleari
Si può, ed é stato fatto
Italian, 8 pages, published: 04/03/2010
NEA#6955
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2010/nea6955-Decommissioning-brochure-ITA.pdf

Other language(s):
- English: Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities (brochure)
- Français: Démantèlement des installations nucléaires (brochure)
- German: Stilllegung kerntechnischer Anlagen (decommissioning brochure)
- Swedish: Avveckling av kärntekniska anläggningar
- Chinese: 核設施除役
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Vers une harmonisation des estimations des coûts du déclassement
Français, 16 pages, published: 03/22/2010
NEA#6868, ISBN: 978-92-64-99094-4
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2010/nea6868-harmonisation-FR.pdf

Other language(s):
- English: Towards Greater Harmonisation of Decommissioning Cost Estimates
À l'heure actuelle, on observe une variabilité considérable dans le format, le contenu et les pratiques d'estimation des coûts, que ce soit à l'intérieur d'un même pays ou lorsque l'on franchit les frontières. Les comparaisons sont, de ce fait, extrêmement difficiles, même entre installations du même type. Les exigences de la réglementation sont principalement responsables de ces disparités, ainsi que les habitudes et pratiques historiques. Elles se répercutent sur les hypothèses de base, telles que la stratégie de démantèlement prévue et l'état final du site, mais aussi sur les méthodes de traitement des aléas. Il sera sans doute difficile d'harmoniser les approches nationales des estimations des coûts. On peut du moins recommander une structure et une présentation standard de nature à accentuer la confiance que l'autorité de contrôle et les parties prenantes pourront accorder aux estimations et aux calendriers de dépenses.

Cette brochure présente les conclusions du groupe d’estimation des coûts du démantèlement (DCEG), qui a récemment étudié la façon dont étaient estimés les coûts dans 12 pays.
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Towards Greater Harmonisation of Decommissioning Cost Estimates
English, 16 pages, published: 03/22/2010
NEA#6867, ISBN: 978-92-64-99093-7
Volume of the series: Radioactive Waste Management
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2010/nea6867-harmonisation.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Vers une harmonisation des estimations des coûts du déclassement
Currently, the format, content and practice of cost estimation vary considerably both within and between countries, which makes it very difficult to compare estimates, even for similar types of facilities. The reasons are largely due to different legal requirements in different countries and to historical custom and practice, leading to variations in basic assumptions such as the anticipated decommissioning strategy and end state of the site, and to different approaches to dealing with uncertainties. While attaining harmonisation across national approaches to cost estimation may be difficult to achieve, standardising the way decommissioning cost estimates are structured and reported will give greater transparency to the decommissioning process and will help build regulator and stakeholder confidence in the cost estimates and schedules.

This booklet highlights the findings of the NEA Decommissioning Cost Estimation Group (DCEG) which recently studied cost estimation practices in 12 countries.
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Optimisation des stockages géologiques de déchets radioactifs
Recommandations nationales et internationales et futurs thèmes de discussions
Français, 36 pages, published: 03/12/2010
NEA#6837, ISBN: 978-92-64-99108-8
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2010/nea6837-optimisation-FR.pdf

Other language(s):
- English: Optimisation of Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste
Alors que les programmes nationaux de stockage géologique progressent vers leur mise en œuvre, le concept d’« optimisation » et les exigences réglementaires associées suscitent une attention accrue. Les échanges au sein des groupes d’experts de l’AEN ont montré que les régulateurs et les maîtres d’ouvrage pourraient ensemble tirer bénéfice d'un examen des concepts applicables ainsi que des recommandations et de l'expérience disponibles. Ce rapport récapitule et examine les concepts qui concernent l’« optimisation » des systèmes de stockage géologique tels qu'ils sont mis en avant dans les textes réglementaires nationaux et les recommandations internationales. Il présente également un certain nombre d'observations et de questions clés. De façon générale, il montre que, lorsque l’on traite de l’optimisation, il existe des marges substantielles pour clarifier les concepts, les faits et les options ainsi que pour s’assurer que les textes réglementaires sont suffisamment précis et applicables. L'objectif de ce rapport est de servir de base de discussions parmi et au delà des comités et des groupes d’experts de l’AEN.
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Optimisation of Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste
National and International Guidance and Questions for Further Discussion
English, 28 pages, published: 03/11/2010
NEA#6836, ISBN: 978-92-64-99107-1
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2010/nea6836-optimisation-ENG.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Optimisation des stockages géologiques de déchets radioactifs
As national geological disposal programmes progress towards implementation, the concept of “optimisation” and related requirements are receiving increased attention. Exchanges within NEA expert groups have shown that both regulators and implementers would benefit from a review of the relevant concepts and available guidance and experience. This report summarises and reviews the concepts relevant to the “optimisation” of geological disposal systems as they are outlined in national and international guidance. It also presents a set of observations and key questions. Overall, the report shows that, when addressing “optimisation”, there is ample scope for clarifying concepts, facts and possibilities and for ensuring that regulatory guidance is sufficiently precise and implementable. The intention is that this report should serve as a basis for discussion within and beyond NEA committees and expert groups.
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Towards Transparent, Proportionate and Deliverable Regulation for Geological Disposal
Workshop Proceedings, Tokyo, Japan, 20-22 January 2009
English, 196 pages, published: 03/03/2010
NEA#6825, ISBN: 978-92-64-06092-0
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/pubs/2010/6825-towards-transparent.pdf
As part of its activities, the Regulators’ Forum of the NEA Radioactive Waste Management Committee has been examining the regulatory criteria for the long-term performance of geological disposal. In this context, it organised a workshop entitled “Towards Transparent, Proportionate and Deliverable Regulation for Geological Disposal”, which served to verify current status and needs. Participants included regulators, implementers, policy makers, R&D specialists and academics. Themes addressed included duties to future generations, timescales for regulation, stepwise decision making, roles of optimisation and best available techniques (BAT), multiple lines of reasoning, safety and performance indicators, recognition of uncertainties and the importance of stakeholder interactions. The workshop highlighted the significant amount of work accomplished over the past decade, but also identified important differences between national regulations even if these are not in contradiction with international guidance. Also highlighted was the importance of R&D carried out on behalf of the regulator. In addition to the contributed papers, these proceedings trace the numerous discussions that formed an integral part of the workshop. They constitute an important and unique documentary basis for researchers and radioactive waste management specialists.
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Réglementation et lignes directrices pour l'évacuation des déchets radioactifs en formation géologique
Revue de la littérature et des initiatives de la dernière décennie
Français, 40 pages, published: 02/24/2010
NEA#6406, ISBN: 978-92-64-99121-7
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2010/nea6406-regulation-guidance-FR.pdf

Other language(s):
- English: Regulation and Guidance for the Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste
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Regulation and Guidance for the Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste
A Review of the Literature and Initiatives of the Past Decade
English, 40 pages, published: 02/24/2010
NEA#6405, ISBN: 978-92-64-99120-0
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2010/nea6405-regulation-guidance-ENG.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Réglementation et lignes directrices pour l'évacuation des déchets radioactifs en formation géologique

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Expériences internationales des dossiers de sûreté pour les dépôts en formation géologique (INTESC) + CD-ROM
Résultats du projet INTESC
Français, 80 pages, published: 11/06/2009
NEA#6252, ISBN: 978-92-64-99104-0
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2009/nea6252-INTESC-fr.pdf
Un « dossier de sûreté » est la synthèse des preuves, analyses et arguments qui permettent de quantifier et de justifier que le dépôt de déchets radioactifs en formation géologique restera sûr après sa fermeture et après que l'on puisse assurer une surveillance active de l'installation. Le projet de l'AEN sur les International Experiences in Safety Cases for Geological Repositories (INTESC) a consisté à analyser les dossiers de sûreté actuels et leurs éléments afin de dresser un bilan des avancées des dix dernières années, d'en dégager les principaux concepts et de préciser les attentes futures des autorités de sûreté concernant le contenu et l'examen des dossiers de sûreté. Ce rapport présente les résultats du projet INTESC. Il tient compte des réponses à une enquête détaillée réalisée auprès des pays membres de l'AEN et intègre les résultats d'un atelier technique.

Le projet a montré que la finalité et le concept même du dossier de sûreté sont généralement bien compris, acceptés et adoptés par les gestionnaires de déchets à travers le monde. Les dossiers de sûreté préparés reprennent la plupart des éléments proposés par l’AEN, même s’il existe quelques différences d’interprétation et de présentation. Des tendances importantes se dessinent comme l'utilisation des fonctions de sûreté et le rôle de la synthèse des connaissances géologiques. À mesure que les dossiers de sûreté seront affinés pour permettre aux programmes d’avancer vers l’étape de la mise en œuvre du dépôt, on pourra également s’attendre à de nouveaux progrès dans l'analyse de certains aspects et l'élaboration d'outils, tels que les programmes d'assurance de la qualité et les systèmes de gestion des spécifications.
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International Experiences in Safety Cases for Geological Repositories (INTESC) + CD-ROM
Outcomes of the INTESC Project
English, 76 pages, published: 11/06/2009
NEA#6251, ISBN: 978-92-64-99103-3
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2009/nea6251-INTESC-eng.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Expériences internationales des dossiers de sûreté pour les dépôts en formation géologique (INTESC) + CD-ROM
A “safety case” is the synthesis of evidence, analyses and arguments that quantify and substantiate a claim that a geological repository for radioactive waste will be safe after closure and beyond the time when active control of the facility can be ensured. The NEA project on International Experiences in Safety Cases for Geological Repositories (INTESC) analysed existing safety cases, and their elements, to provide an overview of progress during the last decade, to identify key concepts and to give insight into regulatory expectations on the contents and review of safety cases. This report documents the outcomes of the INTESC project. It takes account of the responses to a detailed survey of NEA member countries as well as the results of a technical workshop.

The project has shown that the purpose and concept of a safety case are generally understood, accepted and adopted by radioactive waste management programmes worldwide. Programmes are preparing safety cases in line with most of the elements suggested by the NEA, although there are some differences in interpretation and presentation. Some important trends are emerging, such as the use of safety functions and the role of a geosynthesis. Further development of some aspects and tools, such as quality assurance programmes and requirements management systems, can be expected as safety cases are further refined to support programmes moving towards implementation of geological disposal.
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Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities (brochure)
It can and has been done
English, 8 pages, published: 10/23/2009
NEA#6829
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2009/nea6829-decommissioning.pdf

Other language(s):
- Italian: Il Decommissioning degli Impianti Nucleari
- German: Stilllegung kerntechnischer Anlagen (decommissioning brochure)
- Swedish: Avveckling av kärntekniska anläggningar
- Français: Démantèlement des installations nucléaires (brochure)
- Chinese: 核設施除役
Considerable international experience gained over the last 20 years demonstrates that nuclear facilities can be safely dismantled and decommissioned once a decision is made to cease operations and permanently shut them down. This brochure looks at decommissioning across a spectrum of nuclear facilities and shows worldwide examples of sucessful projects.
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A Common Objective, a Variety of Paths
Synthesis and Main Lessons:Third International Conference on Geological Repositories, Berne, Switzerland, 15-17 October 2007
English, 40 pages, published: 10/20/2009
NEA#6385, ISBN: 978-92-64-99100-2
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2009/6385-Common-Objective.pdf
High-level political, governmental and regulatory decision makers, as well as representatives of economic and social groups and implementing organisations met in Berne, Switzerland to present and to reflect on their collective experience towards meeting the challenge of implementing national disposal projects for placing radioactive waste in deep geological formations. This summary highlights the main lessons to be learnt and final recommendations to assist future developments in national radioactive waste management programmes seeking to meet both technical and social imperatives of modern society.
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A Common Objective, a Variety of Paths
Third International Conference on Geological Repositories, Berne, Switzerland, 15-17 October 2007
English, published: 10/16/2009
NEA#6875, ISBN: 978-92-64-99101-9
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2009/6875-icgr2007.pdf
High-level political, governmental and regulatory decision makers, as well as representatives of economic and social groups and implementing organisations met in Berne, Switzerland to present and to reflect on their collective experience towards meeting the challenge of implementing national disposal projects for placing radioactive waste in deep geological formations. These proceedings include the papers presented at the conference as well as a summary which highlights the main lessons to be learnt and final recommendations to assist future developments in national radioactive waste management programmes seeking to meet both technical and social imperatives of modern society.
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Regional Development and Community Support for Radioactive Waste Management (web only)
Synthesis of the FSC National Workshop and Community Visit, Tengelic and Bataapati, Hungary, 14-17 November 2006
English, 78 pages, published: 10/16/2009
NEA#6258, ISBN: 978-92-64-99102-6
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2009/6258-FSC-Hungary.pdf
In November 2006, Hungary hosted the 6th National Workshop and Community Visit of the NEA Forum on Stakeholder Confidence (FSC). Participants included institutional authorities, local residents and stakeholders, 11 mayors and more than 30 FSC delegates from 12 countries. The workshop focused on those factors that contribute either to the success or failure of the siting process for a radioactive waste repository. Experience gained in Hungary over the past two decades provided the context for the discussions. The workshop highlighted the role and modes of operation of local public oversight and information associations, which proved to be instrumental in reaching an agreement between the implementer and the local communities. The workshop included a visit to the community of Bátaapáti and the ongoing project site for an underground repository for short-lived, low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste (LILW).
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Approaches and Challenges for the Use of Geological Information in the Safety Case for Deep Disposal of Radioactive Waste
Third AMIGO Workshop Proceedings, Nancy, France, 15-17 April 2008
English, 76 pages, published: 10/09/2009
NEA#6417, ISBN: 978-92-64-99090-6
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2009/AMIGO-3/index.html
A cornerstone of national decision making and societal acceptance of deep geological disposal of radioactive waste is confidence that such repositories can protect humans and the environment both now and in the future. The “safety case” is the synthesis of evidence, analyses and arguments that quantify and substantiate a claim that the repository will be safe after closure and beyond the time when active control of the facility is ensured. For deep geological disposal, studies of the geosphere form a principal component of the safety case. Geoscientific information is unique in that it can offer evidence and lines of reasoning that span geological timescales (millennia and even longer).

The NEA Approaches and Methods for Integrating Geological Information in the Safety Case (AMIGO) project addresses the collection and integration of geoscientific evidence, analyses and arguments that contribute to an understanding of long-term safety. The third and final AMIGO workshop on “Approaches and Challenges for the Use of Geological Information in the Safety Case” underscored that geoscientific information plays a fundamental role in safety assessments. It is also increasingly used in the wider context of the safety case to provide evidence and arguments for the intrinsically favourable properties of a site, including its long-term stability. No single geoscientific argument “proves” safety, but rather each supports some key element of the safety case and provides enhanced confidence in the safety case. The workshop also considered the links and feedback among the safety case; design, engineering and construction issues; and geoscientific investigations.
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Natural Tracer Profiles Across Argillaceous Formations: The CLAYTRAC Project
English, 364 pages, published: 03/24/2009
NEA#6253, ISBN: 978-92-64-06047-0
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/pubs/2009/6253-claytract-project-2009.pdf
Disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel in engineered facilities, or repositories, located deep underground in suitable geological formations is being developed worldwide as the reference solution to protect humans and the environment both now and in the future. An important aspect of assessing the long-term safety of deep geological disposal is developing a comprehensive understanding of the geological environment in order to define the initial conditions for the disposal system as well as to provide a sound scientific basis for projecting its future evolution. The transport pathways and mechanisms by which contaminants could migrate in the surrounding host rock are key elements in any safety case. Relevant experiments in laboratories or underground test facilities can provide important information, but the challenge remains in being able to extrapolate the results to the spatial and temporal scales required for performance assessment, which are typically tens to hundreds of metres and from thousands to beyond a million years into the future. Profiles of natural tracers dissolved in pore water of argillaceous rock formations can be considered as large-scale and long-term natural experiments which enable the transport properties to be characterised.

The CLAYTRAC Project on Natural Tracer Profiles Across Argillaceous Formations was established by the NEA Clay Club to evaluate the relevance of natural tracer data in understanding past geological evolution and in confirming dominant transport processes. Data were analysed for nine sites to support scientific understanding and development of geological disposal. The outcomes of the project show that, for the sites and clay-rich formations that were studied, there is strong evidence that solute transport is controlled mainly by diffusion. The results can improve site understanding and performance assessment in the context of deep geological disposal and have the potential to be applied to other sites and contexts.
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Stability and Buffering Capacity of the Geosphere for Long-term Isolation of Radioactive Waste: Application to Crystalline Rock
Workshop Proceedings, Manchester, United Kingdom, 13-15 November 2007
English, 304 pages, published: 03/20/2009
NEA#6362, ISBN: 978-92-64-06056-2
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/pubs/2009/6362-stability-buffering.pdf
Geological settings selected as potential host formations for the deep geological disposal of radioactive waste are chosen for, among other assets, their long-term stability and buffering capacity against disruptive or destabilising events and processes. The NEA Integration Group for the Safety Case organised a workshop on geosphere stability to develop a better understanding of the scientific evidence and arguments that contribute to confidence in the geological stability for deep geological disposal.

These proceedings present the outcomes of a geosphere stability workshop, held in November 2007, that focused on crystalline and other types of hard, fractured rocks. The workshop underscored the fact that many such rocks are intrinsically stable environments that evolve extremely slowly and provide good buffering against external events and processes. There is a good understanding of the processes and events that can affect crystalline rocks and, although there is less confidence in predicting exactly when and where such events will occur and the volume of rock that will be affected, the extent of the impacts on a geological repository can be confidently addressed using bounding approaches supported by geological information from similar sites around the world.
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Considering Timescales in the Post-closure Safety of Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste
English, 160 pages, published: 03/13/2009
NEA#6424, ISBN: 978-92-64-06058-6
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/pubs/2009/6424-considering-timescales.pdf
A key challenge in the development of safety cases for the deep geological disposal of radioactive waste is handling the long time frame over which the radioactive waste remains hazardous. The intrinsic hazard of the waste decreases with time, but some hazard remains for extremely long periods. Safety cases for geological disposal typically address performance and protection for thousands to millions of years into the future. Over such periods, a wide range of events and processes operating over many different timescales may impact on a repository and its environment. Uncertainties in the predictability of such factors increase with time, making it increasingly difficult to provide definite assurances of a repository's performance and the protection it may provide over longer timescales. Timescales, the level of protection and the assurance of safety are all linked.

Approaches to handling timescales for the geological disposal of radioactive waste are influenced by ethical principles, the evolution of the hazard over time, uncertainties in the evolution of the disposal system (and how these uncertainties themselves evolve) and the stability and predictability of the geological environment. Conversely, the approach to handling timescales can affect aspects of repository planning and implementation including regulatory requirements, siting decisions, repository design, the development and presentation of safety cases and the planning of pre- and post-closure institutional controls such as monitoring requirements. This is an area still under discussion among NEA member countries. This report reviews the current status and ongoing discussions of this issue.

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Libération des matériaux et bâtiments radioactifs du contrôle réglementaire
Rapport de synthèse
Français, 76 pages, published: 12/31/2008
NEA#6404, ISBN: 978-92-64-99062-3
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2009/nea6404_Liberatin_des_materiaux.pdf

Other language(s):
- English: Release of Radioactive Materials and Buildings from Regulatory Control
En radioprotection, on entend par « libération » la décision prise par l'autorité compétente de lever tous les contrôles réglementaires appliqués jusqu'alors aux matériaux et bâtiments radioactifs. Cette décision se fonde généralement sur l'hypothèse que, si la décision de libération a été prise, alors toute dose d'exposition éventuelle ne sera que négligeable.

Ce concept de libération, aujourd'hui bien rodé, est utilisé pour gérer des matériaux radioactifs en grandes quantités (métaux, gravats, câbles, matières plastiques, etc.) mais aussi des bâtiments désaffectés qui étaient le siège d'une activité nucléaire contrôlée. On note toutefois des différences dans la manière de traiter la question de la libération dans la réglementation des différents pays ainsi que dans la mise en œuvre du concept suivant les projets de démantèlement.

Ce rapport propose aux lecteurs les dernières informations disponibles sur les différentes approches nationales de la libération. Il est destiné plus particulièrement à tous ceux qui s'apprêtent à entreprendre une procédure de libération, par exemple pour le démantèlement d'une installation nucléaire.
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Release of Radioactive Materials and Buildings from Regulatory Control
A Status Report
English, 72 pages, published: 11/19/2008
NEA#6403, ISBN: 978-92-64-99061-6
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2008/nea6403-regulatory.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Libération des matériaux et bâtiments radioactifs du contrôle réglementaire
The radiological concept of clearance can be defined as the release of radioactive materials or buildings from any further regulatory control applied for radiological protection purposes by the competent body. It is generally based on the assumption that, following clearance, any potential radiological exposure of the public will be trivial.

Clearance is now a mature concept being used for the management of large amounts of radioactive materials (including metals, building rubble, cables and plastics) and disused buildings associated with a controlled nuclear activity. There are, however, differences in the ways in which clearance is dealt with in the regulatory frameworks of various countries and the ways in which clearance has been implemented in diverse decommissioning projects.

This report provides up-to-date information on an array of national approaches to clearance. It should be of particular help to those planning the implementation of a clearance procedure, such as that for decommissioning a nuclear facility.
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Dispositions réglementaires pour le déclassement des installations nucléaires
Points importants et pratiques émergentes
Français, 88 pages, published: 09/25/2008
NEA#6402, ISBN: 978-92-64-99060-9
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2008/ne6402-declassement.pdf

Other language(s):
- English: Regulating the Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities
L’enlèvement des matières irradiées et plus particulièrement du combustible à l'issue de l'arrêt définitif d'une installation élimine la source principale de risque radiologique, le risque de criticité. Associé à l'arrêt de l'exploitation et à l'utilisation de procédés à haute température et pression, il induit une diminution significative des risques à la santé publique et à l'environnement. Les procédés utilisés lors des opérations de démantèlement – pour la découpe et le démontage de structures – induisent à la fois des risques conventionnels et radiologiques, comme par exemple les découpes à l'explosif. Des risques radiologiques demeurent en raison de la possibilité d'entrer en contact avec des matériels contaminés ou activés.

Ce rapport présente la nécessaire adaptation des contraintes réglementaires et aux risques associés liés aux opérations de démantèlement. Il présente des exemples de pratiques mises en œuvre dans plusieurs pays qui mènent de grands programmes de déclassement pour illustrer les nouvelles tendances réglementaires.
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Regulating the Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities
Relevant Issues and Emerging Practices
English, 84 pages, published: 09/25/2008
NEA#6401, ISBN: 978-92-64-99059-3
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2008/ne6401-decommissioning.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Dispositions réglementaires pour le déclassement des installations nucléaires
The removal of fuel from a permanently shutdown nuclear facility eliminates the major source of radiological hazard, a nuclear criticality. Combined with the cessation of operations at high temperatures and pressures, the risk to public health and to the environment is thereby very significantly reduced. The process of decommissioning does however necessitate processes involving both conventional and radiological hazards such as the cutting and dismantling of structures, plant and equipment and the use of explosive cutting techniques. Some radiological hazards remain because of the possibility of coming into contact with radioactively contaminated or activated material.

This report considers how regulatory arrangements are being adapted to the continuously changing environment, and associated risk levels in a nuclear facility that is being decommissioned. It uses examples of current practices in several countries with large decommissioning programmes to illustrate emerging regulatory trends.
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Progresser sur la voie du stockage géologique des déchets radioactifs
Déclaration collective du Comité de la gestion des déchets radioactifs (RWMC) de l'AEN
Français, 24 pages, published: 09/01/2008
NEA#6434, ISBN: 978-92-64-99058-6
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2008/nea6434-declaration.pdf

Other language(s):
- English: Moving Forward with Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste
Le Comité de la gestion des déchets radioactifs (RWMC) de l’AEN a mis en avant les fondements environnementaux et éthiques relatifs au stockage géologique et s’est prononcé sur sa faisabilité technique par l’intermédiaire de plusieurs déclarations collectives antérieures. Depuis leur publication, aucun élément nouveau n'est venu remettre en cause leurs principales conclusions. Cependant, s’agissant des méthodologies, stratégies et processus de décision sur le sujet, des progrès ont été accomplis et les points de vue ont évolué. Le RWMC exprime ci-après, de manière concise, son opinion collective sur les raisons pour lesquelles le stockage géologique demeure une solution appropriée pour la gestion des déchets les plus dangereux et à vie longue. Il précise également l’état d’avancement des réflexions sur le stockage géologique, les défis et avantages de sa mise en œuvre ainsi que les attentes concernant les futurs développements.
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Moving Forward with Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste
A Collective Statement by the NEA Radioactive Waste Management Committee (RWMC)
English, 24 pages, published: 09/01/2008
NEA#6433, ISBN: 978-92-64-99057-9
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2008/nea6433-statement.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Progresser sur la voie du stockage géologique des déchets radioactifs
The NEA Radioactive Waste Management Committee (RWMC) has underscored the environmental and ethical basis for geological disposal as well as its technical feasibility in a number of previous collective statements. In the intervening period there have been advances and evolving views regarding the appropriate methodologies, policies, and decision-making processes. In addition much further practical experience has accumulated regarding the development of geological repositories. The RWMC expresses herewith, in a concise form, its collective views on why geological disposal remains an appropriate waste management choice for the disposal of the most hazardous and long-lived radioactive wastes, on the current status of geological disposal, on challenges and opportunities for implementation, and expectations for further developments.
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Regulating the Long-term Safety of Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste: Practical Issues and Challenges
Workshop Proceedings, Paris, France, 28-30 November 2006
English, 168 pages, published: 07/10/2008
NEA#6423, ISBN: 978-92-64-04812-6
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/pubs/2008/6423-regulating-long-term-safety.pdf
Regulating the long-term safety of geological disposal of radioactive waste is a key part of making progress on the radioactive waste management issue. A survey of member countries has shown that differences exist both in the protection criteria being applied and in the methods for demonstrating compliance, reflecting historical and cultural differences between countries which in turn result in a diversity of decision-making approaches and frameworks. At the same time, however, these differences in criteria are unlikely to result in significant differences in long-term protection, as all the standards being proposed are well below levels at which actual effects of radiological exposure can be observed and a range of complementary requirements is foreseen.

In order to enable experts from a wide range of backgrounds to debate the various aspects of these findings, the NEA organised an international workshop in November 2006 in Paris, France. Discussions focused on diversity in regulatory processes; the basis and tools for assuring long-term protection; ethical responsibilities of one generation to later generations and how these can be discharged; and adapting regulatory processes to the long time frames involved in implementing geological disposal. These proceedings include a summary of the viewpoints expressed as well as the 22 papers presented at the workshop.
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Safety Cases for Deep Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste: Where Do We Stand?
Symposium Proceedings, Paris, France, 23-25 January 2007
English, 424 pages, published: 04/30/2008
NEA#6319, ISBN: 978-92-64-99050-0
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2008/ne6319-safety.pdf
The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) hosted an international symposium on “Safety Cases for the Deep Disposal of Radioactive Waste: Where Do We Stand?” in January 2007. The NEA has spearheaded important developments in defining, and in developing methodologies to support, demonstrations of safety for deep disposal, including a similar symposium nearly two decades ago that provided the basis for a 1991 NEA collective opinion that the technical basis and methods exist for undertaking safety assessment of deep geological disposal. The 2007 symposium, co-sponsored by the European Commission and the International Atomic Energy Agency, provided the opportunity to review progress and to identify emerging trends and challenges. It brought together experts in the field of radioactive waste disposal from waste management organisations, regulatory agencies, scientific support organisations, international agencies, private sector consultants, and public interest groups both within and beyond NEA member countries.

The symposium showed that safety cases for radioactive waste disposal have evolved to become important tools both to assess safety and to aid in decision making. There is a good, shared understanding of what a safety case is and what comprises its main components. Importantly, the concept of a safety case today encompasses not only quantitative assessments of potential repository performance but also includes additional (and often more qualitative) lines of evidence and arguments that can contribute to confidence in safety. There has been significant evolution in terms of the analytical tools, lines of evidence, range of performance indicators and communication of the safety case. The value of international co-operation and dialogue in developing the concept and methodology of safety cases was underscored. These proceedings describe the discussions and conclusions of the symposium, and provide copies of the technical papers presented.
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Réglementation de la sûreté à long terme du stockage géologique
Vers une compréhension commune des objectifs principaux et des fondements des critères de sûreté
Français, 88 pages, published: 03/21/2008
NEA#6175, ISBN: 978-92-64-99048-7
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2008/nea6175-surete.pdf

Other language(s):
- English: Regulating the Long-term Safety of Geological Disposal
La réglementation de la sûreté à long terme du stockage géologique des déchets radioactifs pose des défis particuliers en raison des vastes échelles de temps concernées. Ce rapport a été préparé afin de promouvoir une compréhension commune des objectifs fondamentaux et des critères de sûreté des dépôts en formation géologique profonde. Il indique des orientations importantes pour les programmes nationaux dont le développement ou le perfectionnement de la réglementation est en cours. Une compréhension commune pourrait aussi aider à une communication plus claire et à une meilleure compréhension des critères réglementaires par le public.

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Regulating the Long-term Safety of Geological Disposal
Towards a Common Understanding of the Main Objectives and Bases of Safety Criteria
English, 84 pages, published: 12/30/2007
NEA#6182, ISBN: 978-92-64-99031-9
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2007/nea6182-regulating.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Réglementation de la sûreté à long terme du stockage géologique
Regulating the long-term safety of geological disposal of radioactive waste poses special challenges due to the very long timescales involved. This report has been prepared to help foster a common understanding of the fundamental safety objectives of deep geological repositories and the applicable criteria. It provides important guidance for the national programmes that are developing or refining regulations. A common understanding may also contribute to clearer communication and public understanding of regulatory criteria.
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Changements culturels et organisationnels dans les organismes de gestion des déchets radioactifs
Enseignements tirés
Français, 44 pages, published: 12/12/2007
NEA#6181, ISBN: 978-92-64-99037-1
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2007/nea6181-culturel.pdf

Other language(s):
- English: Cultural and Structural Changes in Radioactive Waste Management Organisations
L'environnement sociopolitique de la gestion des déchets radioactifs a connu de profonds changements ces dernières années. La concertation avec les parties prenantes est devenue l’un des principes directeurs. Comment se sont adaptés les organismes gestionnaires des déchets à cette nouvelle donne ? Comment trouver l'équilibre entre la nécessité de transparence et la préoccupation croissante de sauvegarder la sécurité des installations ? Trouve-t-on des organismes qui ont réussi la transition d’une culture technocentriste à une culture axée sur le client ? Quelle opposition a été rencontrée ? Quels outils et instruments ont aidé les organismes à évoluer?

Ce rapport documente les changements observés par les gestionnaires de ce secteur, et place ces changements dans un cadre d'analyse provenant des sciences de l'organisation. L'expérience et les analyses rapportées seront d’intérêt pour tous ceux qui cherchent à savoir plus sur les changements opérés dans le domaine de la gestion des déchets radioactifs, ou dont la propre organisation – tous secteurs confondus – est appelée à s'adapter à la nouvelle donne sociale.
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Cultural and Structural Changes in Radioactive Waste Management Organisations
Lessons Learnt
English, 44 pages, published: 12/12/2007
NEA#6180, ISBN: 978-92-64-99036-4
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2007/nea6180-cultural.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Changements culturels et organisationnels dans les organismes de gestion des déchets radioactifs
In recent years the socio-political environment of radioactive waste management (RWM) has been changing in a significant way. Stakeholder dialogue has become a leading principle. How have RWM organisations adapted to this societal transition? How do they balance the requirement of openness and the increasing concerns over the security of facilities? Are there organisations that have successfully changed from a technical- to a customer-focused culture? What resistance was met? Which tools and instruments helped organisations evolve?

This report documents the changes observed by RWM managers and sets those changes in an organisational sciences framework. All those who are intent on learning about the changes that have taken place in the field of radioactive waste management, or whose own organisations in any sector must adapt to societal demand, will be interested by the experience and insight reported here.
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Engineered Barrier Systems (EBS) in the Safety Case: Design Confirmation and Demonstration
Workshop Proceedings, Tokyo, Japan, 12-15 September 2006
English, 150 pages, published: 11/21/2007
NEA#6257, ISBN: 978-92-64-03995-7
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2007/nea6257-EBS-design-confirmation.pdf
The presence of several barriers serving complementary safety functions enhances confidence that radioactive waste placed in deep geological repositories will be adequately isolated and contained to protect human health and the environment. The barriers include the natural geological barrier and the engineered barrier system (EBS). The EBS itself may comprise a variety of sub-systems or components, such as the waste form, container, buffer, backfill, seals and plugs. Given the importance of this subject, the Integration Group for the Safety Case (IGSC) of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) sponsored a series of workshops with the European Commission to develop greater understanding of how to achieve the necessary integration for the successful design, testing, modelling and performance assessment of EBS for deep underground disposal of radioactive waste.

These proceedings present the main findings from, and the papers delivered at, the fourth NEA-EC workshop on EBS, which took place in Tokyo, Japan, in September 2006. This final workshop of the series focused on strategies and methods to demonstrate that EBS designs will fulfil the relevant requirements for long-term safety, engineering feasibility and quality assurance. The workshop highlighted that large-scale experiments have confirmed the feasibility of techniques for manufacturing and installing engineered components in disposal systems and have also provided valuable lessons to improve designs and refine practical aspects to construct and implement EBS.
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Radioactive Waste Management in Spain: Co-ordination and Projects
FSC Workshop Proceedings, L'Hospitalet de l'Infant, Spain, 21-23 November 2005
English, 142 pages, published: 11/07/2007
NEA#6116, ISBN: 978-92-64-03941-4
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/pubs/2007/6116-fsc-workshop-spain.pdf
The sixth workshop of the OECD/NEA Forum on Stakeholder Confidence (FSC) was hosted by ENRESA, the Spanish agency responsible for the management of radioactive waste and the dismantling of nuclear power plants, and the Council of Nuclear Safety (CSN), with the support of the Association of Spanish Municipalities in Areas Surrounding Nuclear Power Plants (AMAC). The workshop took place at L'Hospitalet de l'Infant, Catalonia, Spain, on 21-23 November 2005.

At this workshop, Spanish stakeholders and delegates from 14 countries discussed current co-ordination of radioactive waste management decision making in Spain. Findings were shared from Cowam-Spain, a co-operative research project on the involvement of local stakeholders, the relationship between national and local levels of decision making, and the long-term sustainability of decisions regarding the siting of a centralised interim storage facility for high-level waste. These proceedings include the workshop presentations and discussions, as well as the rapporteurs' reflections on what was learned about policy making and participative decision making.
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Financement du démantèlement : éthique, mise en œuvre, incertitudes
Rapport de synthèse
Français, 44 pages, published: 08/28/2007
NEA#5997, ISBN: 978-92-64-99029-6
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2007/nea5997-demantelement.pdf

Other language(s):
- English: Decommissioning Funding: Ethics, Implementation, Uncertainties
Ce rapport de synthèse sur le Financement du démantèlement : éthique, mise en œuvre, incertitudes a été rédigé en s’appuyant sur la littérature récente et sur les informations présentées lors des réunions de l’AEN en 2003 et en 2004, notamment lors de la session thématique organisée en novembre 2004 sur le financement du démantèlement d’installations nucléaires. Ce rapport tire aussi parti de l’expérience du Groupe de travail de l’AEN sur le déclassement et le démantèlement (WPDD).

Sous une forme concise, il passe en revue les considérations que les mécanismes de financement du démantèlement suscitent en matière d’éthique, de mise en œuvre et d’incertitudes. Il présente les principes éthiques de base contenus dans les accords internationaux, décrit les facteurs influant sur la constitution et la gestion de fonds destinés au démantèlement d’installations nucléaires et expose les principales sources d’incertitudes des systèmes de financement.
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Linkage of Geoscientific Arguments and Evidence in Supporting the Safety Case
Second AMIGO Workshop Proceedings, Toronto, Canada, 20-22 September 2005
English, 275 pages, published: 06/22/2007
NEA#6119, ISBN: 978-92-64-01966-9
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2007/nea6119-linkage-geoscientific-arguments-safety-case.pdf
The long-term safety of deep disposal of radioactive waste will be strongly dependent on the performance of the geological setting. The geology fulfils important safety functions including isolating the waste from human contact or intrusion, providing a stable physical and chemical environment, insulating against external disturbances, and preventing or delaying the transport of radioactive materials away from the waste. Thus, a sound understanding of the geology's history and evolution is central in supporting assessments that examine the long-term performance and safety of deep disposal. Geological data can also play an important role in other related activities, such as site selection and repository design.

Through a series of technical workshops, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) project on Approaches and Methods for Integrating Geological Information in the Safety Case (AMIGO), is devoted to defining and improving the collection and use of geological evidence that contribute to the understanding of long-term safety for radioactive waste disposal. The second AMIGO workshop was organised in Canada in September 2005. It examined how geoscientific arguments and data are compiled and linked to create a unified description of the geological setting to support a safety case. It also examined practical aspects and limitations in collecting, linking, extrapolating and communicating such information. These proceedings present the outcomes of the workshop.
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Fostering a Durable Relationship between a Waste Management Facility and its Host Community
Adding Value through Design and Process
English, 60 pages, published: 06/14/2007
NEA#6176, ISBN: 978-92-64-99015-9
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2007/nea6176-fostering.pdf

Other language(s):
- Swedish: Att skapa en hållbar relation mellan en avfallsanläggning för hantering av radioaktivt avfall och dess värdkommun
- Français: Créer un lien durable entre une installation de gestion de déchets et sa collectivité d'accueil
Any long-term radioactive waste management project is likely to last decades to centuries. It requires a physical site and will impact in a variety of ways on the surrounding community over that whole period. The societal durability of an agreed solution is essential to success. This report identifies a number of design elements (including functional, cultural and physical features) that favour a durable relationship between the facility and its host community by improving prospects for quality of life across generations.
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Stakeholder Involvement in Decommissioning Nuclear Facilities
International Lessons Learnt
English, 40 pages, published: 06/14/2007
NEA#6320, ISBN: 978-92-64-99011-1
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2007/nea6320-stakeholder.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Implication des parties prenantes dans le déclassement des installations nucléaires
Significant numbers of nuclear facilities will need to be decommissioned in the coming decades. In this context, NEA member countries are placing increasing emphasis on the involvement of stakeholders in the associated decision procedures. This study reviews decommissioning experience with a view to identifying stakeholder concerns and best practice in addressing them. The lessons learnt about the end of the facility life cycle can also contribute to better foresight in siting and building new facilities. This report will be of interest to all major players in the field of decommissioning, in particular policy makers, implementers, regulators and representatives of local host communities.
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Implication des parties prenantes dans le déclassement des installations nucléaires
Enseignements internationaux
Français, 44 pages, published: 06/14/2007
NEA#6321, ISBN: 978-92-64-99012-8
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2007/nea6321-parties-prenantes.pdf

Other language(s):
- English: Stakeholder Involvement in Decommissioning Nuclear Facilities
Un nombre significatif d’installations nucléaires devra être démantelé dans les prochaines décennies. Dans ce contexte, les pays membres de l’AEN accordent de plus en plus d’importance à l’implication des parties prenantes dans les processus de prise de décision. Cette étude passe en revue l'expérience acquise afin d’identifier d’une part les questions que les parties prenantes posent et d’autre part les meilleures approches pour y répondre. Les enseignements sur la fin du cycle de vie de ces installations peuvent aussi contribuer à mieux prévoir la localisation et la construction d’installations nouvelles. Ce rapport intéressera tous les acteurs principaux dans le domaine du déclassement, et notamment les politiques, les exploitants, les régulateurs et les représentants des communautés locales.
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Créer un lien durable entre une installation de gestion de déchets et sa collectivité d'accueil
Valeur ajoutée à travers la conception et les processus
Français, 72 pages, published: 06/14/2007
NEA#6177, ISBN: 978-92-64-99016-6
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2007/nea6177-lien.pdf

Other language(s):
- English: Fostering a Durable Relationship between a Waste Management Facility and its Host Community
- Swedish: Att skapa en hållbar relation mellan en avfallsanläggning för hantering av radioaktivt avfall och dess värdkommun
Tout projet de gestion de déchets radioactifs à long terme durera vraisemblablement des décennies, voire des siècles. Il nécessitera un site et influera de bien de manières sur la communauté environnante pendant toute cette période. L’adoption d’une solution durable d’un commun accord est essentielle à sa réussite. Le présent rapport identifie plusieurs éléments de conception (notamment des caractéristiques d’ordre fonctionnel, culturel et physique) pouvant favoriser l’instauration d’un lien durable entre l’installation et sa collectivité d’accueil, grâce à l’amélioration de ses perspectives de qualité de vie sur plusieurs générations.
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Engineered Barrier Systems (EBS) in the Safety Case: The Role of Modelling
Workshop Proceedings, La Coruna, Spain, 24-26 August 2005
English, 192 pages, published: 02/16/2007
NEA#6118, ISBN: 978-92-64-00664-5
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2007/nea6118-EBS-role-of-modelling.pdf
In the deep disposal of radioactive waste, the presence of several barriers serving complementary safety functions enhances confidence that the waste will be isolated and contained to protect human health and the environment. The barriers include the natural geological barrier and the engineered barrier system (EBS). The EBS itself may comprise a variety of sub-systems or components, such as the waste form, container, buffer, backfill, seals and plugs. The Integration Group for the Safety Case (IGSC) of the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) is co-sponsoring a series of workshops with the European Commission to develop greater understanding of how to achieve the necessary integration for the successful design, testing, modelling and performance assessment of engineered barrier systems (EBS) for deep underground disposal of radioactive waste.

These proceedings include the main findings and presented papers from the third NEA-EC workshop on engineered barrier systems, which focused on the role of EBS modelling in the safety case for deep disposal. Some national programmes are placing increased emphasis on EBS and, as implementation of underground repositories approaches, more realistic assessments of EBS performance are needed. The workshop examined the modelling tools currently available and identified complex areas of assessment in which further dialogue is needed.

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The NEA Co-operative Programme on Decommissioning
A Decade of Progress
English, 96 pages, published: 12/20/2006
NEA#6185, ISBN: 92-64-02332-1
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2006/nea6185-decommissioning.pdf
The NEA Co-operative Programme for the Exchange of Scientific and Technical Information Concerning Nuclear Installation Decommissioning Projects (CPD) is a joint undertaking which functions within the framework of an agreement between 21 organisations actively executing or planning the decommissioning of nuclear facilities. The objective of the CPD is to acquire and share information from operational experience in the decommissioning of nuclear installations that is useful for future projects. The information exchange also ensures that best international practice is made widely available and encourages the application of safe, environmentally friendly and cost-effective methods in all decommissioning projects. By the end of 2006, the Programme scope included 26 reactors, 8 reprocessing plants and 8 fuel facility projects.

This report describes the progress made and the main results obtained by the CPD during 1995-2005. Although part of the information exchanged within the CPD is confidential and restricted to programme participants, experience of general interest gained under the programme’s auspices is released for broader use. Such information is brought to the attention of all NEA members through regular reports to the NEA Radioactive Waste Management Committee (RWMC), as well as through experience summary documents such as this report. The RWMC Working Party on Decommissioning and Dismantling (WPDD) is grateful to the CPD for sharing the experience from its important work.
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Radioactivity Measurements at Regulatory Release Levels
A Task Group Report
English, 96 pages, published: 12/04/2006
NEA#6186, ISBN: 92-64-02319-4
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2006/nea6186-release.pdf
The release of radioactive materials from regulatory control is subject to release limits which are often based on published recommendations of international organisations, which aim to minimise radiological risks. The application of the recommendations has thus led to limits being set at very low activity levels. Adequate methods of measurement must be available to demonstrate or verify that the activity levels are lower than the recommended values. Measurements would also have to be made under practical industrial conditions, where various constraints could significantly influence the results. Hence, the costs of activity measurements at extremely low levels on large quantities of equipment with complex geometries could be prohibitively high.

The NEA Co-operative Programme on Decommissioning (CPD) established a special Task Group to study these issues in an analytical and structured manner. This report describes the group’s findings regarding the objectives and methodology for radiological characterisation and the equipment used for measurements. The report also contains case studies from NEA member countries and a critical discussion of different methods and techniques.
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The Roles of Storage in the Management of Long-lived Radioactive Waste
Practices and Potentialities in OECD Countries
English, 64 pages, published: 12/01/2006
NEA#6043, ISBN: 92-64-02315-1
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2006/nea6043-storage.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Les rôles de l'entreposage dans la gestion des déchets radioactifs à vie longue 
This report examines the roles that storage plays, or might play, in radioactive waste management in OECD/NEA member countries. A better understanding of these roles provides valuable input to current debates on the end-points of long-lived radioactive waste management. The report focuses on spent nuclear fuel, high-level waste from reprocessing and other long-lived, solid radioactive wastes.
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Decommissioning Funding: Ethics, Implementation, Uncertainties
A Status Report
English, 44 pages, published: 10/23/2006
NEA#5996, ISBN: 92-64-02312-7
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2006/nea5996-decommissioning.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Financement du démantèlement : éthique, mise en œuvre, incertitudes
This status report on Decommissioning Funding: Ethics, Implementation, Uncertainties is based on a review of recent literature and materials presented at NEA meetings in 2003 and 2004, and particularly at a topical session organised in November 2004 on funding issues associated with the decommissioning of nuclear power facilities. The report also draws on the experience of the NEA Working Party on Decommissioning and Dismantling (WPDD).

This report offers, in a concise form, an overview of relevant considerations on decommissioning funding mechanisms with regard to ethics, implementation and uncertainties. Underlying ethical principles found in international agreements are identified, and factors influencing the accumulation and management of funds for decommissioning nuclear facilities are discussed together with the main sources of uncertainties of funding systems.
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Selecting Strategies for the Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities
A Status Report
English, 44 pages, published: 10/02/2006
NEA#6038, ISBN: 92-64-02305-4
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2006/nea6038-decommissioning.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Choisir des stratégies de démantèlement des installations nucléaires
This status report on Selecting Strategies for the Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities is based on the viewpoints and materials presented at a seminar held in Tarragona, Spain on 1-4 September 2003 as well as the experience of the NEA Working Party on Decommissioning and Dismantling (WPDD). It identifies, reviews and analyses factors influencing decommissioning strategies and addresses the challenges associated with balancing these factors in the process of strategy selection. It gives recognition to the fact that, in addition to technical characteristics, there are many other factors that influence the selection of a decommissioning strategy and that cannot be quantified, such as policy, regulatory and socio-economic factors and aspects that reach far into the future. Uncertainties associated with such factors are a challenge to those who have to take decisions on a decommissioning strategy.

Potentially interested groups of readers are regulators, implementers, R&D experts and policy makers dealing with decommissioning and dismantling issues as well as politicians, decision makers and the general public.
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Choisir des stratégies de démantèlement des installations nucléaires
Rapport de synthèse
Français, 48 pages, published: 10/02/2006
NEA#6160, ISBN: 92-64-02306-2
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2006/nea6160-demantelement.pdf

Other language(s):
- English: Selecting Strategies for the Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities
Ce rapport de synthèse sur la façon de Choisir des stratégies de démantèlement des installations nucléaires repose sur les points de vue et les informations présentés au cours d'un séminaire organisé à Tarragone, en Espagne, du 1er au 4 septembre 2003 ainsi que sur l'expérience du Groupe de travail de l'AEN sur le déclassement et le démantèlement (WPDD). Il met en évidence, passe en revue et analyse les facteurs qui gouvernent les stratégies de démantèlement et se penche sur les problèmes soulevés par la recherche d'un compromis entre ces différents facteurs lors du choix d'une stratégie. Il prend en considération le fait que, parallèlement aux caractéristiques techniques, de nombreux autres facteurs qui ne peuvent être quantifiés influent sur le choix des stratégies de démantèlement : politiques, aspects réglementaires et socioéconomiques et divers autres facteurs ayant une portée dans un avenir éloigné. Les incertitudes associées à ces facteurs constituent un véritable défi pour ceux qui ont à prendre des décisions sur la stratégie de démantèlement.

Ce rapport sera susceptible d'intéresser les autorités de sûreté, les gestionnaires de déchets, les experts de R-D et les décideurs politiques confrontés à des problèmes de déclassement et de démantèlement ainsi que les politiciens, les décideurs et le grand public dans son ensemble.
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Releasing the Sites of Nuclear Installations
A Status Report
English, 36 pages, published: 09/27/2006
NEA#6187, ISBN: 92-64-02307-0
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2006/nea6187-release.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Libération des sites des installations nucléaires
Releasing the site of a nuclear installation from radiological control is usually one of the last steps of decommissioning. To date, site release has been practised in a limited number of cases only as most decommissioning projects have not yet advanced to a state where the release of the site is imminent or because the site will continue to be used for nuclear activities. Therefore, for a number of decommissioning projects where planning for site release will soon start, this status report provides useful considerations based on NEA member country experience and expert advice.

In addition to describing the basic considerations which must be taken into account when deciding on the release of a site, the status report provides guidance on establishing release criteria. The report also addresses site release implementation, measurement techniques and underground contamination. It will be of particular interest to regulators, implementers, R&D experts and policy makers dealing with decommissioning and dismantling issues.
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Libération des sites des installations nucléaires
Rapport de synthèse
Français, 40 pages, published: 09/27/2006
NEA#6188, ISBN: 92-64-02308-9
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2006/nea6188-liberation.pdf

Other language(s):
- English: Releasing the Sites of Nuclear Installations
La libération des sites d'installations nucléaires des contrôles radiologiques est généralement l'une des dernières étapes du déclassement. À ce jour, seul un petit nombre de projets en ont fait l'objet car la plupart des projets ne sont pas à la veille d'une libération ou continueront d'être utilisés pour des activités nucléaires. Par conséquent, pour les projets de déclassement sur le point de planifier la libération de sites, ce rapport de synthèse fournit des informations utiles, fruit de l'expérience des pays membres de l'AEN et des avis des spécialistes.

Outre sa description des aspects fondamentaux à prendre en compte lors de la décision de libérer un site, ce rapport de synthèse contient des conseils relatifs à la définition des critères de libération. Le rapport aborde également les questions liées à la libération des sites dans la pratique, les techniques de mesure et la contamination souterraine. Il sera d'un intérêt particulier pour les autorités de sûreté, les gestionnaires de déchets, les chercheurs et les décideurs traitant des questions de déclassement et de démantèlement.
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Sûreté du stockage géologique de déchets radioactifs HAVL en France
Examen international par des pairs du "Dossier 2005 Argile" concernant le stockage dans la formation du Callovo-Oxfordien
Français, 82 pages, published: 07/17/2006
NEA#6179, ISBN: 92-64-02300-3
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2006/nea6179-havl.pdf

Other language(s):
- English: Safety of Geological Disposal of High-level and Long-lived Radioactive Waste in France
L'une des principales activités de l'Agence de l'OCDE pour l'énergie nucléaire (AEN) dans le domaine de la gestion des déchets radioactifs est d'organiser des examens internationaux d'études et de projets nationaux. Les examens aident les programmes nationaux à évaluer des travaux réalisés. Les observations d'ordre général faites dans les rapports des examens peuvent également présenter un intérêt pour d'autres pays membres. Cet examen a été mené afin d'informer le gouvernement français si le "Dossier 2005 Argile" élaboré par l'Agence nationale pour la gestion des déchets radioactifs (Andra) est en accord avec les pratiques internationales et si les futurs besoins en terme de recherche sont bien identifiés.
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Safety of Geological Disposal of High-level and Long-lived Radioactive Waste in France
An International Peer Review of the “Dossier 2005 Argile” Concerning Disposal in the Callovo-Oxfordian Formation
English, 80 pages, published: 07/17/2006
NEA#6178, ISBN: 92-64-02299-6
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2006/nea6178-argile.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Sûreté du stockage géologique de déchets radioactifs HAVL en France
A major activity of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) in the field of radioactive waste management is the organisation of international peer reviews of national studies and projects. The peer reviews help national programmes assess accomplished work. The general comments expressed in the reviews are also of potential interest to other member countries. The present review was carried out to inform the French Government whether the "Dossier 2005 Argile" prepared by the National Agency for the Management of Radioactive Waste (Andra) was consistent with international practices and whether future research needs were properly identified.
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Disposal of Radioactive Waste: Forming a New Approach in Germany
FSC Workshop Proceedings, Hitzacker and Hamburg, Germany, 5-8 October 2004
English, 116 pages, published: 05/16/2006
NEA#6117, ISBN: 92-64-02439-5
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/pubs/2006/6117-disposal-rw.pdf
Germany is exploring a new approach towards the final management of its radioactive waste. This international workshop, held in Germany, attracted 65 participants from 13 countries. A little more than half of the participants were German stakeholders.

During the workshop invited speakers, representing different groups of stakeholders, commented on relevant aspects of the new German approach being proposed. This served as a basis for subsequent round-table discussions.

These proceedings provide a historical introduction to radioactive waste management in Germany, give a detailed summary of the workshop presentations and discussions that took place, and also provide the NEA Secretariat's reflections which help place the main lessons of the workshop into a wider perspective. Five presentations - the three keynote papers and the two thematic reports - are also reproduced herein.
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Comprendre les attentes de la société dans la gestion des déchets radioactifs et s'y adapter
Enseignements principaux et expériences du Forum sur la confiance des parties prenantes
Français, 72 pages, published: 02/07/2006
NEA#5297, ISBN: 92-64-01080-7
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm//reports/2006/nea5297-societe.pdf

Other language(s):
- English: Learning and Adapting to Societal Requirements for Radioactive Waste Management
Ce rapport présente une synthèse des enseignements tirés par le Forum de l'AEN sur la confiance des parties prenantes (FSC) concernant la gouvernance de la gestion à long terme des déchets radioactifs. La plupart des conclusions s'appliquent à tout processus public d'élaboration de politiques, et ne se limitent pas à la gestion des déchets radioactifs. En se sens, ce rapport peut servir d'initiation aux problèmes concrets de gouvernance que pose toute décision complexe impliquant la collectivité.

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Vers la réalisation d'un dossier de sûreté de démantèlement
Rapport de synthèse
Français, 44 pages, published: 12/30/2005
NEA#6073, ISBN: 92-64-01073-4
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2005/nea6073-demantelement.pdf

Other language(s):
- English: Achieving the Goals of the Decommissioning Safety Case
Le problème clé dans le démantèlement des installations nucléaires est l'élimination progressive des risques, au moyen d'une série d'actions de décontamination et de déconstruction qui doivent être réalisées de façon sûre et dans les limites d'un dossier de sûreté approuvé. Le dossier de sûreté est une collection d'arguments et de documentation qui sert à démontrer la sûreté d'un projet de démantèlement. Le dossier de sûreté implique l'analyse des risques et des différentes phases nécessaires pour réduire les risques. Ce rapport de synthèse, qui s'appuie sur les activités du Groupe de travail de l'OCDE/AEN sur le déclassement et le démantèlement (WPDD), sera utile à toute personne et organisme engagés dans la préparation d'un dossier de sûreté de démantèlement.
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La fonction réglementaire et la gestion des déchets radioactifs
Panorama international
Français, 24 pages, published: 12/30/2005
NEA#6042, ISBN: 92-64-01076-9
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2005/nea6042-fonction-reglementaire.pdf

Other language(s):
- English: The Regulatory Function and Radioactive Waste Management
Ce panorama présente un synopsis facile à aborder du contrôle réglementaire de la gestion des déchets radioactifs de 15 pays membres de l'AEN. Il traite la question de la gestion des déchets radioactifs issus de tous les types d'installations nucléaires, tels que les centrales nucléaires, les réacteurs de recherche et les installations du cycle du combustible. Il porte également sur les déchets radioactifs issus d'applications médicales, expérimentales, industrielles et, le cas échéant, militaires. Ce panorama devrait présenter un intérêt pour un large lectorat, comprenant des spécialistes aussi bien que des non-spécialistes.
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Achieving the Goals of the Decommissioning Safety Case
A Status Report
English, 40 pages, published: 12/30/2005
NEA#5417, ISBN: 92-64-01068-8
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2005/nea5417-decom.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Vers la réalisation d'un dossier de sûreté de démantèlement
The key issue in the decommissioning of nuclear facilities is the progressive removal of hazards, by stepwise decontamination and dismantling activities that have to be carried out safely and within the boundaries of an approved safety case. The decommissioning safety case is a collection of arguments and evidence to demonstrate the safety of a decommissioning project. The safety case involves analysing the hazards and the separate stages required for hazard reduction. This status report, drawn from the activities of the OECD/NEA Working Party on Decommissioning and Dismantling (WPDD), will be helpful to individuals and organisations involved in the preparation of a decommissioning safety case.
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The Regulatory Function and Radioactive Waste Management
International Overview
English, 24 pages, published: 12/30/2005
NEA#6041, ISBN: 92-64-01075-0
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2005/nea6041-regulatory-function.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: La fonction réglementaire et la gestion des déchets radioactifs
This overview presents an easily accessible synopsis of the regulatory control of radioactive waste management in 15 NEA member countries. It covers the management of radioactive waste from all types of nuclear installations, such as nuclear power plants, research reactors and nuclear fuel cycle facilities. It also addresses medical, research and industrial sources as well as defence-related sources where relevant. The overview should be of interest to a wide audience of both specialists and non-specialists.
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Radioactive Waste Management Programmes in OECD/NEA Member Countries
English, 124 pages, published: 12/22/2005
NEA#5248, ISBN: 92-64-01210-9
Ex-sale now free

Other language(s):
- Français: Programmes de gestion des déchets radioactifs dans les pays membres de l'AEN
These fact sheets present the radioactive waste management programmes of 20 OECD/NEA member countries. They include information about the sources, types and quantities of waste as well as how and by whom they are managed. References for further information are also provided for each country.
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Programmes de gestion des déchets radioactifs dans les pays membres de l'AEN
Français, 124 pages, published: 12/22/2005
NEA#5249, ISBN: 92-64-01212-5
Ex-sale now free

Other language(s):
- English: Radioactive Waste Management Programmes in OECD/NEA Member Countries
Ces fiches présentent les programmes de gestion des déchets radioactifs de 20 des pays membres de l'OCDE/AEN. Elles compilent des informations sur les sources, les sortes et les quantités de déchets aussi bien que comment et par qui ils sont gérés. Le lecteur y trouvera également les coordonnées des organismes concernés par la gestion des déchets dans chaque pays.
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Favoriser la participation des parties prenantes
Guide pratique des outils et bibliographie annotée
Français, 56 pages, published: 12/06/2005
NEA#6040, ISBN: 92-64-01074-2
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2005/nea6040-parties-prenantes.pdf

Other language(s):
- English: Stakeholder Involvement Techniques
L'implication des parties prenantes, notamment par le dialogue et la délibération, peut améliorer la qualité et la durabilité des décisions prises par les pouvoirs publics. Cette publication offre au lecteur un guide concis aux techniques visant à s'assurer la participation des parties prenantes ainsi que les critères de sélection y afférents. Elle comporte aussi une bibliographie annotée indiquant les ouvrages et les autres ressources que l'on peut facilement se procurer sur le sujet. Bien que cette publication aborde la question sous l'angle de la gestion des déchets radioactifs, elle s'adresse aussi à toute personne ou organisation qui envisage une participation des parties prenantes dans le processus décisionnel.
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International Peer Reviews for Radioactive Waste Management
General Information and Guidelines
Bilingual, 36 pages, published: 11/17/2005
NEA#6082, ISBN: 92-64-01077-7
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2005/nea6082-peer-review.pdf
International peer reviews as a working method is closely associated with OECD practice, where it is facilitated by the homogeneous membership and the high degree of trust shared by the member countries. International peer reviews of national radioactive waste management programmes, or of specific aspects of them, have been increasingly carried out over the past ten years. This document lays down the guidelines that the requesting country, the Secretariat and the international review team ought to have in mind when an international peer review is requested, organised or carried out.

La revue internationale par des pairs est un outil de travail étroitement lié aux pratiques de l'OCDE, dont l'emploi est facilité par l'homogénéité de ses pays membres et par la grande confiance qui règne entre eux. Des revues internationales par des pairs de programmes nationaux de gestion des déchets radioactifs, ou de certains de leurs aspects spécifiques, ont été réalisées de façon croissante depuis les dix dernières années. Ce document décrit les lignes directrices dont le pays demandeur, le Secrétariat et l'équipe internationale d'experts doivent tenir compte lorsqu'une revue internationale par des pairs est demandée, organisée ou réalisée.
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Le démantèlement d'installations nucléaires
On peut le faire
Français, 8 pages, published: 10/14/2005
NEA#6086
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2005/nea6086-demantelement.pdf

Other language(s):
- English: Decommissioning of Nuclear Power Facilities (Reprint) 
Une des préoccupations majeures exprimée dans la production d'éléctricité d'origine nucléaire est que le démantèlement (déconstruction à un niveau donné) d'installations en fine de vie représente un problème majeur. L'expérience internationale démontre que cela n'est pas le cas. Cette brochure présente le démantèlement de la diversité des installations nucléaires au travers de projets mondiaux menés avec succès.
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Engineered Barrier Systems (EBS) in the Context of the Entire Safety Case
Process Issues - Workshop Proceedings, Las Vegas, United States, 14-17 September 2004
English, 156 pages, published: 09/23/2005
NEA#6001, ISBN: 92-64-01313-X
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2005/nea6001-ebs-process-issues.pdf
The integration Group for the Safety Case (IGSC) of the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) is co-sponsoring a project with the European Commission to develop a greater understanding of how to achieve the necessary integration for successful design, construction, testing, modelling an performance assessment of engineered barrier systems (EBS). These proceedings include the main findings and presented papers from the second workshop of the EC-NEA EBS project, which covered inter alia research and development work on pre- and post-closure processes; thermal management; thermal, hydraulic, mechanical and chemical process models; and repository design. The workshop was hosted by the US Department of Energy in Las Vegas, USA, on 14-17 September 2004.
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Clay Club Catalogue of Characteristics of Argillaceous Rocks
English, 72 pages, published: 09/02/2005
NEA#4436, ISBN: 92-64-01067-X
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2005/nea4436-argillaceous-catalogue.pdf
The OECD/NEA Working Group on the Characterisation, the Understanding and the Performance of Argillaceous Rocks as Repository Host Formations, namely the "Clay Club", examines the various argillaceous rocks that are being considered for the deep geological disposal of radioactive waste, i.e. from plastic, soft, poorly indurated clays to brittle, hard mudstones or shales. The Clay Club considered it necessary and timely to provide a catalogue to gather in a structured way the key geoscientific characteristics of the various argillaceous formations that are - or were - studied in NEA member countries with regard to radioactive waste disposal. The present catalogue represents the outcomes of this Clay Club initiative.
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NEA Sorption Project Phase II
Interpretation and Prediction of Radionuclide Sorption onto Substrates Relevant for Radioactive Waste Disposal Using Thermodynamic Sorption Models
English, 290 pages, published: 08/11/2005
NEA#5992, ISBN: 92-64-01206-0
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2005/nea5992-sorption-2.pdf
The modelling of the key process of radionuclide sorption is of great importance in assessing the performance or safety of deep and near-surface repositories for radioactive waste. The first phase of the NEA Sorption Project ran from 1997 to 1998, and highlighted the diversity in the details of the thermodynamic descriptions of sorption processes. Phase II of the NEA Sorption Project was initiated as a major international contribution towards demonstrating the consistency and applicability of different thermodynamic sorption models to support the selection of a sorption parameter, namely Kd values for safety assessments. It was implemented in the form of a comparative modelling exercise based on selected datasets for radionuclide sorption by both simple and complex materials.

This report presents the results of Phase II of the Sorption Project, conducted as a co-operative project under the auspices of the Integration Group for the Safety Case (IGSC) of the OECD/NEA Radioactive Waste Management Committee (RWMC).
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La prise de décision par étapes dans la gestion à long terme des déchets radioactifs
Expérience, résultats et principes directeurs
Français, 84 pages, published: 06/01/2005
NEA#6039, ISBN: 92-64-01055-6
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2005/nea6039-decision-etapes.pdf

Other language(s):
- English: Stepwise Approach to Decision Making for Long-term Radioactive Waste Management
Le processus de décision mis en place pour convevoir et mettre en oeuvre des modes de stockage à long terme des déchets radioactifs se déroule sur des décennies, comporte maintes étapes et fait intervenir une multitude d'acteurs. La clef de sa durabilité et de son succès est une grande flexibilité dans la conception et la conduite du processus. Des concepts tels que la "décision par étapes" et une "démarche itérative" offrent des moyens d'associer le public, en particulier les collectivités locales, à l'examen et à la planification des solutions envisagées pour le stockage des déchets radioactifs.

Cette étude de la décision par étapes dans la gestion à long terme des déchets radioactifs fait le point sur la situation, met en exergue la dimension sociale du processus et relève différents aspects de son application intéressant le spécialiste en sciences sociales et le spécialiste des déchets, constatant d'ailleurs une certaine convergence entre ces deux points de vue. Elle propose des principes généraux et objectifs d'action comme point de départ pour approfondir et améliorer ce concept.
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Stability and Buffering Capacity of the Geosphere for Long-term Isolation of Radioactive Waste
Application to Argillaceous Media - "Clay Club" Workshop Proceedings, Braunschweig, Germany, 9-11 December 2003
English, 244 pages, published: 03/08/2005
NEA#5303, ISBN: 92-64-00908-6
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2005/nea5303-stability-buffering.pdf
Most experts worldwide agree that radioactive waste disposal in engineered facilities, or repositories, located in appropriate formations deep underground, provide a suitable waste management option for protecting humans and the environment now and in the future.

An NEA workshop was organised on 9-11 December 2003 in Braunschweig, Germany, devoted specifically to argillaceous settings for deep geological repositories. The workshop brought together scientists from academic institutions, engineers from various research institutions or companies, consultants, regulatory authorities and national waste management organisations to establish the scientific basis for stability and buffering capacity of deep geological waste management systems. The present report synthesises the main outcomes of that workshop and presents a compilation of the related abstracts.
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Management of Uncertainty in Safety Cases and the Role of Risk
Workshop Proceedings, Stockholm, Sweden, 2-4 February 2004
English, 236 pages, published: 02/25/2005
NEA#5302, ISBN: 92-64-00878-0
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2005/nea5302-management-uncertainty-risk.pdf
The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) organised a workshop on the "Management of Uncertainty in Safety Cases and the Role of Risk" in Stockholm, Sweden, on 2-4 February 2004. The workshop's main objective was to discuss different approaches to treating uncertainties in safety cases for radioactive waste management facilities, and more specifically how concepts of risk can be used in both post-closure safety cases and regulatory evaluations.This report includes a synthesis of the plenary presentations and the discussions that took place during the workshop. These proceedings will be of interest to waste repository safety assessors and managers.
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Geological Repositories: Political and Technical Progress
Workshop Proceedings, Stockholm, Sweden, 8-10 December 2003
English, 250 pages, published: 02/25/2005
NEA#5299, ISBN: 92-64-00830-6
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/pubs/2005/5299-political-technical-progress.pdf
Various long-term radioactive waste management options have been considered in order to protect humans and the environment both now and in the future. Most experts worldwide agree that disposal in engineered facilities, or repositories, located in appropriate formations deep underground, provides a suitable option. Engineered geological disposal is seen as a radioactive waste management end-point providing security and safety in a sustainable manner that does not necessarily require monitoring, maintenance and institutional control. Internationally, this option is regarded to be technically feasible, acceptable from an ethical and environmental viewpoint, as well as acceptable from an international legal perspective.

The Stockholm International Conference on Geological Repositories: Political and Technical Progress brought together over 200 high-level decision makers and other interested stakeholders from the national, regional and local levels. Regulatory bodies and radioactive waste management implementing organisations also took part. In addition to providing a forum for the exchange of the most up-to-date information in the field, it also served to strengthen international co-operation on radioactive waste management and disposal issues.

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Dealing with Interests, Values and Knowledge in Managing Risk
Workshop Proceedings, Brussels, Belgium, 18-21 November 2003
English, 172 pages, published: 12/20/2004
NEA#5301, ISBN: 92-64-00731-8
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/pubs/2004/5301-dealing-values-knowledge.pdf
Radioactive waste management is an area of public interest in which stakeholder involvement has largely proven itself to be beneficial to all parties and processes concerned. With growing experience, sharing best practice can be useful at the international level.

These workshop proceedings deal with the local partnership methodology employed in Belgium in order to develop an integrated proposal to the national Government to construct and operate a disposal facility for low-level radioactive waste that is adapted to local conditions. The partnerships are formed amongst representatives of local organisations in affected communities and representatives of the Belgian national radioactive waste management agency. Insights are provided into a unique - and so far very successful - governance approach to dealing with interests, values and knowledge in managing risk.
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Stakeholder Involvement Techniques
A Short Guide and Annotated Bibliography
English, 54 pages, published: 10/14/2004
NEA#5418, ISBN: 92-64-02087-X
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2004/nea5418-stakeholder.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Favoriser la participation des parties prenantes
Stakeholder involvement, dialogue and deliberation can improve the quality and the sustainability of policy decisions. This publication offers a short guide to stakeholder involvement techniques and their selection. It includes an annotated bibliography pointing to easily accessible handbooks and other resources. While it approaches the topic from the point of view of radioactive waste management, it is intended for any person or organisation considering stakeholder involvement in decision making.
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Dissattivazione e Smantellamento degli Impianti Nucleari
Stato dell'arte, strategie, problematiche
Italian, 58 pages, published: 09/30/2004
NEA#5848, ISBN: 92-64-18488-0
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2002/5848-decommissioning-italian.pdf

Other language(s):
- English: The Decommissioning and Dismantling of Nuclear Facilities
Il presente rapporto, avente finalità di ampia divulgazione, contiene una sintetica panoramica delle problematiche associate alla disattivazione e allo smantellamento delle intallazioni nucleari ne Paesi Mebri dell'OCSE/AEN. E basata su una raccolta di schede descrittive in formato standard prodotte dai Paesi Membri e accissible on-line nel sito web dell'AEN.
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Decommissioning degli Impianti Nucleari
Si può fare ed è stato fatto
Italian, 8 pages, published: 09/30/2004
NEA#5868
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2004/nea5868-decom-italian.pdf

Other language(s):
- English: Decommissioning of Nuclear Power Facilities
Una delle preoccupazioni più diffuse in tema di produzione di energia elettrica da fonte nucleare è che la disattivazione degli impianti nucleari - ovvero il loro smantellamento fino allo stato finale desiderato - costitusica une problema insomontabile. L'esperienza internazionale dimostra invece che non è cosi. La presente pubblicazione presenta una rassegna di progetti di disattivazione di installazioni nucleari di diverso tipo realizaati con successo in tutto il mondo.
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Learning and Adapting to Societal Requirements for Radioactive Waste Management
Key Findings and Experience of the Forum on Stakeholder Confidence
English, 70 pages, published: 09/13/2004
NEA#5296, ISBN: 92-64-02080-2
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2004/nea5296-societal.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Comprendre les attentes de la société dans la gestion des déchets radioactifs et s'y adapter
This report presents a synthesis of the key findings and experience of the NEA Forum on Stakeholder Confidence regarding the governance of long-term radioactive waste management. Most of the main findings are of relevance to all public policy-making processes, not only to radioactive waste management. In this sense, the report reads as a primer on the concrete governance challenges facing complex, collective decision making.
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Stepwise Approach to Decision Making for Long-term Radioactive Waste Management
Experience, Issues and Guiding Principles
English, 76 pages, published: 09/13/2004
NEA#4429, ISBN: 92-64-02077-2
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2004/nea4429-stepwise.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: La prise de décision par étapes dans la gestion à long terme des déchets radioactifs
The decision-making process for developing and implementing long-term radioactive waste management (RWM) solutions extends over decades and involves both a multitude of actors/stakeholders and stages. In order to be sustainable and successful, a great deal of built-in flexibility is needed in designing and carrying out such processes. Concepts such as "stepwise decision making" and "adaptive staging" hold out a means by which the public, and especially the local public, can be meaningfully involved in the review and planning of radioactive waste management solutions.

This review of stepwise decision making for long-term RWM pinpoints its current status, highlights its societal dimension and identifies implementation issues from both the point of view of social research and RWM practitioners. There is convergence between these two perspectives, and general guiding principles and action goals are proposed as a basis for further discussion and development of the stepwise decision-making concept.
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Decommissioning of Nuclear Power Facilities
It can and has been done
English, published: 08/25/2004
NEA#5728
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2004/nea5728-decom.pdf

Other language(s):
- Italian: Decommissioning degli Impianti Nucleari
One concern commonly expressed about electricity production from nuclear power is that the decommissioning (i.e.dismantling to a desirable end state) of the redundant radioactive facilities presents a significant problem. In fact, international experience shows that this is not the case. This brochure looks at decommissioning across the spectrum of nuclear power facilities and shows worldwide examples of successful projects.
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Dossier de sûreté post-fermeture d'un dépôt en formation géologique
Nature et finalité
Français, 68 pages, published: 07/19/2004
NEA#3680, ISBN: 92-64-02076-4
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2004/nea3680-fermeture.pdf

Other language(s):
- English: Post-closure Safety Case for Geological Repositories
Le dépôt des déchets radioactifs à vie longue dans des formations géologiques profondes fait l'objet d'études approfondies dans le monde entier dans le but de protéger l'homme et l'environnement, aujourd'hui et dans le futur. Le présent rapport définit et examine la finalité et la teneur générale des dossiers de sûreté post-fermeture relatifs à ces dépôts. L'objectif est de fournir un point de référence aux personnes impliquées dans l'établissement des dossiers de sûreté, à celles qui participent, ou s'intéressent, à la prise de décision dans la gestion des déchets radioactifs.
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Post-closure Safety Case for Geological Repositories
Nature and Purpose
English, 56 pages, published: 07/19/2004
NEA#3679, ISBN: 92-64-02075-6
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2004/nea3679-closure.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Dossier de sûreté post-fermeture d'un dépôt en formation géologique
Disposal of long-lived radioactive waste in engineered facilities deep underground is being widely investigated worldwide in order to protect humans and the environment both now and in the future. This report defines and analyses the purpose and general contents of the post-closure safety cases for such facilities. The aim is to provide a point of reference for people involved in the development of safety cases and those with responsibility for, or interest in, decision making in radioactive waste management.
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Strategy Selection for the Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities
Seminar Proceedings, Tarragona, Spain, 1-4 September 2003
English, 272 pages, published: 07/16/2004
NEA#5300, ISBN: 92-64-01671-6
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/pubs/2004/5300-strategy-selection.pdf
As modern nuclear power programmes mature and large, commercial nuclear power plants and fuel cycle facilities approach the end of their useful life by reason of age, economics or change of policy on the use of nuclear power, new challenges associated with decommissioning and dismantling come to the fore. Politicians and the public may expect there to be a "right answer" to the choice of strategy for a particular type of facility, or even all facilities. Both this seminar and wider experience show that this is not the case.

Local factors and national political positions have a significant input and often result in widely differing strategy approaches to broadly similar decommissioning projects. All facility owners represented at the seminar were able to demonstrate a rational process for strategy selection and compelling arguments for the choices made. In addition to the papers that were presented, these proceedings include a summary of the discussions that took place.
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Le contrôle réglementaire de la gestion des déchets radioactifs
Panorama de 15 pays membres de l'AEN
Français, 218 pages, published: 06/04/2004
NEA#3598, ISBN: 92-64-10651-0
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/pubs/2004/3598-regulatory-control-rwm-fr.pdf

Other language(s):
- English: The Regulatory Control of Radioactive Waste Management
Les autorités réglementaires comptent parmi les principales parties prenantes dans le processus de prise de décision concernant la gestion des déchets radioactifs. Le Comité de l'AEN de la gestion des déchets radioactifs (RWMC) a reconnu qu'il est important d'échanger et de comparer les informations relatives aux pratiques réglementaires propres à chaque pays, mais aussi de disposer d'un réseau d'information informel pour y débattre de thèmes d'intérêt commun. Le Forum des régulateurs du RWMC figure parmi les milieux propices à de telles initiatives.

Ce rapport décrit les premiers résultats des travaux du Forum. Il offre une synthèse de la situation dans 15 pays membres de l'AEN selon un format qui permet de trouver facilement certains aspects donnés et de comparer la situation de différents pays. Il présente des informations sur les politiques nationales en matière de gestion des déchets radioactifs, les contextes institutionnels, les cadres législatifs et réglementaires, les orientations existantes, et les catégories et sources de déchets. Il fait également le point sur la gestion des déchets, les questions en suspens, ainsi que les programmes de R-D connexes.
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Geological Disposal: Building Confidence Using Multiple Lines of Evidence
First AMIGO Workshop Proceedings, Yverdon-les-Bains, Switzerland, 3-5 June 2003
English, 204 pages, published: 06/01/2004
NEA#4309, ISBN: 92-64-01592-2
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2003/nea4309-geological.pdf
When preparing the safety case for a deep geological repository of radioactive waste, the integration of wide-ranging information from multidisciplinary sources is a complex task. This has provided the motivation for establishing AMIGO, an OECD/NEA international project on "Approaches and Methods for Integrating Geological Information in the Safety Case". AMIGO is structured as a series of biannual topical workshops involving site characterisation and safety assessment practitioners with experience in both sedimentary and crystalline rock settings.

The first AMIGO workshop was organised in Yverdon-les-Bains, Switzerland on 3-5 June 2003. The main objective of the workshop was to exchange views on building confidence in analyses and arguments that support the safety case using multiple lines of evidence and integrating the work of geoscientists and safety assessors. These proceedings present the outcomes of the workshop.
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Engineered Barrier Systems (EBS): Design Requirements and Constraints
Workshop Proceedings,Turku, Finland, 26-29 August 2003
English, 148 pages, published: 05/26/2004
NEA#4548, ISBN: 92-64-02068-3
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2004/nea4548-ebs.pdf
A joint NEA-EC workshop entitled "Engineered Barrier Systems: Design Requirements and Constraints" was organised in Turku, Finland on 26-29 August 2003 and hosted by Posiva Oy. The main objectives of the workshop were to promote interaction and collaboration among experts responsible for enginering design and safety assessment in order to develop a greater understanding of how to achieve the integration needed for the successful design of engineered barrier systems, and to clarify the role that an EBS can play in the overall safety case for a repository. These proceedings present the outcomes of this workshop.
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Safety of Disposal of Spent Fuel, HLW and Long-lived ILW in Switzerland
An International Peer Review of the Post-closure Radiological Safety Assessment for Disposal in the Opalinus Clay of the Zürcher Weinland
English, 126 pages, published: 04/23/2004
NEA#5568, ISBN: 92-64-02063-2
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2004/nea5568-nagra.pdf

Other language(s):
- German: Die Sicherheit der geologischen Tiefenlagerung von BE, HAA und LMA in der Schweiz
Studies are under way in Switzerland to investigate various aspects of the geological disposal of radioactive waste. This report presents the results of the international peer review organised by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) on behalf of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (BFE) of a post-closure radiological safety assessment prepared by Nagra for geological disposal of spent fuel (SF), vitrified high-level waste (HLW) and long-lived intermediate-level waste (ILW) within the Opalinus Clay of the Zürcher Weinland in northern Switzerland.
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Die Sicherheit der geologischen Tiefenlagerung von BE, HAA und LMA in der Schweiz
Eine internationale Expertenprüfung der radiologischen Langzeitsicherheitsanalyse der Tiefenlagerung im Opalinuston des Zürcher Weinlands
German, 140 pages, published: 04/22/2004
NEA#5569, ISBN: 92-64-02064-0
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2004/nea5568-nagra-ger.pdf

Other language(s):
- English: Safety of Disposal of Spent Fuel, HLW and Long-lived ILW in Switzerland
Im schweizerischen Projekt Entsorgungsnachweis untersucht die Nagra die Sicherheit der geologischen Tiefenlagerung von radioaktiven Abfällen im Opalinuston des Zürcher Weinlands. Der vorliegende Bericht präsentiert die Ergebnisse einer internationalen Überprüfung der zugehörigen radiologischen Langzeitsicherheitsanalyse. Die Expertenprüfung wurde auf Ersuchen des Schweizer Bundesamtes für Energie (BFE) von der Kernenergieagentur (NEA) der Organisation für wirtschaftliche Zusammenarbeit und Entwicklund (OECD) durchgeführt.
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Gestion des échelles de temps dans l'évaluation de la sûreté en phase post-fermeture
Enseignements tirés de l'atelier d'avril 2002 à Paris, France
Français, 56 pages, published: 03/01/2004
NEA#5148, ISBN: 92-64-02162-0
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2004/nea5148-echelles.pdf

Other language(s):
- English: The Handling of Timescales in Assessing Post-closure Safety
L'AEN a organisé en avril 2002 un atelier sur la "Gestion des échelles de temps dans le cadre de l'évaluation de sûreté en phase post-fermeture" de stockages de déchets radioactifs en formation géologique profonde. Ce rapport présente les principales leçons tirées de cet atelier et a pour but de faciliter la compréhension des questions liées à la gestion des échelles de temps dans un dossier de sûreté.
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The Regulatory Control of Radioactive Waste Management
Overview of 15 NEA Member Countries
English, 210 pages, published: 02/27/2004
NEA#3597, ISBN: 92-64-10650-2
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/pubs/2004/3597-regulatory-control-rwm.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Le contrôle réglementaire de la gestion des déchets radioactifs
Regulators are major stakeholders in the decision-making process for radioactive waste management. The NEA Radioactive Waste Management Committee (RWMC) has recognised the value of exchanging and comparing information about national regulatory practices and having an informal, international network for discussing issues of common concern. The RWMC Regulators' Forum provides considerable opportunity for such activities.

This report presents the initial results of the Forum's work. Information is given for 15 NEA member countries in a format that allows easy accessibility to specific aspects and comparison between different countries. It includes an array of facts about national policies for radioactive waste management, institutional frameworks, legislative and regulatory frameworks, available guidance, classification and sources of waste and the status of waste management. It also provides an overview of current issues being addressed and related R&D programmes.
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The Handling of Timescales in Assessing Post-closure Safety
Lessons Learnt from the April 2002 Workshop in Paris, France
English, 52 pages, published: 02/10/2004
NEA#4435, ISBN: 92-64-02161-2
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2004/nea4435-timescales.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Gestion des échelles de temps dans l'évaluation de la sûreté en phase post-fermeture
A workshop entitled "The Handling of Timescales in Assessing Post-closure Safety" of deep geological repositories for radioactive waste was organised by the NEA in April 2002. This report presents the main lessons learnt from the workshop discussions and is intended to help promote the better understanding of issues related to the handling of timescales in a safety case.

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Features, Events and Processes Evaluation Catalogue for Argillaceous Media
English, 380 pages, published: 11/28/2003
NEA#4437, ISBN: 92-64-02148-5
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2003/nea4437-FEP.pdf
The OECD/NEA Working Group on the Characterisation, the Understanding and the Performance of Argillaceous Rocks as Repository Host Formations for the disposal of radioactive waste (known as the "Clay Club") launched a project called FEPCAT (Features, Events and Processes CATalogue for argillaceous media) in late 1998.

The present report provides the results of work performed by an expert group to develop a FEPs database related to argillaceous formations, whether soft or indurated. It describes the methodology used for the work performed, provides a list of relevant FEPs and summarises the knowledge on each of them. It also provides general conclusions and identifies priorities for future work.
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The Regulator's Evolving Role and Image in Radioactive Waste Management
Lessons Learnt within the NEA Forum on Stakeholder Confidence
English, 28 pages, published: 10/20/2003
NEA#4428, ISBN: 92-64-02142-6
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2003/nea4428-regulator-role.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Image et rôle des autorités réglementaires dans la gestion des déchets radioactifs
Of all the institutional actors in the field of long-term radioactive waste management (RWM), it is perhaps the regulatory authorities that have restyled their roles most significantly. Modern societal demands on risk governance and widespread adoption of stepwise deicison-making processes have influenced the image and role of regulators. Legal instruments both reflect and encourage a new set of behaviours and a new understanding on how regulators may best serve the public interest.

This report, based on the work of the NEA Forum on Stakeholder Confidence, presents findings of relevance to regulators and examines their role within a robust and transparent RWM decision-making process. Detailed international observations are provided on the role of regulatory authorities; characteristics of the regulatory process; attributes that help achieve public confidence; and regulatory communication approaches.
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Public Confidence in the Management of Radioactive Waste: The Canadian Context
Workshop Proceedings, Ottawa, Canada, 14-18 October 2002
English, 196 pages, published: 10/20/2003
NEA#4292, ISBN: 92-64-10396-1
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/pubs/2003/4292-public-confidence-canadian-context.pdf
Public confidence is significantly affected by social considerations, such as public participation in decision-making processes, transparency of activities, access to information, effective and appropriate mitigation measures, development opportunities and social justice issues. In order to increase public confidence, there is a need to fully understand social concerns and to design an effective strategy on how to address them. This is particularly so in relation to radioactive waste management decision making.

A workshop held in Ottawa in October 2002 brought together a wide range of Canadian stakeholders to present their views and to debate related issues with delegates from radioactive waste management programmes in 14 countries. This third interactive workshop of the NEA Forum on Stakeholder Confidence focused on key areas such as the social concerns at play in radiaoactive waste management, how these concerns can be addressed, and development opportunities for local communities.

These proceedings provide a summary of the workshop, the full texts of the stakeholder presentations and detailed reports of the workshop discussions.
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Image et rôle des autorités réglementaires dans la gestion des déchets radioactifs
Enseignements tirés par le Forum de l'AEN sur la confiance des parties prenantes
Français, 28 pages, published: 10/20/2003
NEA#4828, ISBN: 92-64-02143-4
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2003/nea4828-aut-reg.pdf
De tous les acteurs institutionnels qui opèrent dans le domaine de la gestion à long terme des déchets radioactifs, c'est peut-être les autorités de sûreté qui ont renouvelé leur rôle de la manière la plus signifcative. Les exigences sociales modernes vis-à-vis de la gouvernance des activités à risque et l'adoption rapandue de processus décisionnels par étapes ont engendré des changements de l'image et du rôle des régulateurs. Des nouveaux instruments juridiques reflètent et encouragent un nouvel ensemble de comportements ansi qu'une nouvelle compréhension de la façon dont les régulateurs peuvent mieux servir l'intérêt public.

Ce rapport, fondé sur le travail du Forum de l'AEN sur la confiance des parties prenantes (Forum on Stakeholder Confidence), présente des leçons d'importance pour les régulateurs et examine leur rôle dans un processus décisionnel robuste et transparent de la gestion à long terme des déchets radioactifs. Des observations détaillées qui viennent de l'expérience internationale sont fournies sur le rôle des autorités de sûreté, les caractéristiques du processus de réglementation, les attributs qui aident à réaliser la confiance publique, ainsi que sur les approches de communication sur des thèmes réglementaires.
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Programme français de R-D sur le stockage géologique de déchets radioactifs
Revue internationale par des pairs du Dossier 2001 Argile
Français, 82 pages, published: 09/05/2003
NEA#4588, ISBN: 92-64-02137-X
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2003/nea4588-andrafr.pdf
Le présent rapport contient les conclusions du Groupe international de revue instauré par le Secrétariat de l'AEN à la demande du gouvernement français afin de faire évaluer par des pairs le Dossier 2001 Argile. Ce dossier a été rédigé par l'Agence nationale française pour la gestion des déchets radioactifs (Andra) pour décrire les travaux de recherche, de développement et de démonstration du programme français relatif à l'évacuation à long terme des déchets radioactifs de haute activité et à vie longue dans un dépôt géologique aménagé dans une formation argileuse profonde.
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Public Information, Consultation and Involvement in Radioactive Waste Management
An International Overview of Approaches and Experiences
Bilingual, 140 pages, published: 08/14/2003
NEA#4430, ISBN: 92-64-02128-0
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2003/nea4430-publicinfo.pdf
Institutions involved in radioactive waste management face a rapidly evolving environment stemming from societal changes, including new information technology and new roles for the media. As in many environmental areas, a demand for public participation in decision making creates a need for new approaches to involving stakeholders. This report addresses stakeholder dialogue, consultation and information practices by radioactive waste management institutions at the start of the 21st century. It will provide both the practitioner and the non-specialist with a valuable baseline of detailed, comparative information. It can be used to assess the state of the art in the field as well as to provide a historical perspective when assessing future progress.

Les organismes chargés de la gestion des déchets radioactifs sont confrontés à une évolution contextuelle rapide due aux mutations de la société, comprenant les nouveaux rôles joués à la fois par les nouvelles technologies et les médias. Comme dans de nombreux secteurs liés à l'environnement, la demande de participation du public au processus de décision conduit à adopter de nouvelles démarches à l'égard de l'implication des parties prenantes. Le présent rapport traite des méthodes de dialogue, de consultation et d'information appliquées aux parties prenantes par les agences de gestion des déchets radioactifs au début du 21e siècle. Il apportera aussi bien aux praticiens qu'aux non-spécialistes des informations comparatives détaillées. Il pourra aussi servir à évaluer l'état des connaissances dans ce domaine ainsi qu'à offrir une perspective historique lors de l'évaluation des progrès futurs.
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The French R&D Programme on Deep Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste
An International Peer Review of the "Dossier 2001 Argile"
English, 80 pages, published: 07/31/2003
NEA#4432, ISBN: 92-64-02136-1
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2003/nea4432-andraeng.pdf
This report presents the conclusions of the International Review Team established by the NEA Secretariat at the request of the French government to perform a peer review of the Dossier 2001 Argile. The latter was produced by the French National Agency for Radioactive Waste Management (Andra) to describe the research, development and demonstration activities in the French programme on the disposal of high-level and long-lived radioactive waste in a deep geological repository excavated within an argillaceous formation.
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Engineered Barrier System (EBS) in the Context of the Entire Safety Case
Workshop Proceedings, Oxford, U.K., 25-27 September 2002
English, 152 pages, published: 07/03/2003
NEA#4308, ISBN: 92-64-10354-6
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2003/nea4308-EBS-safety-case.pdf
A joint NEA-EC workshop entitled "Engineered Barrier Systems (EBS) in the Context of the Entire Safety Case" was organised in Oxford on 25-27 September 2002 and hosted by United Kingdom Nirex Limited. The main objectives of the workshop were to provide a status report on engineered barrier systems in various national radioactive waste management programmes considering deep geological disposal; to establish the value to member countries of a project on EBS; and to define such a project's scope, timetable and modus operandi. This report presents the outcomes of this workshop.
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SAFIR 2: Belgian R&D Programme on the Deep Disposal of High-level and Long-lived Radioactive Waste
An International Peer Review
English, 80 pages, published: 04/02/2003
NEA#4431, ISBN: 92-64-18499-6
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2003/nea4431-safir2.pdf
This report presents the common views of the International Review Team established by the NEA Secretariat on behalf of the Belgian Government to perform a peer review of the SAFIR 2 report, produced by the Belgian Agency for Radioactive Waste and Enriched Fissile Materials (ONDRAF/NIRAS) to describe the research, development and demonstration activities in the Belgian programme on the disposal of high-level and long-lived radioactive waste in a deep geological repository excavated within an argillaceous formation.
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Engineered Barrier Systems and the Safety of Deep Geological Repositories
State-of-the-art Report, NEA/CE
English, 72 pages, published: 03/25/2003
NEA#3615, ISBN: 92-64-18498-8
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2003/nea3615-ebs.pdf
Repositories for the disposal of radioactive waste generally rely on a multi-barrier system to isolate the waste from the biosphere. This multi-barrier system typically comprises the natural geological barrier provided by the repository host rock and an engineered barrier system (EBS).

The EBS project being conducted by the NEA Integration Group for the Safety Case (IGSC) seeks to clarify the role that an EBS can play in the overall safety case for a deep geological repository. It is in this context that the European Commission and the NEA have prepared the present report, which describes the state of the art for engineered barrier systems and provides a common basis of understanding from which to plan future programmes. It is based on answers to a questionnaire received from 13 countries and 17 organisations.

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The Handling of Timescales in Assessing Post-closure Safety of Deep Geological Disposal
Workshop Proceedings, Paris, France,16-18 April 2002
English, 216 pages, published: 11/21/2002
NEA#3614, ISBN: 92-64-09911-5
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/pubs/2002/3614-handling-timescales.pdf
A workshop entitled the "Handling of timescales in assessing post-closure safety" of deep geological repositories for radioactive waste was organised in Paris on 16-18 April 2002 and hosted by the French Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN). The main objective of the workshop was to identify and discuss approaches related to, and work done on, the timescales issue within national radioactive waste management programmes in the context of assessing post-closure safety. The timescales in question depend upon the half-lives and levels of activity of the radionuclides considered for disposal.

These proceedings include the presentations made at the workshop as well as a summary of the discussions held. They will be of interest to radioactive waste repository managers and engineers.
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Stepwise Decision Making in Finland for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel
Workshop Proceedings, Turku, Finland, 15-16 November 2001
English, 152 pages, published: 09/20/2002
NEA#3616, ISBN: 92-64-19941-1
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/pubs/2002/3616-stepwise-decision-making.pdf
On 18 May 2001, the Finnish Parliament ratified the Decision in Principle (DiP) on the final disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel at Olkiluoto, in the municipality of Eurajoki. This followed positive decisions taken earlier by the Municipal Council and the Government. How did these political and societal decisions come about?

An NEA workshop held in November 2001 provided the opportunity to present the history leading up to the DiP and to examine future perspectives with an emphasis on stakeholder involvement. The workshop was highly interactive and focused on three main topics: the stepwise decision-making process, stakeholder involvement and confidence building. All relevant stakeholder voices were heard and their viewpoints debated. An account of the individual presentations and the discussions that took place are provided in these proceedings.
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Déclassement et démantèlement des installations nucléaires
Etat des lieux, démarches, défis
Français, 56 pages, published: 09/13/2002
NEA#3868, ISBN: 92-64-28488-5
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2002/3868-declassement.pdf

Other language(s):
- Italian: Dissattivazione e Smantellamento degli Impianti Nucleari
Cet ouvrage, à l'intention d'un large public, présente une synthèse de la situation du déclassement et du démantèlement des installations nucléaires ainsi que des questions connexes dans les pays Membres de l'AEN. Il s'appuie sur un ensemble de fiches d'information fournies par les pays Membres et disponibles en ligne sur le site web de l'AEN.
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The Decommissioning and Dismantling of Nuclear Facilities
Status, Approaches, Challenges
English, 52 pages, published: 09/13/2002
NEA#3714, ISBN: 92-64-18488-0
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2002/3714-decommissioning.pdf

Other language(s):
- Italian: Dissattivazione e Smantellamento degli Impianti Nucleari
This report, intended for a broad readership, provides a concise overview of the decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear facilities and associated issues in NEA Member countries. It draws upon a database of fact sheets produced to a standard format by individual Member countries that is accessible online from the NEA website.
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Establishing and Communicating Confidence in the Safety of Deep Geologic Disposal
Approaches and Arguments
Bilingual, 188 pages, published: 05/23/2002
NEA#3628, ISBN: 92-64-09782-1
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2002/nea3628-establishing-communicating-confidence-safety-deep-disposal.pdf
Confidence among both technical experts and the public in the safety of deep geologic repositories for radioactive waste is a key element in the successful development of the repositories. This report presents the approaches and arguments that are currently used in OECD contries to establish and communicate confidence in their safety. It evaluates the state of the art for obtaining, presenting and demonstrating confidence in long-term safety, and makes recommendations on future directions and initiatives to be taken for improving confidence.


La confiance des experts techniques et du public dans la sûreté des dépôts de déchets radioactifs en formations géologiques profondes est un élément clé dans la réussite de leur développement. Ce rapport présente les approches et les arguments actuellement utilisés dans les pays de l'OCDE pour établir et faire partager cette confiance. Il fait le point des travaux visant à faire connaître et à démontrer la confiance dans la sûreté à long terme des dépôts. Il comporte également des recommandations sur les futures directions à prendre pour accroître cette confiance.
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GEOTRAP: Radionuclide Migration in Geologic Heterogeneous Media
Summary of Accomplishments
English, 52 pages, published: 03/01/2002
NEA#3058, ISBN: 92-64-18479-1
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2002/nea-3058-geotrap.pdf
GEOTRAP - the OECD/NEA Project on Radionuclide Migration in Geologic, Heterogeneous Media - was carried out in the context of site evaluation and safety assessment of deep repository systems for long-lived radioactive waste. The project was created in 1996 with the aim of developing an understanding of, and modelling capability for, potential radionuclide migration.

This report provides an overview of the project's main findings and accomplishments over its five-year life. This summary should help make the valuable information collected and generated by the GEOTRAP project accessible to a wide readership both within and outside the radioactive waste community. It is a reflection of the careful attention paid by this community to the question of radionuclide transport.
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An International Peer Review of the Yucca Mountain Project
Total System Performance Assessment for the Site Recommendation (TSPA-SR)
English, 96 pages, published: 02/22/2002
NEA#3682, ISBN: 92-64-18477-5
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2002/nea3682-yucca.pdf
The Department of Energy of the United States of America (USDOE) has been studying the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada for more than 15 years to determine whether it is a suitable place to construct an underground repository for US spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste of commercial and military origins. A number of performance assessments have been carried out over the past decade by the USDOE, the latest of which is the Total System Performance Assessment supporting the site recommendation process (TSPA-SR) of December 2000. This report presents the results of the jointly organised NEA-IAEA international peer review of the TSPA-SR, performed upon the request of the USDOE. The review was carried out by a team of ten international specialists.
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Radionuclide Retention in Geologic Media
Workshop Proceedings, Oskarshamn, Sweden, 7-9 May 2001
English, 272 pages, published: 02/14/2002
NEA#3061, ISBN: 92-64-19695-1
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2002/nea3061-radionuclide.pdf
GEOTRAP is the OECD/NEA Project on Radionuclide Migration in Geologic, Heterogeneous Media carried out in the context of site evaluation and safety assessment of deep repository systems for long-lived radioactive waste.

Retention of radionuclides within the geosphere for prolonged periods is an important safety function of deep geologic disposal concepts for radioactive waste. The extent to which retention processes can be relied upon in repository performance assessment depends upon the existence of well-established theoretical bases for the processes. It also depends on support for the operation of specific retention processes, and models for their quantitative evaluation, from a wide range of laboratory and field experiments and observations from nature. The fifth GEOTRAP workshop, "Geological Evidence and Theoretical Bases for Radionuclide-retention Processes in Heterogeneous Media" held in May 2001, looked at radionuclide-retention processes and their consideration and representation in performance assessments. Current approaches to characterising and modelling retention processes, and suggestions for future improvements, were presented and discussed.

In addition to the material presented during the workshop, this publication includes a technical synthesis reflecting the discussions that took place as well as the conclusions and recommendations made, notably during the working group sessions.
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La réversibilité et la récupérabilité dans la gestion des déchets radioactifs
Une réflexion à l'échelle internationale
Français, 54 pages, published: 02/04/2002
NEA#3448, ISBN: 92-64-28471-0
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2001/nea3448.pdf

Other language(s):
- English: Reversibility and Retrievability in Geologic Disposal of Radioactive Waste
La réversibilité des décisions est un concept important dans le processus de décision par étapes qui est prévu pour le stockage géologique des déchets radioactifs. Les implications liées à la récupérabilité de ces déchets dans les stratégies de stockage et les méthodes pour la mettre en application sont également à l'étude dans les pays Membres de l'AEN.

Ce rapport passe en revue les concepts de réversibilité et de récupérabilité dans la mesure où ils peuvent s'appliquer à la planification et au développement de dépôts géologiques. Ces concepts reposent sur des considérations d'ordre technique, politique et éthique, dont la valeur et les implications doivent être mieux comprises. L'approfondissement de l'étude de ces problèmes, ainsi que la discussion, permettront de préciser la valeur d'un processus de décision souple et graduel pour les programmes d'aménagement de dépôts, et peuvent contribuer à instaurer un climat propice au progrès de ces programmes.

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The Role of Underground Laboratories in Nuclear Waste Disposal Programmes
English, 48 pages, published: 11/20/2001
NEA#3142, ISBN: 92-64-18472-4
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2001/nea3142.pdf

Other language(s):
- Japanese: The Role of Underground Laboratories in Nuclear Waste Disposal Programmes (Japanese version) 
- Francais: La gestion des déchets radioactifs : le rôle des laboratoires souterrains
Underground research laboratories (URLs) are essential to provide the scientific and technical information and practical experience that are needed for the design and construction of nuclear waste disposal facilities, as well as for the development of the safety case that must be presented at various stages of repository development.

This report provides an overview of the purpose of URLs within repository development programmes; the range of URLs that have been developed, or are planned, in NEA Member countries to date; the various contributions that such facilities can make to repository development programmes and the development of a safety case; considerations on the timing of developing a URL within a national programme; and the opportunities and benefits of international co-operation in relation to URLs.
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Reversibility and Retrievability in Geologic Disposal of Radioactive Waste
Reflections at the International Level
English, 52 pages, published: 11/20/2001
NEA#3140, ISBN: 92-64-18471-6
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2001/nea3140.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: La réversibilité et la récupérabilité dans la gestion des déchets radioactifs
Reversibility of decisions is an important consideration in the step-wise decision-making process that is foreseen for engineered geologic disposal of radioactive waste. The implications of favouring retrievability of the waste within disposal strategies and the methods to implement it are also being considered by NEA Member countries.

This report reviews the concepts of reversibility and retrievability as they may apply to the planning and development of engineered geologic repositories. The concepts span technical, policy and ethical issues, and it is important that a broad understanding is developed of their value and implications. Furthermore, improved comprehension and communication of these issues will clarify the value of flexible, step-wise decision making in repository development programmes and may help to generate a climate conducive to the further progress of such programmes.
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La gestion des déchets radioactifs : le rôle des laboratoires souterrains
Francais, 50 pages, published: 11/20/2001
NEA#3143, ISBN: 92-64-28472-9
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2001/nea3143.pdf

Other language(s):
- Japanese: The Role of Underground Laboratories in Nuclear Waste Disposal Programmes (Japanese version) 
- English: The Role of Underground Laboratories in Nuclear Waste Disposal Programmes
Les laboratoires de recherche souterrains sont des outils essentiels à l'acquisition de données scientifiques et techniques et d'expérience pratique nécessaires à la conception et à la construction de dépôts de déchets nucléaires, ainsi qu'à la préparation du dossier de sûreté qui doit être présenté à toutes les étapes du développement d'un dépôt.

Ce rapport présente une vue d'ensemble du rôle des laboratoires souterrains dans les programmes de développement d'un dépôt ; des différents laboratoires souterrains développés ou prévus jusqu'à présent dans les pays Membres de l'AEN ; de leur contribution à l'ensemble du programme de développement du dépôt et à l'établissement d'un dossier de sûreté ; des réflexions sur la planification d'un laboratoire souterrain dans le cadre d'un programme national ; et des possibilités et avantages d'une coopération internationale sur les laboratoires souterrains.
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Scenario Development Methods and Practices
An Evaluation Based on the NEA Workshop on Scenario Development, Madrid, Spain, May 1999
English, 244 pages, published: 07/25/2001
NEA#3059, ISBN: 92-64-18722-7
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2001/nea3059-scenario-development-methods.pdf

Analysis of the long-term safety of radioactive waste repositories, using performance assessment and other tools, is required prior to implementation.The initial stage in developing a repository safety assessment is the identification of all factors that may be relevant to the long-term safety of the repository and their combination to form scenarios. This must be done in a systematic and transparent way in order to assure the regulatory authorities that nothing important has been forgotten.

This report is a review of developments in scenario methodologies based on a large body of practical experience in safety assessments. It will be of interest to radioactive waste management experts as well as to other specialists involved in the development of scenario methodologies.
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Using Thermodynamic Sorption Models for Guiding Radioelement Distribution Coefficient (KD) Investigations
A Status Report
English, 192 pages, published: 04/27/2001
NEA#3041, ISBN: 92-64-18679-4
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/pubs/2001/3041-soprtion-status-report.pdf
A general consensus has been reached among technical experts that high-level radioactive waste can safely be disposed of in deep geological repositories. Safety studies are carried out to evaluate the overall capacity of a particular disposal site to confine waste and minimise radioactive releases. Since the principal way in which radioactive elements might eventually reach the biosphere is by transport of dissolved radionuclides in groundwater, the safety study calculations must be able to estimate their rate of transfer through each of the barriers surrounding the repository.

It is well known that, for many radioelements, sorption reactions can lead to a reduction of the amount of radionuclides present in the solution phase. How best to take radionuclide sorption reactions into account in repository performance assessment models is the subject of this book.
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Gas Generation and Migration in Radioactive Waste Disposal
Safety-relevant Issues Workshop Proceedings, Reims, France, 26-28 June 2000
English, 190 pages, published: 04/20/2001
NEA#3060, ISBN: 92-64-18672-7
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2001/nea3060-gas-generation-migration-disposal.pdf
In underground repositories for radioactive waste, significant quantities of gases may be generated as a result of several processes. The potential impact of gas generation, accumulation and migration on the performances of the various barriers and, ultimately, on the long-term safety of a repository, should therefore be assessed in the development of safety cases for underground repositories.

It was in this context that the EC and the NEA organised a workshop on "Gas Generation, Accumulation and Migration in Underground Repository Systems for Radioactive Waste: Safety-relevant Issues" in Reims, France on 26-28 June 2000. This book includes the texts of the invited presentations, the reports of the deliberations held in the five working groups, as well as the main conclusions of the workshop.
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Nuclear Waste Bulletin
Update on Waste Management Policies and Programmes, No. 14 - 2000 Edition
English, 136 pages, published: 02/27/2001
NEA#3008, ISBN: 92-64-18461-9
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/bulletin/bulletin14.pdf
The NEA Nuclear Waste Bulletin is prepared by the Radiation Protection and Radioactive Waste Management Division of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency in order to provide a means of communicaton amongst the various technical and policy groups within the radioactive waste management community. It delivers concise information on current activities, policies and programmes in 18 NEA Member countries and 3 international organisations. It also provides biennial updates of progress in the development of technologies for the management and disposal of radioactive waste.
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Confidence in Models of Radionuclide Transport for Site-specific Assessment
Workshop Proceedings, Carlsbad, New Mexico, USA, 14-17 June 1999
English, 312 pages, published: 02/13/2001
NEA#2968, ISBN: 92-64-18620-4
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2001/nea2968-confidence-models-radionuclide-transport.pdf
GEOTRAP is the OECD/NEA Project on Radionuclide Migration in Geologic, Heterogeneous Media carried out in the context of site evaluation and safety assessment of deep repository systems for long-lived radioactive waste.

Performance assessment of proposed waste disposal sites requires models of radionuclide transport through the geosphere. To be used in repository planning and development, these models must have the confidence of both national waste management programmes and the wider scientific community. The fourth GEOTRAP workshop , "Confidence in Models of Radionuclide Transport for Site-specific Performance Assessment" held in June 1999, addressed the issue of technical confidence building and provided an overview of current developments in this field. Proposed approaches to confidence building and approaches that have already proven successful were presented and discussed.

In addition to the material presented during the workshop, this publication includes a technical synthesis reflecting the discussions that took place as well as the conclusions and recommendations made, notably during the working group sessions.

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Stakeholder Confidence and Radioactive Waste Disposal
Workshop Proceedings, Paris, France, 28-31 August 2000
English, 166 pages, published: 12/15/2000
NEA#2829, ISBN: 92-64-18277-2
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2000/nea2829.pdf
Any significant decisions regarding geologic disposal of radioactive waste will need a comprehensive public review and a thorough involvement of all relevant stakeholders, such as waste generators, waste management agencies, regulatory authorities, local communities and elected officials. The participation of non-technical stakeholders will become increasingly important as more countries move towards siting and implementing geologic repositories.

The decision-making process and avenues for stakeholder inolvement differ from country to country. It is important to identify similarities and differences, understand the key concerns of the various stakeholders, and develop means to interact effectively. The Nuclear Energy Agency recently set up a Forum on Stakeholder Confidence charged with distilling the lessons that can be learnt from national and international experience.

These proceedings of the Forum's first workshop held in August 2000 provide an overview of OECD countries' experience in the field of stakeholder confidence and radioactive waste disposal.
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Porewater Extraction from Argillaceous Rocks for Geochemical Characterisation
Methods and Interpretations
English, 186 pages, published: 01/01/2000
NEA#2530, ISBN: 92-64-17181-9
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2000/nea2530-porewater-extraction.pdf
The definition of the chemical and isotopic composition of the groundwater present in argillaceous formations, which are considered as potential host rocks for radioactive waste disposal, is crucial for establishing their barrier properties. Therefore, a critical review of the relevant literature on the current methods applied to extract water and solutes and on the various approaches to the interpretation of their results was commissioned to the Laboratoire d'hydrologie et de géochimie isotopique (Université de Paris-Sud, France).

The present document provides a synthesis of available extraction methods, assesses their respective advantages and limitations, identifies key processes that many influence the composition of the extracted water, describes modelling approaches that are used to determine in situ porewater composition, and highligths, wherever possible, some of the unresolved issues and recommendations on ways to address them.
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SR 97: Post-closure Safety of a Deep Repository for Spent Nuclear Fuel in Sweden
An International Peer Review
English, 49 pages, published: 01/01/2000
NEA#2468, ISBN: 92-64-18261-6
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2000/nea2468-sr97.pdf
This report presents the common views of the International Review Team established by the NEA Secretariat on behalf of the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) to perform a peer review of a post-closure safety study of a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel in Sweden, Safety Report 97, produced by the Swedish Spent Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB).
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Evacuation géologique des déchets radioactifs
Bilan des dix dernières années
Français, 108 pages, published: 01/01/2000
NEA#2268, ISBN: 92-64-27194-5
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/pubs/2000/2268-evacuation-geologique-dechets.pdf
L'idée d'isoler de l'environnement humain les déchets radioactifs à vie longue en les stockant dans des dépôts profonds remonte à plusieurs décennies. Depuis, les recherches réalisées dans le monde ont renforcé nos connaissances et notre compréhension du fonctionnement des systèmes de stockage souterrain sur des périodes très longues. On a également bien avancé vers la réalisation de ces installations. Cependant, les programmes d'évacuation des déchets radioactifs ont subi des retards dans plusieurs pays. Ce rapport fait le tour des évolutions intervenues dans le domaine de l'évacuation au cours de la dernière décennie. Les principales sources de données de l'étude sont les réponses à un questionnaire, fournies par les organismes s'occupant de la gestion des déchets représentés au sein du Comité de la gestion des déchets radioactifs (RWMC). Ce comité regroupe des experts internationaux issus d'autorités de sûreté, d'agences de gestion de déchets, d'institutions de R-D ainsi que des organismes décisionnels.
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Regulatory Reviews of Assessments of Deep Geologic Repositories
Lessons Learnt
Bilingual, 132 pages, published: 01/01/2000
NEA#2308, ISBN: 92-64-05886-9
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2001/nea2308-reg-reviews-assessments-deep-geo.pdf
Integrated performance assessments (IPAs) of radioactive waste repositories deep underground are made at different stages of repository development in order, for example, to allow full-scale development, to provide feedback to R&D, and to test and develop review capability. IPA studies must be acceptable to a wide range of stakholders and are one of the bases for dialogue amongst regulators and implementers of disposal facilities.

The goal of the IPAG-2 study was to examine the experience of regulatory reviews of IPAs, from both the implementer and regulator points of view. Ten implementer and seven regulatory organisations participated. This report presents the lessons learnt from their review experiences, and provides recommendations to aid future regulatory decision making.


A differents stades du processus d'aménagement d'un dépôt géologique de déchets radioactifs, des évaluations intégrées des performances (EIP) sont réalisées afin de progresser dans la réalisation de l'installation, de recueillir un retour d'information utile en R-D et de tester et développer les capacités d'analyse. Ces EIP doivent être ensuite approuvées par une diversité d'intervenants et constituent la base du dialogue entre les autorités de sûreté et les exploitants des dépôts de déchets.

L'étude IPAG-2 avait pour objectif de faire le point sur l'expérience des examens des EIP dans un contexte réglementaire, tant du point de vue des autorités de sûreté que des exploitants. Dix exploitants et sept organismes de réglementation y ont participé. Ce rapport présente les enseignements tirés de l'étude et propose des recommandations destinées à faciliter le travail des responsables de la réglementation.
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Features, Events and Processes (FEPs) for Geologic Disposal of Radioactive Waste
An International Database
English, 88 pages, published: 01/01/2000
NEA#2549, ISBN: 92-64-18514-3
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/2000/nea2549-features-events-processes-for-disposal.pdf
Safety assessments of disposal sites for radioactive waste involve analyses of potential releases of radionuclides from the disposed waste and subsequent transport to the human environment. An important stage of assessment is the identification and documentation of all the features, events and processes (FEPs) that may be relevant to long-term safety. This report provides an international compilation of FEPs as well as a basis for selecting the FEPs that should be included in safety analyses.

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Ou en est l'evacuation des dechets radioactifs en formations geologiques ?
Une evaluation internationale des progres recents
Francais, 30 pages, published: 10/15/1999
NEA#1807
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/1999/ouenest.pdf

Other language(s):
- English: Progress Towards Geologic Disposal of Radioactive Waste: Where do We Stand?
Quels que soient les types de dechets radioactifs, la securite du public, la protection de l'environnement, mais aussi la prevention d'actes de malveillance exigent qu'on gere de facon responsible, aujourd'hui et demain. Le defi majeur consiste a gerer les dechets a vie longue qu'il faut isoler de l'homme pendant des milliers d'annees. L'evacuation dans des depots profonds amenages dans des milieux geologiques bien choisis est la solution privilegiee pour ces dechets.

Ce rapport dresse un bilan des evolutions qui ont marque l'evacuation geologique en profondeur et la gestion des dechets radioactifs a vie longue ces dix dernieres annees. Il aborde a la fois les aspects techniques et sociaux et s'adresse a toute personne, ou groupe, ayant des responsabilites dans la gestion des dechets radioactifs ou simplement interessee par le sujet.
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Water-conducting Features in Radionuclide Migration
Workshop Proceedings, Barcelona, Spain, 10-12 June 1998
English, 376 pages, published: 10/13/1999
NEA#1808, ISBN: 92-64-17124-X
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/1999/nea1808-water-radionuclide-migration.pdf
GEOTRAP is the OECD/NEA Project on Radionuclide Migration in Geologic, Heterogeneous Media carried out in the context of site evaluation and safety assessment of deep repository systems for long-lived radioactive waste.

Water-conducting features can, for example, determine the rate of radionuclide release from the near-field to the far-field, the rate at which radionuclides can migrate with flowing groundwater, and the degree of retention in the geosphere. Therefore, the characterisation of the structure and properties of water-conducting features is an important requirement for any performance assessment of deep repository systems. The third GEOTRAP workshop, "Characterisation of Water-Conducting Features and their Representation in Models of Radionuclide Migration" (Barcelona, Spain, 10-12 June 1998), addressed these issues and provided an overview of current developments in this technical field - both within national waste management programmes and the scientific community. These developments reinforce confidence in the concepts and models used for repository performance assessment.

In addition to the material presented, this publication includes a technical synthesis of the workshop, reflecting the discussions that took place as well as the conclusions and recommendations made, notably during the working group sessions.
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Progress Towards Geologic Disposal of Radioactive Waste: Where do We Stand?
An International Assessment
English, 28 pages, published: 01/11/1999
NEA#1787
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/1999/progress.pdf
Radioactive wastes of all kinds need to be managed responsibly to ensure public safety and protection of the environment, as well as security from malicious intervention, now and in the future. The most challenging task involves management of the long-lived waste that must be isolated from the human environment for many thousands of years. The preferred option for eventual disposal is emplacement in repositories deep underground in well-chosen geologica media.

This report presents and expert assessment of developments in the field of deep geologic disposal of radioactive waste over the past ten years. It reviews both technical and societal aspects, and should be of interest to decision makers responsible for radioactive waste management as well as to interested groups and individuals.
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A Proposed Standardised List of Items for Costing Purposes
Interim Technical Document
English, 104 pages, published: 01/01/1999
NEA#1708
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/1999/costlist.pdf
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Nuclear Waste Bulletin
Update on Waste Management Policies and Programmes, No.13 - December 1998
English, 135 pages, published: 01/01/1999
NEA#1327
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/bulletin/bulletin13.pdf
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Confidence in the Long-term Safety of Deep Geological Repositories
Its Development and Communication
English, 80 pages, published: 01/01/1999
NEA#1809
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/1999/confidence.pdf
This report is aimed at safety assessors of deep geological repositories and at technical specialists concerned with radioactive waste disposal. It is intended to improve communication among interested parties by clarifying the concepts related to the development of confidence, and by placing the various measures that are employed to evaluate, enhance and communicate confidence in the technical aspects of safety in a clear, logical framework. Thes measures are increasingly embodied in actual procedures applied in today's safety assessments, and can be incorporated in a common framework, despite differences in approaches, practices and constraints both within and between repository projects.
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Decontamination Techniques Used in Decommissioning Activities
A Report by the NEA Task Group on Decontaminaton
English, 52 pages, published: 01/01/1999
NEA#1707
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/1999/decontec.pdf
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Strategic Areas in Radioactive Waste Management
The Viewpoint and Work Orientations of the NEA Radioactive Waste Management Committee
English, 26 pages, published: 01/01/1999
NEA#2008
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/1999/strategy_final.pdf
The NEA Radioactive Waste Management Committee (RWMC) is a forum of senior operators, regulators, policy makers, and senior representatives of R&D institutions in the field of radioactive waste management. The committee assists Member countries by providing objective guidance on the solution of radioactive waste problems, and promotes safety in the short- and long-term management of radioactive waste.

This report identifies some of the major challenges currently faced by national waste management programmes, and describes the strategic areas in which the RWMC should focus its efforts in future years.
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Use of Hydrogeochemical Information in Testing Groundwater Flow Models
Workshop Proceedings, Borgholm, Sweden, 1-3 September 1997
English, 366 pages, published: 01/01/1999
NEA#289, ISBN: 92-64-16153-8
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Site characterisation and evaluation are important elements for determining the site suitability and long-term sfety of a geological repository for high-level and/or long-lived radioactive waste disposal. In that respect, matching the results of the various geoscientific methods used in site characterisation is important for building confidence in the data, concepts and models used for describing and understanding geological barriers of deep repository systems and assessing their performances.

As groundwater chemistry may provide a method to test site-specific, time dependent groundwater flow models, a workshop on the "use of Hydrogeochemical Information in Testing groundwater Flow Models" was hosted by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) in Borgholm, Sweden, on 1-3 Sepember 1997, to assess the progress to date in this multidisciplinary aspect of site characterisation and evaluation.

These proceedings include the papers presented at the workshop, as well as a technical summary of the topics addressed and the conclusions reached.
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Domaines stratégiques de la gestion des déchets radioactifs
Position du Comité de l'AEN de la gestion des déchets radioactifs et oreintations de ses travaux
Français, 26 pages, published: 01/01/1999
NEA#2028
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/1999/strategie_final.pdf
Le Comité de l'AEN de la gestion des déchets radioactifs (RWMC) réunit des représentants à haut niveau des agences de gestion des déchets radioactifs, des organismes de réglementation, des organes responsables de l'élaboration des politiques, ainsi que des établissements de recherche et développement dans ce domaine. Ce Comité a pour vocation d'aider les pays Membres en leur fournissant des conseils objectifs pour résoudre leurs problèmes de gestion des déchets radioactifs et de promovoir une gestion sûre de ces déchets à court et à long terme.

Ce rapport recense quelques-uns des principaux défis que rencontrent aujourd'hui les différents pays dans leurs programmes de gestion des déchets ainsi que les domaines stratégiques sur lesquels le RWMC devra concentrer ses efforts dans les années qui viennent.
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Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste
Review of Developments in the Last Decade
English, 104 pages, published: 01/01/1999
NEA#2048, ISBN: 92-64-17194-0
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/pubs/1999/2048-geological-disposal.pdf
The concept of removing long-lived radioactive wastes from the human environment by disposal in deep geological repositories was developed several decades ago. In the intervening years, research efforts world-wide have increased our knowledge and understanding of how underground disposal systems will function over very long periods of time. Significant progress has also been made towards implementation of such facilities. There have, however, been delays in the disposal programmes of several countries.This report is a review of developments in the past decade. The primary sources of information are the answers to a questionnaire provided by waste management organisations represented in the NEA Radioactive Waste Management Committee (RWMC). The latter is an international forum of senior specialists from safety authorities, waste management agencies, R&D institutions and policy-making bodies.
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Nirex Methodology for Scenario and Conceptual Model Development
An International Peer Review
English, 46 pages, published: 01/01/1999
NEA#1569
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/1999/nirex3.pdf

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Fluid Flow through Faults and Fractures in Argillaceous Formations
Proceedings of a Joint NEA/EC "Clay Club" Workshop, Bern, Switzerland, 10-12 June 1996
English, 399 pages, published: 01/01/1998
NEA#646, ISBN: 92-64-16021-3
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/1998/nea646-fluid-flow-faults-fractures.pdf
An evaluation of the occurrence of fluid flow through faults and fractures is of primary importance for the performance assessment of radioactive waste repositories located in argillaceous settings.

In order to provide the national waste management organisations and the scientific community at large with insights into the driving processes and the occurrence of fluid flow through faults and fractures in argillaceous formations, the NEA and the EC jointly organised a workshop on this topic (Berne, Switzerland, 10-12 June 1996).

This publication includes the papers presented orally or as posters at the workshop, and is introduced by a synthesis of the topics addressed and the conclusions reached.
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Modelling the Effects of Spatial Variability on Radionuclide Migration
Workshop Proceedings, Paris, France 9-11 June 1997
English, 352 pages, published: 01/01/1998
NEA#1188, ISBN: 92-64-16099-X
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/1998/nea1188-effects-spatial-variability-radionuclide.pdf
GEOTRAP is the OECD/NEA Project on Radionuclide Migration in Geologic, Heterogeneous Media carried out in the context of site characterisation and evaluation and safety assessment of deep repository systems of long-lived radioactive waste.

Variability (heterogeneity) in the properties of the rocks over a wide range of spatial scales is a common feature of most geologic media and broad agreement exists that its characterisation and the corresponding analysis of the consequences for groundwater flow and radionuclide transport form an important part of the assessment of the safety of deep geologic repositories.

The second GEOTRAP workshop, "Modelling the Effects of Spatial Variability on Radionuclide Migration" (Paris, France, 9-11 June 1997), addressed these issues and provided an overview of current developments in this technical field- both in national waste management programmes and the scientific community. These developments reinforce confidence in the concepts and models used for repository safety assessment.

In addition to the papers presented, this publication includes a synthesis of the workshop reflecting the discussions that took place as well as the conclusions and recommendations drawn, notably during the working group sessions. The synthesis also puts these conclusions and recommendations into perspective within the scope of the GEOTRAP project and the state of the art in the technical field.

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International INTRAVAL Project (The) - Flow and Tracer Experiments in Unsaturated Tuff and Soil - Las Cruces Trench and Apache Leap Tuff Studies
Phase 2 - Working Group 1 Report
English, 41 pages, published: 01/01/1997
NEA#297
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/1997/intraval2wg1.pdf
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Lessons Learnt from Ten Performance Assessment Studies
English, 129 pages, published: 01/01/1997
NEA#527
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/1997/ipag.pdf
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Field Tracer Experiments: Role in the Prediction of Radionuclide Migration
Proceedings of the 1st NEA/EC GEOTRAP Workshop, Cologne, Germany - 28-30 August 1996
English, 254 pages, published: 01/01/1997
NEA#506, ISBN: 92-64-16013-2
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/1997/nea506-field-tracer-experiments-radionuclide-migration.pdf
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Probabilistic System Assessment Group (The)
History and Achievement - 1985-1994
English, 72 pages, published: 01/01/1997
NEA#466
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/1997/probabilistic.pdf
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International Intraval Project (The) - Phase 2
Summary Report
English, 118 pages, published: 01/01/1997
NEA#446
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/1997/ivalfin2.pdf
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Nuclear Waste Bulletin
No. 12 - June 1997
Bilingual, 90 pages, published: 01/01/1997
NEA#529
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/bulletin/bulletin12.pdf

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Recycling and Reuse of Scrap Metals
A Report by a Task Group of the NEA Co-operative Programme on Decommissioning
English, published: 01/01/1996
NEA#149
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/1996/recycling.pdf
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Water, Gas and Solute Movement Through Argillaceous Media - A "Clay Club" Report
English, published: 01/01/1996
NEA#139
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/1996/water.pdf
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Co-ordinated Research and Environmental Surveillance Programme Related to Sea Disposal of Radioactive Waste - CRESP Final Report
CRESP Final Report 1981-1995
English, 157 pages, published: 01/01/1996
NEA#117
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/1996/CRESP-1981-1995.pdf
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International INTRAVAL Project [The]- Finnsjön, Stripa and Wipp2
Phase 2, Working group 2 Report
English, published: 01/01/1996
NEA#249
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/1996/intraval2wg2.pdf
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International INTRAVAL Project [The] - The Analyses of the Alligator Rivers Natural Analogue
Phase 2, Working Group 4 Report
English, published: 01/01/1996
NEA#247
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/1996/intraval2wg4.pdf
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Characterisation of Long-Term Geological Changes for Disposal Sites
Proceedings of an NEA Workshop, Paris, France, 19-21 September 1994
English, 163 pages, published: 01/01/1996
NEA#116, ISBN: 92-64-14829-9
Ex-sale now free
Investigating the long-term geological changes at potential repository sites for the disposal of radioactive waste is an important part of numerous site characterisation and evaluation programmes. The investigations are designed to analyse the present characteristics of the site, their differences in the geological past, and the likelihood of changes in the future. The results give an indication of the geological stability of the repository area and can serve as the basis for developing scenarios and boundary conditions necessary for analysing the long-term safety of the repository.

These papers and the executive summary from an international Workshop organised by the OECD/NEA Co-ordinating Group on Site Evaluation and Design of Experiments for Radioactive Waste Disposal (SEDE) address the many emerging issues related to the characterisation of long-term geological changes and review relevant experience in national programmes for radioactive waste disposal. They stress the importance of gathering information on long-term geological change to assess the safety of deep repositories, to site and to design such facilities, and of adopting a multidisciplinary approach.
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NEA Co-operative Programme on Decommissioning (The): The First Ten Years 1985-95
English, published: 01/01/1996
NEA#96
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/1996/decommissioning.pdf

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Environmental and Ethical Aspects of Long-Lived Radioactive Waste Disposal
Proceedings of an International Workshop by the NEA and the Environment Directorate, Paris, France, 1-2 September 1994
English, published: 01/01/1995
NEA#120, ISBN: 92-64-14373-4
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/1995/nea120-environmental-ethical-aspects.pdf
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Hydraulic and Hydrochemical Characterisation of Argillaceous Rocks
Proceedings of an International Workshop, Nottingham, United Kingdom, 7-9 June 1994
English, published: 01/01/1995
NEA#128, ISBN: 92-64-14485-4
Ex-sale now free
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Fondements environnementaux et éthiques de l'évacuation géologique
Opinion collective du Comité de la gestion des déchets radioactifs de l'AEN
Français, published: 01/01/1995
NEA#122
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/1995/geodisp/geological-disposal-fr.pdf

Other language(s):
- English: Environmental and Ethical Basis of Geological Disposal (The)
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Environmental and Ethical Basis of Geological Disposal (The)
A Collective Opinion of the NEA Radioactive Waste Management Committee
English, published: 01/01/1995
NEA#121
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/1995/geodisp.html

Other language(s):
- Français: Fondements environnementaux et éthiques de l'évacuation géologique

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ARAP - The International Alligator Rivers Analogue Project: Background and Results
English, published: 01/01/1994
NEA#115
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/1994/arap.pdf

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Disposal of Radioactive Waste: Can Long-Term Safety Be Evaluated?
An International Collective Opinion
Bilingual, published: 01/01/1991
NEA#118
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rwm/reports/1991/longterm.pdf

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Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste: Geochemical Processes
A Review of the Current Technical Understanding of Geochemical Processes Related to Geological Dispsoal of Radioactive Waste, October 1982
English, 144 pages, published: 10/30/1982
NEA#6657, ISBN: 978-92-64-12385-7
Free on web

Other language(s):
- Français: Évacuation des déchets radioactifs dans les formations géologiques : Processus géochimiques