Radiological Protection Publications


List of titles sorted by date
Summary of the Fourth International Nuclear Emergency Exercise (INEX-4) (2013)
Exercise Conduct and Evaluation Questionnaires
Evolution of ICRP Recommendations – 1977, 1990 and 2007 (2011)
Changes in Underlying Science and Protection Policy and Case Study of their Impact on European and UK Domestic Regulation
Science and Values in Radiological Protection (2011)
Summary of the CRPPH Workshops held in Helsinki (2008) and Vaux-de-Cernay (2009)
Strategic Aspects of Nuclear and Radiological Emergency Management (2010)
Planning for Effective Decision Making; Consequence Management and Transition to Recovery
Evolution of the System of Radiological Protection (2010)
Implementing the 2007 ICRP Recommendations - Fifth Asian Regional Conference, Chiba, Japan, 3-4 September 2009
Occupational Exposures at Nuclear Power Plants (2008) (2010)
Eighteenth Annual Report of the ISOE Programme, 2008
Evolution of the System of Radiological Protection (2009)
Discussion of New ICRP Recommendations, 4th Asian Regional Conference, Tokyo, Japan, 13-14 December 2007
Occupational Exposures at Nuclear Power Plants (2007) (2009)
Seventeenth Annual Report of the ISOE Programme, 2007
Summary Report of the CRPPH 50th Anniversary Conference (2009)
Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health (CRPPH), 31 May 2007
A Stakeholder Dialogue on the Implications of the ICRP Recommendations (2008)
Summary of the Three NEA/ICRP Conferences
Occupational Exposures at Nuclear Power Plants (2006) (2008)
Sixteenth Annual Report of the ISOE Programme, 2006
Evolution of the System of Radiological Protection (Third Asian Regional Conference - Tokyo) (2007)
Third Asian Regional Conference, Tokyo, Japan, 5-6 July 2006
Scientific Issues and Emerging Challenges for Radiological Protection (2007)
Report of the Expert Group on the Implications of Radiological Protection Science
Fifty Years of Radiological Protection (2007)
The CRPPH 50th Anniversary Commemorative Review
Occupational Exposures at Nuclear Power Plants (2005) (2007)
Fifteenth Annual Report of the ISOE Programme, 2005
Occupational Exposures at Nuclear Power Plants (2006)
Fourteenth Annual Report of the ISOE Programme, 2004
The Process of Regulatory Authorisation (2006)
A Report by the CRPPH Expert Group on the Regulatory Application of Authorisation (EGRA)
Evolution of the System of Radiological Protection (2005)
Second Asian Regional Conference, Tokyo, Japan, 28-29 July 2004
Occupational Exposure Management at Nuclear Power Plants (2005)
Fourth ISOE European Symposium, Lyon, France 24-26 March 2004
Occupational Exposures at Nuclear Power Plants - 2003 (2005)
Thirteenth Annual Report on the ISOE Programme, 2003
Optimisation in Operational Radiological Protection (2005)
A Report by the Working Group on Operational Radiological Protection of the Information System on Occupational Exposure
Stakeholder Participation in Radiological Decision Making: Processes and Implications (2004)
Summary Report of the 3rd Villigen (Switzerland) Workshop, October 2003
Stakeholder Participation in Radiological Decision Making: Processes and Implications (Villigen 3) (2004)
Third Villigen Workshop, Villigen, Switzerland, 21-23 October 2003
Stakeholder Participation in Radiological Decision Making: Processes and Implications (2004)
Case Studies for the Third Villigen Workshop, Villigen, Switzerland, 21-23 October 2003
The Future Policy for Radiological Protection (2004)
A Stakeholder Dialogue on the Implications of the ICRP Proposals - Summary Report, Lanzarote, Spain, 2-4 April 2003
Occupational Exposures at Nuclear Power Plants - 2002 (2004)
Twelfth Annual Report on the ISOE programme, 2002
Evolution of the System of Radiological Protection (2004)
Asian Regional Conference, Tokyo, Japan, 24-25 October 2002
The Future Policy for Radiological Protection (2003)
Workshop Proceedings, Lanzarote, Spain, 2-4 April 2003
Effluent Release Options from Nuclear Installations (2003)
Technical Background and Regulatory Aspects
Occupational Exposure Management at Nuclear Power Plants (2003)
Third ISOE European Workshop, Portoroz, Slovenia, 17-19 April 2002
Radiological Protection of the Environment (2003)
Summary Report of the Issues
Radiological Protection of the Environment: The Path Forward to a New Policy? (2002)
Workshop Proceedings, Taormina, Sicily, Italy, 12-14 February 2002
Chernobyl: Assessment of Radiological and Health Impacts (2002)
2002 Update of Chernobyl: Ten Years On
Occupational Exposures at Nuclear Power Plants - 2001 (2002)
Eleventh Annual Report on the ISOE Programme, 2001
The Way Forward in Radiological Protection (2002)
An Expert Group Report
Better Integration of Radiation Protection in Modern Society (2002)
Workshop Proceedings, Villigen, Switzerland, 23-25 January 2001
Policy Issues in Radiological Protection Decision Making (2001)
Summary Report of the 2nd Villigen (Switzerland) Workshop, January 2001
Occupational Exposures at Nuclear Power Plants (2001)
Tenth Annual Report of the ISOE Programme, 2000
Second International Nuclear Emergency Exercise INEX 2 (2001)
Final Report of the Canadian Regional Exercise
Second International Nuclear Emergency Exercise INEX 2 (2001)
Final Report of the Hungarian Regional Exercise
A Critical Review of the System of Radiation Protection (2000)
First Reflections of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency's Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health (CRPPH)
Occupational Exposures at Nuclear Power Plants (2000)
Ninth Annual Report of the ISOE Programme, 1999
Second International Nuclear Emergency Exercise INEX 2 (2000)
Final Report of the Finnish Regional Exercise
Second International Nuclear Emergency Exercise INEX 2 (1999)
Final Report of the Swiss Regional INEX 2 Exercise
ISOE - Occupational Exposures at Nuclear Power Plants (1999)
Eighth Annual Report of the ISOE Programme, 1998
The Societal Aspects of Decision Making in Complex Radiological Situations (1998)
Proceedings of an International Workshop, Villigen, Switzerland, 13-15 January 1998
ISOE - Occupational Exposures at Nuclear Power Plants (1998)
Sixth Annual Report - 1986-1996
Nuclear Emergency Data Management (1997)
Zurich, Switzerland , 13-14 September 1995
Work Management in the Nuclear Power Industry (1997)
A Manual prepared for the NEA Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health by the ISOE Expert Group on the Impact of Work Management on Occupational Exposure
Considerations on the Concept of Dose Constraint (1996)
A Report by a Joint Group of Experts from the OECD/NEA and the EC.
Chernobyl - Ten Years On: Radiological and Health Impact (1996)
An appraisal by the NEA Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health - November 1995
Radiation Protection Today and Tomorrow (1994)
A Collective Opinion by the NEA Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health
Exposure to Radiation from the Natural Radioactivity in Building Materials (1979)
Report by an NEA Group of Experts, May, 1979

Detailed publication list

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Summary of the Fourth International Nuclear Emergency Exercise (INEX-4)
Exercise Conduct and Evaluation Questionnaires
English, 48 pages, published: 07/29/13
NEA#7143
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rp/pubs/2013/7143-Summary-of-INEX-4.pdf
The International Nuclear Emergency Exercise (INEX) series, organised under the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) Working Party on Nuclear Emergency Matters (WPNEM), has proven successful in testing, investigating and improving national and international response arrangements for nuclear accidents and radiological emergencies. Early INEX exercises focused on the national and international aspects of early phase management of nuclear power plant emergencies. Starting with INEX-3 (2005-2006), the international community began looking at issues concerning longer-term consequence management. In 2008, the WPNEM started preparing the INEX-4 series, which was conducted in 2010-2011 and addressed consequence management and transition to recovery in response to malicious acts involving the release of radioactive materials in an urban setting. The goal of INEX-4 was to provide a basis for enhancing emergency management through the exchange of exercise experiences from participating countries and the identification of good practices and common issues. This summary report provides general outcomes based on country responses to the INEX-4 evaluation questionnaire and suggests areas of focus for future consideration.

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Practices and Experience in Stakeholder Involvement for Post-nuclear Emergency Management
English, 25 pages, published: 10/04/11
NEA#6994, ISBN: 978-92-64-99166-8
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rp/reports/2011/nea6994-practices-stakeholder-invololvment-post-emergency.pdf

Other language(s):
- Japanese: 原子力緊急事態の事後管理における ステークホルダー関与の実践と経験 
One of the most important aspects of post-accident consequence management is the involvement of stakeholders: in the planning, preparation and execution as well as in sustaining efforts over the long term. Having recognised the significance of stakeholder participation in several International Nuclear Emergency Exercises (INEX), the NEA Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health (CRPPH) decided to organise the Practices and Experience in Stakeholder Involvement for Post-nuclear Emergency Management Workshop to explore these issues. This summary highlights the key issues discussed during the workshop, which brought together 75 emergency management and communication specialists from 16 countries. In light of the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, the experience shared during this workshop will be central to further improving national emergency management arrangements.
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Evolution of ICRP Recommendations – 1977, 1990 and 2007
Changes in Underlying Science and Protection Policy and Case Study of their Impact on European and UK Domestic Regulation
English, 112 pages, published: 02/28/11
NEA#6920, ISBN: 978-92-64-99153-8
Volume of the series: Radiation Protection
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rp/reports/2011/nea6920-ICRP-recommendations.pdf
Radiological protection philosophy, regulation and application have evolved significantly over the last 30 years, adapting to the ever-changing landscapes of scientific understanding and societal values. This report provides a methodical assessment of these changes. Starting with radiological protection in the 1970s, it describes the philosophical differences between International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 26, issued in 1977, and ICRP Publication 60, issued in 1990, as well as the regulatory evolution that was necessary to effectively implement the changes. It then examines the philosophical and regulatory changes between ICRP Publication 60 and ICRP Publication 103 of 2007. Although the regulatory changes needed to implement Publication 103 are, in practice, yet to come, the report provides a seasoned view of what these changes will most likely be, and what efforts will be necessary to successfully implement them.
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Science and Values in Radiological Protection
Summary of the CRPPH Workshops held in Helsinki (2008) and Vaux-de-Cernay (2009)
English, 84 pages, published: 02/17/11
NEA#6364, ISBN: 978-92-64-99156-9
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rp/pubs/2011/6364-sciences-values-in-rp.pdf
Decisions regarding radiological protection are informed by science, including its uncertainties, influenced by stakeholder concerns, driven by prevailing circumstances, and broadly based on values and judgments. However, the processes by which protection decisions are taken do not always sufficiently articulate the scientific and value-judgment elements on which decisions are based. To assist decision makers at all levels to further clarify the various aspects of their decisions, and to assist scientists and regulators in better understanding each other’s contributions to radiological protection decisions, the NEA Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health (CRPPH) has held two workshops addressing science and values in radiological protection. This report summarises the discussions and conclusions of the first two workshops in this innovative series, and suggests the way forward in preparing the discussions at the third science and values workshop.

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Occupational Radiological Protection Principles and Criteria for Designing New Nuclear Power Plants
English, 112 pages, published: 10/05/10
NEA#6975, ISBN: 978-92-64-99142-2
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rp/reports/2010/nea6975-criteria-new-plants.pdf

Other language(s):
- English: Occupational Radiological Protection Principles and Criteria for Designing New Nuclear Power Plants 
Global demand for electricity continues to grow and numerous new nuclear power plants (NPPs) are being planned or constructed in NEA member countries. Most of these new NPPs will be of the third generation, and will be designed for as long as 80 years of operation. The successful design, construction and operation of these plants will depend broadly on appropriately implementing the lessons from experience accumulated to date.

This case study introduces a policy and technical framework that may be used when formulating technical assistance and guidance for senior managers of NPPs, designers, manufacturers, contractors and authorities responsible for regulating occupational radiation exposure. It is aimed in particular at assisting design and license assessments of new NPPs. Although not targeting the needs of countries introducing nuclear power for the first time, this case study can also provide valuable input on occupational radiological protection issues for the implementation of new nuclear energy programmes.
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Strategic Aspects of Nuclear and Radiological Emergency Management
Planning for Effective Decision Making; Consequence Management and Transition to Recovery
English, 72 pages, published: 10/05/10
NEA#6387, ISBN: 978-92-64-99146-0
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rp/reports/2010/nea6387-strategic-aspects-of-nuclear.pdf
The collective experience of the NEA Working Party on Nuclear Emergency Matters (WPNEM), and in particular, the experience from the International Nuclear Emergency Exercise (INEX) series, has shown that it is important to plan and to implement emergency response actions based on a guiding strategic vision. Within this context, Strategic Aspects of Nuclear and Radiological Emergency Management presents a framework of strategic planning elements to be considered by national emergency management authorities when establishing or enhancing processes for decision making, and when developing or implementing protection strategies. The focus is on nuclear or radiological emergency situations leading to complex preparedness and response conditions, involving multiple jurisdictions and significant international interfaces.

The report is aimed at national emergency management authorities, international organisations and those who are seeking to improve the effectiveness of emergency management. Its goal is to provide insights into decision-making processes within existing emergency planning arrangements. It also highlights common areas of good practice in decision making. Specific areas for improvement, identified during the INEX-3 consequence management exercise, are included, particularly in support of decision making for countermeasures for consequence management and the transition to recovery.
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Evolution of the System of Radiological Protection
Implementing the 2007 ICRP Recommendations - Fifth Asian Regional Conference, Chiba, Japan, 3-4 September 2009
English, 28 pages, published: 09/24/10
NEA#6828, ISBN: 978-92-64-99147-7
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rp/reports/2010/nea6828-Evolution-Systems-Radiological.pdf

Other language(s):
- : Evolution of the System of Radiological Protection (Japanese version) 放射線防護体系の発展 
Since 2002, the NEA has been actively facilitating the detailed discussion of the evolving system of radiological protection in an Asian context. Its work in this area has included four previous conferences to discuss various International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) draft general recommendations. The Fifth Asian Regional Conference on the Evolution of the System of Radiological Protection was the first in this series to be focused directly on the implementation of the new ICRP recommendations. This conference report provides very useful, practical insight into the Asian approach to implementing this new radiological protection philosophy.
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Occupational Exposures at Nuclear Power Plants (2008)
Eighteenth Annual Report of the ISOE Programme, 2008
English, 132 pages, published: 05/27/10
NEA#6826, ISBN: 978-92-64-99131-6
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rp/reports/2010/nea6826-occupational-exposures.pdf
The Information System on Occupational Exposure (ISOE) was created by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency in 1992 to promote and co-ordinate international co-operative undertakings in the area of occupational radiological protection at nuclear power plants. ISOE provides experts in occupational radiological protection with a forum for communication and exchange of experience.

At the end of 2008, the ISOE programme included 59 participating utilities in 26 countries (278 operating units and 32 shutdown units), as well as the regulatory authorities of 22 countries. The ISOE database, publications, annual symposia and ISOE Network website facilitate the exchange amongst participants of operational experience and lessons learnt in the optimisation of occupational radiological protection.

The Eighteenth Annual Report of the ISOE Programme summarises occupational exposure data trends and ISOE achievements made during 2008. Principal developments in ISOE participating countries are also described.

ISOE is jointly sponsored by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).

ISOE Network: www.isoe-network.net

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Evolution of the System of Radiological Protection
Discussion of New ICRP Recommendations, 4th Asian Regional Conference, Tokyo, Japan, 13-14 December 2007
English, 48 pages, published: 08/12/09
NEA#6363, ISBN: 978-92-64-99088-3
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rp/reports/2009/6363_4thAsian.pdf
The evolution of the system of radiological protection is of great interest to governments and regulatory authorities, in particular in Asia. In this context, the Japanese government hosted a series of NEA conferences on this subject. The 4th Asian Regional Conference, held in Tokyo in December 2007, included key discussions of Japanese, Korean, Chinese and Russian views on the new International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommendations, and on their interpretation in the international Basic Safety Standards and national regulations. This report summarises the most significant aspects of these discussions, providing keen insight into governmental and regulatory approaches to radiological protection in Asia.
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Work Management to Optimise Occupational Radiological Protection at Nuclear Power Plants
English, 128 pages, published: 07/13/09
NEA#6399, ISBN: 978-92-64-99089-0
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rp/reports/2009/nea6399-WorkManagement.pdf

Other language(s):
- Japanese: Japanese version - Work Management to Optimise Occupational Radiological Protection at Nuclear Power Plants 
- Français: L'organisation du travail pour optimiser la radioprotection professionnelle dans les centrales nucléaires 
Since 1992, the Information System on Occupational Exposure (ISOE) has provided a forum for radiological protection professionals from nuclear power utilities and national regulatory authorities worldwide to discuss, promote and co-ordinate international co-operative undertakings for the radiological protection of workers at nuclear power plants. The ISOE objective is to improve occupational exposure management at nuclear power plants by exchanging relevant information, data and experience on methods to optimise occupational radiological protection.

This report on work management provides practical guidance on the application of work management principles as a contribution to the optimisation of occupational radiological protection. It recognises that while work management is no longer a new concept, continued efforts are needed to ensure that good performance, outcomes and trends are maintained in the face of current and future challenges. The focus of this report is therefore on presenting the key aspects of work management that should be considered by management and workers to save time, doses and money, supported by updated practical examples from within the ISOE community.

ISOE is jointly sponsored by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).

ISOE Network: www.isoe-network.net
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Occupational Exposures at Nuclear Power Plants (2007)
Seventeenth Annual Report of the ISOE Programme, 2007
English, 120 pages, published: 04/03/09
NEA#6386, ISBN: 978-92-64-99082-1
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rp/reports/2009/nea6386-ISOE.pdf
The Information System on Occupational Exposure (ISOE) was created by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency in 1992 to promote and co-ordinate international co-operative undertakings in the area of worker protection at nuclear power plants. ISOE provides experts in occupational radiological protection with a forum for communication and exchange of experience.

The programme includes 71 participating utilities in 29 countries (334 operating units and 45 shutdown units), as well as the regulatory authorities of 25 countries. The ISOE database, annual symposia and ISOE Network website facilitate the exchange of operational experience and lessons learnt among participants.

The Seventeenth Annual Report of the ISOE Programme summarises occupational exposure data trends and ISOE achievements made during 2007. Principal developments in ISOE participating countries are also described.

ISOE is jointly sponsored by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).

ISOE Network: www.isoe-network.net
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Summary Report of the CRPPH 50th Anniversary Conference
Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health (CRPPH), 31 May 2007
English, 48 pages, published: 04/01/09
NEA#6451, ISBN: 978-92-64-99078-4
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rp/reports/2009/nea6451_CRPPH_50th_Conference.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Rapport de synthèse sur la conférence du 50e anniversaire du CRPPH 
The NEA Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health (CRPPH) celebrated its 50th anniversary in May 2007. Taking advantage of its half century of experience, the Committee took this occasion to look forward towards the next 50 years in order to identify the most significant emerging challenges to radiological protection policy, regulation and application. This report summarises the presentations and discussions of the high-level regulators and international radiological protection organisations’ leaders who attended, providing their views on how the radiological protection community can best move forward together to address emerging challenges.

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The NEA Contribution to the Evolution of the International System of Radiological Protection
English, 122 pages, published: 03/31/09
NEA#6440, ISBN: 978-92-64-99080-7
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rp/reports/2009/nea6440_Evolution_Int_System_RP.pdf

Other language(s):
- Japanese: Japanese version of The NEA Contribution to the Evolution of the International System of Radiological Protection 
- Français: La contribution de l'AEN à l'évolution du système international de protection radiologique 
Since the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) initiated a dialogue in 1999 on the evolution of the system of radiological protection, the NEA Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health (CRPPH) has actively engaged in providing the ICRP with input and views. The Committee’s work on this subject has included eight expert group reports, seven international conferences, and four detailed review and comment assessments of draft ICRP recommendations. This report presents a chronological summary of the issues, views and concerns raised by the CRPPH as the ICRP issued various draft versions of its new recommendations (ICRP Publication 103, published in December 2007), and of the response by the ICRP as seen in its subsequent draft recommendations. The interest of this summary report is that it will not only assist readers in understanding the main themes and concepts of the new ICRP recommendations, but also why and how the changes from the previous ICRP Publication 60 recommendations came about.

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Radiation Protection in Today's World: Towards Sustainability 今日の世界における放射線防護: 持続可能性に向けて
English, 72 pages, published: 12/31/08
NEA#6398, ISBN: 978-92-64-99063-0
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rp/reports/2009/nea6398_Radiation_Protection_Japanese.pdf
放射線防護の科学とその適用は、放射線の身体への影響がはじめて発見された20世紀当初以降、持続的に発展してきている。過去10~15年にわたって、これらの発展を受け、そして科学的価値やその判断の最近の発展を考慮して、CRPPHは、持続的な決定に達するための新たなアプローチを必要とする継続的な挑戦と同様に、今後現れる可能性のある挑戦に注目する価値があることを感じている。

このレポートは、既に現れているか、あるいは今後現れるかもしれない放射線防護政策、規制とその適用に対するもっとも重要な挑戦へのCRPPHの考えを簡潔に記述したものである。これらの問題に対する解決策が計画されるまで、このレポートは、科学、社会や経験の発展を考慮し、政府がこれらの挑戦に対してよりよい先見をもち、必要に応じて、それらの準備が可能となるように、重要な考えや課題を述べるであろう。

The science and application of radiological protection have continually evolved since the beginning of the 20th century when the health effects of radiation first began to be discovered. Given these changes, notably over the past 10 to 15 years, and considering the recent evolution of social values and judgements, the NEA Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health (CRPPH) felt that it would be worthwhile to identify possible emerging challenges as well as ongoing challenges that will require new approaches to reach sustainable decisions.

This report concisely describes the CRPPH views of the most significant challenges to radiological protection policy, regulation and application that are likely to emerge or are already emerging. While not proposing solutions to these issues, the report characterises key aspects and pressures, taking into account the evolution of science, society and experience, such that governments can better foresee these challenges and be prepared to address them appropriately.
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A Stakeholder Dialogue on the Implications of the ICRP Recommendations
Summary of the Three NEA/ICRP Conferences
English, 44 pages, published: 03/13/08
NEA#6169, ISBN: 978-92-64-99033-3
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rp/reports/2008/nea6169-icrp.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Dialogue avec les parties prenantes sur les répercussions des recommandations de la CIPR 
Since its inception the NEA Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health (CRPPH) has been involved in the assessment and implementation of the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The development of new general ICRP recommendations, to replace those of the 1990 ICRP Publication 60, was thus of great interest to the NEA and its member countries. As a result, the NEA initiated a process of interaction and dialogue with the ICRP to ensure that the views and concerns of NEA member countries could be voiced and appropriately addressed in the new ICRP recommendations. The new ICRP recommendations were approved by the ICRP Main Commission in March 2007, by which point the NEA had sponsored 7 international conferences and produced 13 publications on the subject.

This report is the summary of the three international dialogue conferences (held in Tokyo, 5-6 July 2006, Washington, DC, 28-29 August 2006, and Prague, 24-25 October 2006) that were organised to provide the ICRP with feedback regarding the June 2006 draft of its new recommendations. It includes a presentation of the key points of the draft recommendations, a summary of the suggestions made during the three conferences, and an assessment of the significant evolution that has been seen in the ICRP’s presentation of its draft recommendations over the course of the conference series.
French blurb
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Occupational Exposures at Nuclear Power Plants (2006)
Sixteenth Annual Report of the ISOE Programme, 2006
English, 120 pages, published: 02/14/08
NEA#6318, ISBN: 978-92-64-99042-5
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rp/reports/2008/nea6318-isoe.pdf
The Information System on Occupational Exposure (ISOE) was created by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency in 1992 to promote and co-ordinate international co-operative undertakings in the area of worker protection at nuclear power plants. ISOE provides experts in occupational radiological protection with a forum for communication and exchange of experience. A total of 71 utilities in 29 countries participate in the programme as well as the regulatory authorities of 25 countries. The ISOE databases enable the analysis of occupational exposure data from 401 operating commercial nuclear power plants (representing about 91% of the world's total operating commercial reactors), as well as 80 units undergoing decommissioning.

The Sixteenth Annual Report of the ISOE Programme summarises achievements made during 2006 and compares annual occupational exposure data. Principal developments in ISOE participating countries are also described.

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Evolution of the System of Radiological Protection (Third Asian Regional Conference - Tokyo)
Third Asian Regional Conference, Tokyo, Japan, 5-6 July 2006
English, 244 pages, published: 12/31/07
NEA#6336, ISBN: 978-92-64-04209-4
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rp/pubs/2007/6336-third-asian-conference.pdf
The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) has actively participated in discussions with the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) regarding the development of new recommendations that will replace those in ICRP Publication 60, which has long served as the international standard in this field. Part of this development process has involved the organisation of seven international workshops, including the First and Second Asian Regional Conferences on the Evolution of the System of Radiological Protection which took place in Tokyo, Japan in October 2002 and July 2004. The Third Asian Regional Conference was held on 5-6 July 2006, also in Tokyo.

The main objective of these conferences was to ensure that the views and concerns of relevant Asian stakeholders, such as regulatory authorities, industry, professional societies and NGOs, could be expressed and discussed with the ICRP. The three conferences provided the ICRP with specific views on how new recommendations could best be developed to address regulatory and implementation needs in the Asian context. These proceedings summarise the results and key discussions of the Third Asian Regional Conference.
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Strategy for Developing and Conducting Nuclear Emergency Exercises
English, 40 pages, published: 12/31/07
NEA#6162, ISBN: 978-92-64-99038-8
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rp/reports/2007/nea6162-emergency.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Une stratégie pour la conception et la réalisation des exercices d'urgence nucléaire 
Emergency situations demand that actions be taken by the responsible organisations at the local, national and international levels to mitigate their impact on people and the environment. In order to be able to deliver an effective emergency response in both the short and long term, it is necessary to make and maintain adequate plans and arrangements. Prudence dictates that these be prepared in advance of an emergency situation, contain appropriate elements for preparedness, response and assistance, and take adequate account of international interfaces. The successful management of an emergency, along with the effectiveness of the response arrangements, will be facilitated through the use of well-planned tests and exercises.

Drawing on the collective experience of the OECD/NEA Working Party on Nuclear Emergency Matters and its International Nuclear Emergency Exercise (INEX) series, this report aims to assist national and international emergency authorities in developing their own exercise-specific strategy by providing insights on exercise justification, design, conduct and evaluation. The focus is on providing an understanding, basis and strategy for the decision to exercise rather than detailed guidance on how to exercise.

Exercising is one tool for enhancing performance, testing plans and identifying areas for improvement; however, it is an important and resource-intensive tool. Therefore, the objective of this report is to provide a summary of strategic considerations for improving the value of planning, conducting and evaluating exercises and following up on lessons identified. This strategy may also find applicability in developing approaches for other types of non-nuclear emergency exercises.
French blurb
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Experience from the Third International Nuclear Emergency Exercise (INEX 3) on Consequence Management
English, 48 pages, published: 12/31/07
NEA#6163, ISBN: 978-92-64-99040-1
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rp/reports/2007/nea6163-inex3.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Enseignements tirés du troisième Exercice international d'urgence nucléaire (INEX 3) sur la gestion des conséquences 
Since the beginning of the 1990s, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) has offered its member countries a forum for improving efficiency and effectiveness in nuclear emergency management, focusing in particular on the international aspects of emergency preparedness and response. A central approach to this has been the preparation and conduct of the International Nuclear Emergency Exercise (INEX) series.

The INEX 3 consequence management exercise series was developed by the NEA Working Party on Nuclear Emergency Matters in response to its members’ desire to better prepare for the longer-term response following a nuclear or radiological emergency. INEX 3 was designed and conducted to allow participants to investigate the national and international arrangements for responding to widespread radiological contamination of the environment and the consequence management issues likely to be raised in the medium to long term following such an event. The main areas addressed included agriculture and food countermeasures, decisions on countermeasures such as travel, trade or tourism, recovery management and public information. The exercise series, conducted in 2005-2006, was followed by an evaluation workshop aimed at allowing participants to share their national experiences with INEX 3, compare approaches, analyse the implications on decision making and identify key needs in longer-term consequence management.

This report summarises the development of the INEX 3 exercise, the major evaluation outcomes of the national exercises, and the key policy-level outcomes, recommendations and follow-up activities arising from the exercise and workshop.
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Scientific Issues and Emerging Challenges for Radiological Protection
Report of the Expert Group on the Implications of Radiological Protection Science
English, 120 pages, published: 11/21/07
NEA#6167, ISBN: 978-92-64-99032-6
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rp/reports/2007/nea6167-egis.pdf

Other language(s):
- Japanese: Scientific Issues and Emerging Challenges for Radiological Protection (Japanese version) - 放射線防護における科学的問題と新たな課題 
- Français: EGIS - Scientific Issues and Emerging Challenges for Radiological Protection (French version) 
Scientific knowledge is constantly evolving as more advanced technologies become available and more in-depth research is carried out. Given the potential implications that new findings could have on policy decisions, in 1998 the NEA Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health (CRPPH) performed a survey of state-of-the-art research in radiological protection science. This study suggested that, while the current system of radiological protection was well-underpinned by scientific understanding, growing knowledge in several areas could seriously impact policy and regulation. Ten years later, the CRPPH has again performed a survey of state-of-the-art research which reiterates and clarifies its earlier conclusions.

This report summarises the results of this latest CRPPH assessment of radiological protection science. Specifically, it explains that knowledge of non-targeted and delayed effects, as well as of individual sensitivity, have been significantly refined over the past ten years. Although at this point there is still no scientific certainty in these areas, based on the most recent studies and results, the report strongly suggests that policy makers and regulatory authorities should consider possible impacts that could arise from research in the next few years. Further, the report identifies research areas that should be supported to more definitively answer scientific questions having the most direct impacts on policy choices.
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The Process of Regulatory Authorisation (English-Japanese version) 規制認可のプロセス
Bilingual, 148 pages, published: 08/29/07
NEA#6279, ISBN: 978-92-64-99028-9
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rp/reports/2007/nea6279-authorisation.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Le processus d'autorisation réglementaire 
- English: The Process of Regulatory Authorisation
In parallel to the work carried out by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) to review the broad principles of protection, the NEA Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health (CRPPH) has examined how radiological protection could be better implemented by governments and/or regulatory authorities. To this end, the CRPPH has developed a concept that it calls “the process of regulatory authorisation”. It is described in detail in this report, and is intended to help regulatory authorities apply more transparently, coherently and simply the broad recommendations of the ICRP to the real-life business of radiological protection regulation and application. The CRPPH recognises the importance of an appropriate level of stakeholder involvement in the process of regulatory authorisation.
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Fifty Years of Radiological Protection
The CRPPH 50th Anniversary Commemorative Review
English, 112 pages, published: 05/29/07
NEA#6280, ISBN: 978-92-64-99017-3
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rp/reports/2007/nea6280-commemorative.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Cinquante ans de radioprotection 
On 21 March 1957, the Steering Committee for Nuclear Energy of the Organisation for European Economic Co-operation established the Working Party on Public Health and Safety. From this early date onwards, radiological protection formed a central part of the work of what was to become the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency.

Now, 50 years later, the Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health (CRPPH) has commissioned this historical review of half a century of work and accomplishments. Over this period, the key topics in radiological protection have been identified, debated and addressed by the CRPPH. This report brings this history to life, presenting the major questions in the context of their time, and of the personalities who worked to address them. The developments and views of the past condition how we are able to assess and manage radiological risks today, as well as how we may adjust to challenges that will or could emerge in the coming years. This heritage is thus an important element for the CRPPH to consider as it looks forward to its next 50 years of accomplishments.
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Radiation Protection in Today's World: Towards Sustainability
English, 74 pages, published: 05/29/07
NEA#6165, ISBN: 978-92-64-99013-5
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rp/reports/2007/nea6165-rp.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: La radioprotection aujourd'hui et la voie du développement durable 
The science and application of radiological protection have continually evolved since the beginning of the 20th century when the health effects of radiation first began to be discovered. Given these changes, notably over the past 10 to 15 years, and considering the recent evolution of social values and judgements, the NEA Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health (CRPPH) felt that it would be worthwhile to identify possible emerging challenges as well as ongoing challenges that will require new approaches to reach sustainable decisions.

This report concisely describes the CRPPH views of the most significant challenges to radiological protection policy, regulation and application that are likely to emerge or are already emerging. While not proposing solutions to these issues, the report characterises key aspects and pressures, taking into account the evolution of science, society and experience, such that governments can better foresee these challenges and be prepared to address them appropriately.
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Occupational Exposures at Nuclear Power Plants (2005)
Fifteenth Annual Report of the ISOE Programme, 2005
English, 108 pages, published: 04/26/07
NEA#6317, ISBN: 978-92-64-99010-4
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rp/reports/2007/nea6317-isoe.pdf
The Information System on Occupational Exposure (ISOE) was created by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency in 1992 to promote and co-ordinate international co-operative undertakings in the area of worker protection at nuclear power plants. ISOE provides experts in occupational radiation protection with a forum for communication and exchange of experience. The ISOE databases enable the analysis of occupational exposure data from 480 commercial nuclear power plants participating in the programme (representing some 90% of the world's total operating commercial reactors).

The Fifteenth Annual Report of the ISOE Programme summarises achievements made during 2005 and compares annual occupational exposure data. Principal developments in ISOE participating countries are also described.
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Environmental Radiological Protection in the Law
A Baseline Survey
English, 64 pages, published: 02/26/07
NEA#6172, ISBN: 978-92-64-99000-5
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rp/reports/2007/nea6172-law.pdf

Other language(s):
- Japanese: Environmental Radiological Protection in the Law (Japanese version) - 法令にみる環境放射線防護 
- Français: Le droit de la protection radiologique de l'environnement 
This publication describes a study of international, European and national legislation which protect the environment from radiation. Countries covered include Australia, Canada, France, Japan, the United Kingdom and the United States. The analysis of the legislation draws conclusions about how well the environment is protected from radiation, and identifies strengths and weaknesses of current approaches as well as trends in regulation. The book will be useful reading for regulators and policy makers in radiological protection, but also for those interested in environmental regulation more generally.

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Stakeholders and Radiological Protection: Lessons from Chernobyl 20 Years After
English, 80 pages, published: 05/17/06
NEA#6170, ISBN: 92-64-01085-8
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rp/reports/2006/nea6170-chernobyl-rp.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Société civile et radioprotection : les enseignements de Tchernobyl, 20 ans après 
Twenty years after the major accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, the radioactive contamination continues to have an important impact on lives in the vicinity, and to a lesser extent in areas such as Western Europe and beyond. The purpose of this report is not to address clinical or environmental studies, but to look at how people are coping with the difficulties they still face. Commissioned by the Committee for Radiation Protection and Public Health of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), the report focuses on the role of radiological protection and how this discipline has been deployed to help people manage their lives.

Although the topic of this report concerns radioactivity and nuclear power, it can also be very useful to policy makers and experts dealing with the aftermath of wide-scale disasters, regardless of their causes (natural, accidental or malicious).

Whilst we all hope never to see another event causing contamination on the scale that followed Chernobyl, it is prudent to be prepared. Hence this report also describes many of the problems that could need to be faced in the longer term by technical specialists, should such a contamination event occur, and presents ways of dealing with them. This report will provide readers with insights into how to plan better for this type of event, in particular beyond the immediate response phase.
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Occupational Exposures at Nuclear Power Plants
Fourteenth Annual Report of the ISOE Programme, 2004
English, 96 pages, published: 05/17/06
NEA#6164, ISBN: 92-64-02292-9
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rp/reports/2006/nea6164-isoe.pdf
The ISOE Programme was created by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency in 1992 to promote and co-ordinate international co-operative undertakings in the area of worker protection at nuclear power plants. The programme provides experts in occupational radiation protection with a forum for communication and exchange of experience. The ISOE databases enable the analysis of occupational exposure data from 478 operating and shutdown commercial nuclear power plants participating in the programme (representing some 90% of the world's total operating commercial reactors).

The Fourteenth Annual Report of the ISOE Programme summarises achievements made during 2004 and compares annual occupational exposure data. Principal developments in ISOE participating countries are also described.
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The Process of Regulatory Authorisation
A Report by the CRPPH Expert Group on the Regulatory Application of Authorisation (EGRA)
English, 84 pages, published: 02/14/06
NEA#5372, ISBN: 92-64-01078-5
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rp/reports/2006/nea5372-authorisation.pdf

Other language(s):
- Bilingual: The Process of Regulatory Authorisation (English-Japanese version) 規制認可のプロセス
- Français: Le processus d'autorisation réglementaire 
Governments and regulatory authorities are responsible for the definition of regulatory controls or conditions, if any, that should be applied to radioactive sources or radiation exposure situations in order to protect the public, workers and the environment. Although countries use different policy and structural approaches fo fulfil this responsibility, the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) are generally used as at least part of the basis for protection. Previously, the ICRP recommended the use of variable approaches to protection. New ICRP recommendations are proposing a single, conceptually simple and self-coherent approach to defining appropriate protection under all circumstances.

While the ICRP has been reviewing the broad principles of protection, the NEA Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health (CRPPH) has been focusing its efforts on how radiological protection could be better implemented by governments and/or regulatory authorities. To this end, the CRPPH has developed a concept that it calls "the process of regulatory authorisation". It is described in detail in this report, and is intended to help regulatory authorities apply more transparently, coherently and simply the broad recommendations of the ICRP to the real-life business of radiological protection regulation and application. In developing this concept, the CRPPH recognises the importance of an appropriate level of stakeholder involvement in the process.

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Evolution of the System of Radiological Protection
Second Asian Regional Conference, Tokyo, Japan, 28-29 July 2004
English, 160 pages, published: 10/26/05
NEA#6000, ISBN: 92-64-01362-8
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rp/pubs/2005/6069-Fourth-ISOE.pdf
One of the main challenges facing radiological protection experts is how to integrate radiological protection within modern concepts of and approaches to risk governance. It is within this context that the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) decided to develop new general recommendations to replace its Publication 60 recommendations of 1990. In the process of developing these new recommendations, the views of the ICRP have evolved significantly, largely due to stakeholder involvement that has been actively solicited by the ICRP. In this regard, it was upheld during the First Asian Regional Conference organised by the NEA in October 2002 that the implementation of the new system must allow for regional, societal and cultural differences.

In order to ensure appropriate consideration of these differences, the NEA organised the Second Asian Regional Conference on the Evolution of the System of Radiological Protection. Held in Tokyo on 28-29 July 2004, the conference included presentations by the ICRP Chair as well as by radiological experts from Australia, China, Japan and Korea. Within their specific cultural and socio-political milieu, Asia-Pacific and western ways of thought on how to improve the current system of radiological protection were presented and discussed. These ways of thinking, along with a summary of the conference results, are described in these proceedings.
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Occupational Exposure Management at Nuclear Power Plants
Fourth ISOE European Symposium, Lyon, France 24-26 March 2004
English, 224 pages, published: 10/26/05
NEA#6069, ISBN: 92-64-01036-X
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rp/pubs/2005/6069-Fourth-ISOE.pdf
The Information System on Occupational Exposure (ISOE) has become a unique, worldwide programme on the protection of workers at nuclear power plants. It includes a vast network for exchanging experience in the area of occupational exposure management as well as the world's largest database on occupational exposure from nuclear power plants.

Each year, an ISOE international symposium offers a forum for radiation protection professionals from the nuclear industry, operating organisations and regulatory authorities to exchange information on practical experience with occupational radiation exposure issues in nuclear power plants. These proceedings summarise the presentations made at the Fourth ISOE European Symposium on Occupational Exposure Management at Nuclear Power Plants, held in March 2004 in Lyon, France.
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Occupational Exposures at Nuclear Power Plants - 2003
Thirteenth Annual Report on the ISOE Programme, 2003
English, 104 pages, published: 07/22/05
NEA#5414, ISBN: 92-64-01065-3
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rp/reports/2005/nea5414-isoe.pdf
The Information System on Occupational Exposure (ISOE) was created by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency in 1992 to promote and co-ordinate international co-operative undertakings in the area of worker protection at nuclear power plants. The ISOE Programme provides experts in occupational radiation protection with a forum for communication and exchange of experience. The ISOE databases enable the analysis of occupational exposure data from the 465 commercial nuclear power plants participating in the Programme (representing some 90% of the world's total operating commercial reactors).

The Thirteenth Annual Report of the ISOE Programme summarises achievements made during 2003 and compares annual occupational exposure data. Principal developments in ISOE participating countries are also described.
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Optimisation in Operational Radiological Protection
A Report by the Working Group on Operational Radiological Protection of the Information System on Occupational Exposure
English, 124 pages, published: 03/23/05
NEA#5411, ISBN: 92-64-01050-5
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rp/reports/2005/nea5411-optimisation.pdf
Operational approaches to the optimisation of radiological protection continue to evolve at nuclear power plants. The continual improvement of protection has been greatly facilitated by the exchange of good practice and experience through the Information System on Occupational Exposure (ISOE).

With the forthcoming revision of the system of radiological protection, as recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Proctection (ICRP), the ISOE programme considered that it would be important and useful to document good operational practice to ensure that it is reflected appropriately in the new ICRP recommendations. This report is a compilation of practical examples of good practice in optimisation. It is intended to assist nuclear power plants in providing the most appropriate protection for the public and workers, and to highlight for the ICRP concepts that should be reflected in its new recommendations.

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Stakeholder Participation in Radiological Decision Making: Processes and Implications
Summary Report of the 3rd Villigen (Switzerland) Workshop, October 2003
English, 36 pages, published: 07/30/04
NEA#5368, ISBN: 92-64-02079-9
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rp/reports/2004/nea5368-stakholder.pdf
This summary seeks to answer the questions that radiological protection professionals ask when confronted with the need to consider stakeholder participation processes. As will become clear, there is no one-size-fits-all blueprint for such processes: The sheer range and diversity of the situations where they may be appropriate dictates a much more flexible approach. However, the workshop demonstrated that it is possible to identify common themes and features. These should aid professionals in developing participation processes without detracting from the flexibility needed to remain responsive to the particular demands and expectations of any given situation.

The report is intended for policy makers and regulators with radiological protection responsibilities.
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Stakeholder Participation in Radiological Decision Making: Processes and Implications (Villigen 3)
Third Villigen Workshop, Villigen, Switzerland, 21-23 October 2003
English, 64 pages, published: 07/29/04
NEA#5298, ISBN: 92-64-10825-4
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rp/pubs/2004/5298-stakeholder-villigen-3.pdf
Since 1988, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency has been organising a series of workshops to address the various aspects of stakeholder involvement in radiological protection decision making. These workshops have been instrumental in forging consensus and improving understanding of key issues in this area.

Building on the experience of the first two "Villigen workshops", the third in the series extensively analysed three case studies, which covered the licensing of a new facility, the clean-up and release of an old facility, and the rehabilitation of a large, contaminated area. Consideration was given to the stakeholder involvement processes that had been used, and the implications that these did or could have on radiological protection policy, regulation and application. The workshop papers analysing these processes and implications are presented in these proceedings, which should provide valuable examples and lessons for governments, regulators and practitioners.
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Stakeholder Participation in Radiological Decision Making: Processes and Implications
Case Studies for the Third Villigen Workshop, Villigen, Switzerland, 21-23 October 2003
English, 104 pages, published: 05/28/04
NEA#5410, ISBN: 92-64-02065-9
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rp/reports/2004/nea5410-stakeholder.pdf
Within the radiological protection community, stakeholder issues have moved steadily to the forefront of policy discussions, and clearly form a key element in decisions regarding the development and implementation of radiological protection policy. It was in this light that the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) undertook three case studies on stakeholder involvement processes and experiences. Experience and lessons were analysed and extracted that may have application to numerous situations in other national contexts. They are intended to aid decision makers and regulators who are involved in radiological protection, and may have particular value for post-accident contamination situations, the siting of new nuclear installations, the management of emissions from routine operations at nuclear facilities, and the decommissioning of existing nuclear installations.

The three case studies presented in this report were specifically developed as input to the Third Villigen Workshop (Villigen, Switzerland, 21-23 October 2003) and address the following situations:

- The Canadian review process for uranium production projects in Northern Saskatchewan;
- the Rocky Flats controversy on radionuclide action levels;
- the ETHOS project for post-accident rehabilitation in the area of Belarus contaminated by the Chernobyl disaster.
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The Future Policy for Radiological Protection
A Stakeholder Dialogue on the Implications of the ICRP Proposals - Summary Report, Lanzarote, Spain, 2-4 April 2003
English, 48 pages, published: 03/01/04
NEA#4421, ISBN: 92-64-02165-5
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rp/reports/2004/nea4421-lanzarote.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Politique future en matière de protection radiologique 
At the end of the 1990s, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) launched a process for establishing new recommendations, which are expected to serve as guidelines for national systems of radiological protection. Currently the ICRP's proposed recommendations are being subjected to extensive stakeholder comment and modifications.

The NEA Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health (CRPPH) has been actively involved in this process. Part of the Committee's work has been to undertake collaborative efforts with the ICRP through, for example, the organisation of broad stakeholder fora. The first of these, held in Taormina, Italy in 2002, focused on the development of a policy basis for the radiological protection of the environment.

The second forum, held in Lanzarote, Spain in April 2003, addressed the latest concepts and approaches in the ICRP proposed recommendations for a system of radiological protection. During this meeting, the ICRP listened to the views of various stakeholder groups, including radiological protection regulators, environmental protection ministries, the nuclear power industry and NGOs. As a result, the ICRP modified its proposals to better reflect stakeholder needs and wishes. This report presents the outcomes of the disucssions, examining what the ICRP proposed and how its proposals have been affected and modified as a result of stakeholder input.
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Occupational Exposures at Nuclear Power Plants - 2002
Twelfth Annual Report on the ISOE programme, 2002
English, 108 pages, published: 02/27/04
NEA#4418, ISBN: 92-64-02164-7
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rp/reports/2004/nea4418-isoe.pdf
The Information System on Occupational Exposure (ISOE) was created by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency in 1992 to promote and co-ordinate international co-operative undertakings in the area of worker protection at nuclear power plants. The ISOE Programme provides experts in occupational radiation protection with a forum for communication and exchange of experience. The ISOE databases enable the analysis of occupational exposure data from the 465 commercial nuclear power plants participating in the Programme (representing some 90 per cent of the world's total operating commercial reactors).

The Twelfth Annual Report of the ISOE Programme summarises achievements made during 2002 and compares annual occupational exposure data. Principal developments in ISOE participating countries are also described.
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Evolution of the System of Radiological Protection
Asian Regional Conference, Tokyo, Japan, 24-25 October 2002
English, 112 pages, published: 02/09/04
NEA#4414, ISBN: 92-64-02163-9
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rp/reports/2004/nea4414-tokyo.pdf
The development of new radiological protection recommendations by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) continues to be a strategically important undertaking, both nationally and internationally. With the growing recognition of the importance of stakeholder aspects in radiological protection decision making, regional and cultural aspects have also emerged as having potentially significant influence on how protection of the public, workers and the environment are viewed. Differing cultural aspects should therefore be considered by the ICRP in its development of new recommendations.

Based on this assumption, the NEA organised the Asian Regional Conference on the Evolution of the System of Radiological Protection to express and explore views from the Far East. Held in Tokyo on 24-25 October 2002, the conference included presentations by the ICRP Chair as well as by radiological protection experts from Japan, the Republic of Korea, China and Australia. The distinct views and needs of these countries were discussed in the context of their regional and cultural heritages. These views, along with a summary of the conference results, are presented in these proceedings.

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The Future Policy for Radiological Protection
Workshop Proceedings, Lanzarote, Spain, 2-4 April 2003
English, 114 pages, published: 12/05/03
NEA#4291, ISBN: 92-64-10570-0
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rp/pubs/2003/4291-future-policy-rp.pdf
The international system of radiological protection is currently being revised with the aim of making it more coherent and concise. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has published its draft reflections on the system's evolution, and has opened discussions with the radiological protection community in order to seek a broad range of stakeholder input. This open dialogue will help bring about a common level of understanding of the issues at stake and contribute to the evolution of new ICRP recommendations.

These proceedings present a significant block of stakeholder input, comprising the views of policy makers, regulators, radiological protection professionals, industry and representatives of both non-governmental and intergovernmental organisations.
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Effluent Release Options from Nuclear Installations
Technical Background and Regulatory Aspects
English, 104 pages, published: 10/29/03
NEA#3690, ISBN: 92-64-02146-9
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rp/reports/2003/nea3690-effluent.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Options de rejet des effluents des installations nucléaires 
Radioactive effluent releases from nuclear installations have generally been substantially reduced in recent years, well below regulatory requirements. At the same time, international and intergovernmental agreements and declarations, as well as national policies, continue to seek to optimise and further reduce such releases. Nevertheless, due to societal concerns about levels of radioactivity in the environment, the management of effluent releases from nuclear installations remains high on the agenda of public discussion.

This report provides basic technical information on different options for managing and regulating radioactive effluent releases from nuclear installations during normal operation. It should contribute to national and international discussions in this area and be of particular interest to both nuclear regulatory authorities and nuclear power plant operators.
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Short-term Countermeasures in Case of a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency
English, 112 pages, published: 09/15/03
NEA#3600, ISBN: 92-64-02140-X
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rp/reports/2003/nea3600-short-term.pdf
Nuclear emergency planning, preparedness and management are essential elements of any country's nuclear power programme. The timely and appropriate implementation of short-term countermeasures can, in case of a nuclear emergency with a release of radioactive material, considerably reduce the doses the public could receive in the vicinity of the nuclear installation.

This report summarises information on national emergency preparedness and planning in NEA member countries for the implementation of short-term countermeasures such as evacuation, sheltering and iodine prophylaxis. The information presented may be used to better understand and to compare existing national approaches, procedures, practices and decisions, which may vary among countries due to different national habits, cultural specificity and society needs. This report may also assist member countries interested in achieving international harmonisation of short-term countermeasures;
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Occupational Exposure Management at Nuclear Power Plants
Third ISOE European Workshop, Portoroz, Slovenia, 17-19 April 2002
English, 356 pages, published: 07/16/03
NEA#4422, ISBN: 92-64-02135-3
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rp/reports/2003/nea4422-isoe.pdf
The Information System on Occupational Exposure (ISOE), a joint initiative of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), has become a unique worldwide programme on the protection of workers in nuclear power plants, including a network for the exchange of experience in the area of occupational exposure management, and the world's largest database on occupational exposure from nuclear power plants.

Each year, an international workshop or symposium offers a forum for radiation protection professionals from the nuclear industry, operating organisations and regulatory authorities to exchange information on practical experience with occupational radiation exposure issues in nuclear power plants.

These proceedings include the presentations made at the Third ISOE European Workshop on Occupational Exposure Management at Nuclear Power Plants, held in April 2002 in Portoroz, Slovenia.
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Possible Implications of Draft ICRP Recommendations
English, 56 pages, published: 06/10/03
NEA#4415, ISBN: 92-64-02131-0
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rp/reports/2003/nea4415-icrp.pdf
The Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health (CRPPH) of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) has, since its inception, worked to develop and improve international norms in the area of radiological protection of the public, workers and the environment. International radiological protection norms continue to evolve, with significant new steps having been taken by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). Since the issuance of its 1990 recommendations, which form the basis of the international system of radiological protection, the ICRP has continued to add to them. The sum of these recommendations has become overly complicated and at times incoherent. In 1999 the ICRP therefore began to re-evaluate its recommendations with the aim of consolidation, simplification and clarification. New ICRP recommendations are due to be published in 2005.

The CRPPH is contributing to the development of these new recommendations by providing the views of regulators and practitioners from its member countries. This report summarises the views of the CRPPH regarding the conceptual framework that the ICRP has recently proposed as the basis for its forthcoming detailed recommendations. The CRPPH highly appreciates the open stakeholder process that the ICRP has initiated to gather input for the development of new recommendations. This document, which is supported by the NEA Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health, and by the NEA Radioactive Waste Management Committee, provides detailed suggestions with regard to the proposed ICRP framework. The stakeholder views expressed in this report have been presented to the ICRP at the second NEA/ICRP Forum in April 2003, and have persuaded the ICRP to reintroduce several key concepts into its proposed new system.
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A New Approach to Authorisation in the Field of Radiological Protection
The Road Test Report
English, 76 pages, published: 05/26/03
NEA#4416, ISBN: 92-64-02122-1
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rp/reports/2003/nea4416-authorisation.pdf
Approaches to radiological protection have been evolving, particularly over the past several years. This has been driven by the emergence of modern concepts of and approaches to risk governance, and by calls from within the radiological protection community for the simplification and clarification of the existing system of protection, as based on the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP).

The NEA Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health (CRPPH) has been very active in developing its own suggestions as to how the system of radiological protection should evolve to better meet the needs of policy makers, regulators and practitioners. One of those suggestions is that a generic concept of "regulatory authorisation" of certain levels and types of exposure to radiation should replace the current and somewhat complicated concepts of exclusion, exemption and clearance. It has also been suggested that by characterising emerging sources and exposures in a screening process leading into the authorisation process, regulatory authorities could develop a better feeling for the type and scale of stakeholder involvement that would be necessary to reach a widely accepted approach to radiological protection.

In order to verify that these suggestions would make the system of radiological protection more understandable, easy to apply, and acceptable, independent consultants have "road tested" the CRPPH concepts of authorisation and characterisation. Their findings, which show that applying these concepts would represent significant improvement, are reproduced herein. Specific approaches for the application of the new CRPPH ideas are also illustrated in this report.
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Radiological Protection of the Environment
Summary Report of the Issues
English, 36 pages, published: 01/30/03
NEA#3691, ISBN: 92-64-18497-X
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rp/reports/2003/nea3691-environment.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Protection radiologique de l'environnement 
The system of radiological protection is currently being revised in order to make it simpler, clearer and more responsive to stakeholder needs. During this evolution process, particular attention is being given to the development of an explicit system for the radiological protection of the environment. It was in this context that the NEA organised, in close collaboration with the International Commission on Radiological Protection, a forum on radiological protection of the environment.

This report summarises the key issues discussed at the forum. They include sustainable development, indentification of what to protect, the definition of detriment, the necessary level of regulation, an integrated approach to protection, the use of similar approaches for humans and the environment, practical foundations for a system of environmental protection, and consequences in terms of training.

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Radiological Protection of the Environment: The Path Forward to a New Policy?
Workshop Proceedings, Taormina, Sicily, Italy, 12-14 February 2002
English, 248 pages, published: 01/07/03
NEA#3629, ISBN: 92-64-09969-7
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rp/pubs/2003/3629-rp-path-forward-new-policy.pdf
The international system of radiological protection is currently being revised with the aim of making it more coherent and concise. During the revision process, particular attention is being given to the development of an explicit system for the radiological protection of the environment in addition to that of human beings.

In order to support the ongoing discussions of the international community of radiological protection experts, these proceedings try to answer the questions: Is there an international rationale behind the wish to protect the environment from radiation? Do we have enough scientific information to develop and define a broadly accepted policy? What are the characteristics of the process for developing a system or radiological protection of the environment?

These proceedings comprise the views of a broad range of invited speakers, including policy makers, regulators, radiological protection and environmental protection professionals, industry, social scientists and representatives of both non-governmental and intergovernmental organisations.
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Chernobyl: Assessment of Radiological and Health Impacts
2002 Update of Chernobyl: Ten Years On
English, 160 pages, published: 12/31/02
NEA#3508, ISBN: 92-64-18487-2
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rp/chernobyl/welcome.html

Other language(s):
- Français: Tchernobyl : Evaluation des incidences radiologiques et sanitaires 
The international radiological protection community performed a major status review of the situation around the damaged Chernobyl reactor on the 10-year anniversary of the accident. Since then, studies of the accident site and the contaminated territories continue to be undertaken, which have yielded new scientific results and highlighted important social and health aspects. This report is a complete update of the NEA's earlier publication, Chernobyl: Ten Years On. In particular, it offers the reader the most recent informatin on the significant new experience gained in the areas of emergency management, long-term environmental behaviour of radioactive materials and health effects.
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Occupational Exposures at Nuclear Power Plants - 2001
Eleventh Annual Report on the ISOE Programme, 2001
English, 104 pages, published: 10/17/02
NEA#3687, ISBN: 92-64-18492-9
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rp/reports/2002/nea3687-isoe-ar11.pdf
The ISOE Programme was created by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency in 1992 to promote and co-ordinate international co-operative undertakings in the area of worker protection at nuclear power plants. The programme provides experts in occupational radiation protection with a forum for communication and exchange of experience. The ISOE databases enable the analysis of occupational exposure data from the 452 commercial nuclear power plants participating in the programme (representing some 90 per cent of the world's total operating commercial reactors).

The Eleventh Annual Report of the ISOE programme summarises achievements made during 2001 and compares annual occupational exposure data. Principal developments in ISOE participating countries are also described.
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The Way Forward in Radiological Protection
An Expert Group Report
English, 48 pages, published: 09/12/02
NEA#3685, ISBN: 92-64-18489-9
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rp/reports/2002/nea3685-way-forward.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Vers un nouveau système de protection radiologique 
Virtually all national and international radiation protection regulations and standards are based on the recommendations published by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). New recommendations, to replace those issued in 1990, are in the process of being developed for issuance in 2005, and it is in the interest of all NEA Member countries to ensure that these recommendations meet the needs of national regulatory organisations and practitioners. Since revisions began at the ICRP in 1999, the NEA Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health (CRPPH) has been leading discussions regarding what, in the old recommendations, could be improved or changed to make any new recommendations more functional. Based on a preliminary two-year study to identify those areas that should be improved, this report suggests specific improvements that would render the new system easier to understand and apply, and that should be considered for inclusion in the new ICRP recommendations.
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ISOE - Information System on Occupational Exposure
Ten Years of Experience
English, 40 pages, published: 03/01/02
NEA#3688, ISBN: 92-64-18480-5
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rp/reports/2002/nea3688-isoe.pdf
The Information System on Occupational Exposure (ISOE) was created in 1992 to provide a forum for radiation protection experts from both utilities and national regulatory authorities to discuss, promote and co-ordinate international co-operative undertakings in the area of worker protection at nuclear power plants. The ISOE System is jointly managed by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).

This report provides an overview of the experience gained from, and benefits provided by, the ISOE System over the past ten years. Active participation of a large number of utilities in ISOE has contributed to a reduction in occupational exposure at nuclear power plants worldwide.
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Better Integration of Radiation Protection in Modern Society
Workshop Proceedings, Villigen, Switzerland, 23-25 January 2001
English, 280 pages, published: 02/01/02
NEA#3057, ISBN: 92-64-19694-3
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rp/pubs/2002/3057-better-integration.pdf
The societal aspects of risk governance are increasingly becoming a part of public decision-making processes. This tendency is particularly evident in matters dealing with the protection of human health and the environment. The NEA Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health organised a workshop to examine stakeholder involvement processes through which governments and regulators can arrive at accepted decisions regarding radiological protection. An example of an area in which stakeholder involvement is important is the clean-up of sites contaminated by accidents or by past industrial or research activities.

These proceedings address the roles of various stakeholders in the decision-making process, and their expectations regarding how a modern system of radiological protection should be integrated within the broader context of risk governance. Case studies are presented to illustrate good practice and as a basis for drawing conclusions regarding general lessons that can be applicable in many different national contexts. These proceedings will be of interest to policy makers, radiation protection experts and interested members of the public.

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Policy Issues in Radiological Protection Decision Making
Summary Report of the 2nd Villigen (Switzerland) Workshop, January 2001
English, 28 pages, published: 11/20/01
NEA#3308, ISBN: 92-64-18474-0
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rp/reports/2001/nea3308-policy.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: La prise de décision en radioprotection : domaines d'action des pouvoirs publics 
The society aspects of risk governance are increasingly becoming a part of public decision-making processes. This tendency is particularly evident in matters dealing with the protection of human health and the environment. The NEA Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health (CRPPH) organised a workshop to probe stakeholder involvement processes and their limitations in the field of radiation protection. An example of an area in which stakeholder involvement is particularly important is the clean-up of sites contaminated by accidents or by past industrial or research activities.

Based on discussions during the workshop and previous CRPPH work in this area, this summary addresses the policy development and implementation issues that are key to identifying broadly accepted solutions for radiological protection situations in which stakeholders are an important part of the decision-making process. Applicable in a wide variety of national contexts, enhanced understanding of these policy issues will assist governments and regulatory authorities in better integrating stakeholder concerns in decision making.
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Occupational Exposures at Nuclear Power Plants
Tenth Annual Report of the ISOE Programme, 2000
English, 104 pages, published: 10/26/01
NEA#3137, ISBN: 92-64-18473-2
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rp/reports/2001/nea3137-isoe.pdf
The ISOE Programme was created by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency in 1992 to promote and co-ordinate international co-operative undertakings in the area of worker protection at nuclear power plants. The programme provides experts in occupational radiation protection with a forum for communication and exchange of experience. The ISOE databases enable the analysis of occupational exposure data from the 452 commercial nuclear power plants participating in the programme (representing some 90 per cent of the world's total operating commercial reactors).

The Tenth Annual Report of the ISOE Programme summarises achievements made during 2000 and compares annual occupational exposure data. Principal developments in ISOE participating countries are also described.
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Second International Nuclear Emergency Exercise INEX 2
Final Report of the Canadian Regional Exercise
Bilingual, 80 pages, published: 09/05/01
NEA#3040, ISBN: 92-64-09532-2
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rp/pubs/2001/3040-INEX 2-canadian-report.pdf
The Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) initiated its programme of International Nuclear Emergency Exercises (INEX) by a table-top exercise (INEX 1) which allowed the 16 participating countries to examine how their response mechanisms addressed the international aspects of a large-scale nuclear emergency.

Based on the experience thus gained, a series of more realistic exercises, INEX 2, was organised by the NEA. These exercises used as a basis a national-level emergency exercise at an existing power plant, and aimed to achieve three international objectives: the real-time exchange of information, public information and decision making based on limited information and uncertain plant conditions.

This report summarises the experience gained and lessons learned during the fourth and final INEX 2 regional exercise which took place in Canada.


L'Agence pour l'énergie nucléaire (AEN) a débuté son programme d'exercices internationaux de préparation d'urgence (INEX) par une simulation théorique : INEX 1, qui a permis à 16 pays participants d'évaluer l'efficacité des mécanismes mis en place pour traiter des aspects internationaux d'une urgence nucléaire à grande échelle.

À partir des enseignements recueillis, une série d'exercices plus réalistes - INEX 2 - a été organisée par l'AEN. Ces exercices, qui ont pris comme point de départ une situation d'urgence de dimension nationale dans une centrale nucléaire existante, visaient trois objectifs internationaux : l'échange d'informations en temps réel, l'information du public et la prise de décision d'après des informations limitées et une connaissance incertaine des conditions de la centrale.

Ce rapport résume les résultats obtenus et les enseignements tirés du quatrième et dernier exercice régional d'INEX 2 qui a eu lieu au Canada.
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Experience from International Nuclear Emergency Exercises
The INEX 2 Series
English, 42 pages, published: 04/27/01
NEA#3138, ISBN: 92-64-18464-3
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rp/reports/2001/nea3138-INEX2.pdf
In case of a nuclear emergency, countries need to be well prepared to manage a crisis situation. In order to help countries improve their emergency planning, preparedness and management, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) organised a series of international nuclear emergency exercises called INEX 2.

This report summarises the lessons learned from all four exercises in the series, which took place in Switzerland (1996), Finland (1997), Hungary (1998) and Canada (1999), in the areas of:

- decision making based on limited information and on uncertain plant conditions;
- real-time exchange of information;
- public and media communications; and
- preparation and conduct of emergency exercises on an international level.

The report will be of interest to both policy makers and technical managers in the nuclear emergency field.
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Second International Nuclear Emergency Exercise INEX 2
Final Report of the Hungarian Regional Exercise
Bilingual, 82 pages, published: 03/15/01
NEA#3039, ISBN: 92-64-08640-4
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rp/pubs/2001/3039-INEX 2-hungarian-report.pdf
The Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) initiated its programme of International Nuclear Emergency Exercises (INEX) by a table-top exercise (INEX 1) which allowed the 16 participating countries to examine how their response mechanisms addressed the international aspects of a large-scale nuclear emergency.

Based on the experience thus gained, a series of more realistic exercises, INEX 2, was organised by the NEA. These exercises used as a basis a national-level emergency exercise at an existing power plant, and aimed to achieve three international objectives: the real-time exchange of information, public information and decision making based on limited information and uncertain plant conditions.

This report summarises the experience gained and lessons learned during the third INEX 2 regional exercise which took place in Hungary.




L'Agence pour l'énergie nucléaire (AEN) a débuté son programme d'exercices internationaux de préparation d'urgence (INEX) par une simulation théorique : INEX 1, qui a permis à 16 pays participants d'évaluer l'efficacité des mécanismes mis en place pour traiter des aspects internationaux d'une urgence nucléaire à grande échelle.

À partir des enseignements recueillis, une série d'exercices plus réalistes - INEX 2 - a été organisée par l'AEN. Ces exercices, qui ont pris comme point de départ une situation d'urgence de dimension nationale dans une centrale nucléaire existante, visaient trois objectifs internationaux : l'échange d'informations en temps réel, l'information du public et la prise de décision d'après des informations limitées et une connaissance incertaine des conditions de la centrale.

Ce rapport résume les résultats obtenus et les enseignements tirés du troisième exercice régional d'INEX 2 qui a eu lieu en Hongrie.

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A Critical Review of the System of Radiation Protection
First Reflections of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency's Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health (CRPPH)
English, 30 pages, published: 01/01/00
NEA#2628, ISBN: 92-64-18554-2
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rp/reports/2000/nea2628-critical.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Analyse critique du système de protection radiologique 
Our modern, information society is increasingly interested in transparency and participation in many aspects of government, and this is particularly true in areas involving public health and environmental protection. Radiaion protection is no exception to this trend.

Scientific rationale that was once sufficient to explain radiation protection theory and practice is no longer adequate. The need to address and communicate theory, practice and the decision-making process to a wider audience has given rise to numerous debates and led the radiation protection community to revisit the framework of the system of radiation protection. The very fundamentals of the system of radiation protection continue to be questioned in a healthy fashion, and many aspects have been identified which could better serve stakeholders given some additional thoughts in the light of modern societal needs.

This report is the summary of the NEA's first reflections in this area, and describes those aspects of the current international system of radiation protection that could be improved. Suggested directions for improvements are provided.

It is hoped that this materail will help guide the international community towards consensus and provide valuable input to the development of new recommendations by the International Commission on Radiological Protection.
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Methodologies for Assessing the Economic Consequences of Nuclear Reactor Accidents
English, 112 pages, published: 01/01/00
NEA#2228, ISBN: 92-64-17658-6
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rp/pubs/2000/2228-methodologies-assessing.pdf
For practical reasons, the consequences of nuclear reactor accidents are often measured in economic terms. Figures currently available, however, show significant discrepancies. For this reason, the NEA created an expert group to investigate the methodologies used in calculating the economic consequences of accidents, and the bases for such methodologies.

Calculation methods were assessed according to three end uses: for compensation and liability purposes; for preparedness and management purposes; and for making electricity-generation choices. The group concluded that comparing numerical results is very difficult, even for estimates made from the same perspective, as they are strongly dependent on "boundary" conditions (such as the accident scenarios used, plant characteristics and amount of radioactive materials released). This book provides a summary of the group's findings and will be of interest to decision makers, experts and accident-consequence modellers.
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Occupational Exposures at Nuclear Power Plants
Ninth Annual Report of the ISOE Programme, 1999
English, 88 pages, published: 01/01/00
NEA#2728, ISBN: 92-64-18270-5
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rp/reports/2000/nea2728.pdf
The ISOE Programme was created by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency in 1992 to promote and co-ordinate international co-operative undertakings in the area of worker protection at nuclear power plants. The programme provides experts in occupational radiation protection with a forum for communication and exchange of experience. The ISOE databases enable the analysis of occupational exposure data from the 429 commercial nuclear power plants participating in the programme (representing some 90 per cent of the world's total operating commercial reactors).

The Ninth Annual Report of the ISOE Programme summarises achievements made during 1999 and compares annual occupational exposure data. Principal developments in ISOE participating countries are also described.
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Second International Nuclear Emergency Exercise INEX 2
Final Report of the Finnish Regional Exercise
Bilingual, 98 pages, published: 01/01/00
NEA#2768, ISBN: 92-64-08580-7
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rp/pubs/2000/2768-INEX 2-finnish-report.pdf
The Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) initiated its programme of international Nuclear Emergency Exercises (INEX) by a table-top exercise (INEX 1) which allowed the 16 participating countries to examine how their response mechanisms addressed the international aspects of a large-scale nuclear emergency.

Based on the experience thus gained, a series of more realistic exercises, INEX 2, has been organised by the NEA. These exercises used as a basis a national-level emergency exercise at an existing power plant, and aimed to achieve three international objectives: the real-time exchange of information, public information and decision making based on limited information and uncertain plant conditions.

This report summarises the experience gained and lessons learned during the second INEX 2 regional exercise which took place in Finland.




L'Agence pour l'énergie nucléaire (AEN) a débuté son programme d'exercices internationaux de préparation d'urgence (INEX) par une simulation théorique : INEX 1, qui a permis à 16 pays participants d'évaluer l'efficacité des mécanismes mis en place pour traiter des aspects internationaux d'une urgence nucléaire à grande échelle.

À partir des enseignements recueillis, une série d'exercices plus réalistes - INEX 2 - a été organisée par l'AEN. Ces exercices, qui ont pris comme point de départ une situation d'urgence de dimension nationale dans une centrale nucléaire existante, visaient trois objectifs internationaux : l'échange d'informations en temps réel, l'information du public et la prise de décision d'après des informations limitées et une connaissance incertaine des conditions de la centrale.

Ce rapport résume les résultats obtenus et les enseignements tirés du deuxième exercice régional d'INEX 2 qui a eu lieu en Finlande.
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Monitoring and Data Management Strategies for Nuclear Emergencies
English, 96 pages, published: 01/01/00
NEA#2108, ISBN: 92-64-17168-1
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rp/pubs/2000/2108-monitoring-management-strategies.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Stratégies de surveillance et de gestion de données dans les urgences nucléaires 
Since the accident of Chernobyl in 1986, many countries have intensified their efforts in nuclear emergency planning, preparedness and management. Experience from the NEA nuclear emergency exercises (INEX 1 and INEX 2) indicated a need to improve the international system of communication and information in case of a radiological emergency. To address this need, research was carried out by three NEA working groups, the findings of which are synthesised in the present report.

This report defines emergency monitoring and modelling needs, and proposes strategies which will assist decision makers by improving the selection of data that is transmitted, and the way in which data and information are transmitted and received. Modern communications methods, such as the Internet, are a key part of the strategies described.
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Radiological Impacts of Spent Nuclear Fuel Management Options
A Comparative Study
English, 124 pages, published: 01/01/00
NEA#2328, ISBN: 92-64-17657-8
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rp/pubs/2000/2328-radiological-impacts.pdf
Given its potential significance for public health and the environment, the impact of radioactive releases during important steps of nuclear energy production must be considered when selecting among different fuel cycles. With this in mind, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) has undertaken a comparative study of the radiological impacts of two main fuel cycle options: one with and one without reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. The study compares the respective impacts of the two options based on generic models and assumptions as well as actual data. It concludes that the difference between them is not significant.

A wealth of recent data assembled and evaluated by an international expert geam is provided in annex.

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Second International Nuclear Emergency Exercise INEX 2
Final Report of the Swiss Regional INEX 2 Exercise
English, 92 pages, published: 01/01/99
NEA#283, ISBN: 92-64-06760-4
Ex-sale now free
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ISOE - Occupational Exposures at Nuclear Power Plants
Eighth Annual Report of the ISOE Programme, 1998
English, 76 pages, published: 01/01/99
NEA#1847
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rp/reports/1999/isoe8.pdf
The ISOE Programme was created by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency in 1992 to promote and co-ordinate international co-operative undertakings in the area of worker protection at nuclear power plants. The programme provides experts in cocupational radiation protection with a forum for communication and exchange of experience. The ISOE databases enable the analysis of occupational exposiure data from the 422 commercial nuclear power plants participating in the programme (representing 88 per cent of the world's total operating commercial reactors).

The Eighth Annual Report of the ISOE Programme summarises achievements made during 1998 and compares annual occupational exposure data. Principal developments in ISOE participating countries are also described.

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The Societal Aspects of Decision Making in Complex Radiological Situations
Proceedings of an International Workshop, Villigen, Switzerland, 13-15 January 1998
English, published: 01/01/98
NEA#1086, ISBN: 92-64-16147-3
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rp/reports/1998/societal.pdf
In its 1994 collective opinion, Radiation Protection Today and Tomorrow, the NEA Committee on Radiation Protection and Pubic Health (CRPPH) concluded that societal participation in the decision-making process is becoming increasingly important. This was seen as particularly true in the case of decisions involving complex radiological situations such as those following a nuclear or radiological accident (for example, the Chernobyl accident, or fallout from atomic bomb testing in the Marshall Islands), and other long-lasting exposures (such as areas contaminated by uranium mill tailings). In order to explore this issue further, the CRPPH organised a workshop in January 1998 on the societal aspects of decision making in complex radiological situations.

At the workshop - which was hosted in Villigen, Switzerland, by the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (HSK) - participants concluded that it is no longer possible to take decisions in such situations without a transparent process involving the public from a very early stage. This decision-making process, which is described herein, was also seen as being valuable for other situations, such as the siting of high-level nuclear waste repositories. Recommendations for follow-up by the CRPPH are also concluded.
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ISOE - Occupational Exposures at Nuclear Power Plants
Sixth Annual Report - 1986-1996
English, 112 pages, published: 01/01/98
NEA#1167
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rp/reports/1996/isoe.pdf
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Developments in Radiation Health Sciences and their Impact on Radiation Protection
English, 35 pages, published: 01/01/98
NEA#282
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rp/reports/1998/devrad.html

Other language(s):
- Français: Evolution de radiobiologie et de radiopathologie : répercussions sur la radioprotection 

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Agricultural Aspects of Nuclear and/or Radiological Emergency Situations
English, 190 pages, published: 01/01/97
NEA#486, ISBN: 92-64-15614-3
Ex-sale now free
Following the Chernobyl accident, although the most urgent immediate countermeasures which were implemented concerned the evacuation and/or protection of populations within a few hundred kilometres of the site, the most widely applied countermeasures throughout the rest of the world were agricultural in nature. These included the measurement of contamination levels in foods, the interdiction of some areas from agricultural use, the interdiction of some crops and livestock from sale or use, and later the use of various methods of decontamination of contaminated fields. Eight years after the accident, much practical experience in terms of the application of these countermeasures has been gained.

These proceedings present the results of a workshop organised by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency to discuss these issues. Conclusions drawn by the workshop participants show that, although considerable experience has been gained, there is still the need for considerable work to be performed in terms of the practical problems associated with the implementation of large-scale countermeasures. Recommendations made by the workshop participants address these needs and point the way forward in this very important area.
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ISOE - Nuclear Power Plant Occupational Exposure Trends in OECD Countries (1969-1995)
English, published: 01/01/97
NEA#275
Free on request
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CRPPH Sponsored Survey of University Level Education Programmes in Radiation Protection
English, 175 pages, published: 01/01/97
NEA#343
General Distribution Document Number:
OCDE/GD(97)80
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rp/reports/1996/survey.pdf
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Nuclear Emergency Data Management
Zurich, Switzerland , 13-14 September 1995
English, 477 pages, published: 01/01/97
NEA#626, ISBN: 92-64-16037-X
Ex-sale now free
The efficient and complete exchange of data in nuclear emergency situations is essential to the accident management process, particularly in the pre-release and short-term, post-release phases. Experience from the NEA's first International Nuclear Emergency Exercise (INEX 1), and planning for INEX 2, have indicated that perhaps the use of "old" fax and telex technologies will not be sufficient to meet current needs of data transmission, particularly in terms of numerical and graphical data. To address this issue, "modern" technologies such as electronic mail, the Worldwide Web and interactive databases are seen as useful tools to provide a step forward in this area.

This publication is a compilation of presentations made at an NEA-sponsored workshop on this topic. Many national and international approached to the modernisation of data exchange formats and mechanisms are presented, representing the state of the art in this area. To assure the facility of data exchange, some level of "standardisation" will be necessary, taking into account the various needs and capabilities of the national emergency response programmes involved. The approaches presented here represent the various ideas currently being implemented or tested, from which a "standard approach" will emerge in the near future.
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Work Management in the Nuclear Power Industry
A Manual prepared for the NEA Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health by the ISOE Expert Group on the Impact of Work Management on Occupational Exposure
English, 173 pages, published: 01/01/97
NEA#99, ISBN: 92-64-15459-0
Ex-sale now free
As we near the beginning of the 21st century, the industrialised world continues to change. Economic pressures in all facets of modern industry have made productivity and cost competitiveness increasingly essential to the very survival of companies. Many of them have therefore adopted a very global approach to their work, stressing the importance of considering jobs from a multidisciplinary team perspective, and of following them through all stages of conception, design, planning, preparation, implementation and follow-up. This focus assures successful job completion - on schedule, within budget, with a sufficient level of quality, with minimum cost, and with a maximum change of fulfilling the originally desired goal. This multidisciplinary, start-to-finish approach to jobs can be broadly termed Work Management.

This publication presents the concept of Work Management in very concrete terms: it presents details of how to implement Work Management in such areas as regulation, work management policy, worker involvement, work selection, planning and scheduling, work preparation, work implementation, and work assessment and feedback. Numerous case studies are presented of actual experience from the commercial nuclear power industry. This is a useful tool to help plant managers, maintenance engineers, outage planners, and radiation protection personnel to improve their implementation of work management, which can lead to reduced numbers of workers needed to perform a job, of person-hours spent in the radiologically controlled zone, and thus the overall cost of doing work. Moreover, this also leads to reduced occupational exposures in an ALARA fashion.

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Considerations on the Concept of Dose Constraint
A Report by a Joint Group of Experts from the OECD/NEA and the EC.
English, 21 pages, published: 01/01/96
NEA#97
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rp/reports/1996/dose.pdf
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Chernobyl - Ten Years On: Radiological and Health Impact
An appraisal by the NEA Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health - November 1995
English, 112 pages, published: 01/01/96
NEA#94
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rp/chernobyl/chernobyl-1995.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Tchernobyl - Dix Ans déjà : Impact radiologique et sanitaire 
To mark the tenth anniversary of the Chernobyl accident, the NEA Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health published a concise report reviewing the current knowledge of the serious impacts of the accident, taking stock of the information accumulated over the last decade and the scientific studies under way, and assessing to which degree national authorities and experts have implemented the numerous lessons learned from the accident.

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INEX 1 - An International Nuclear Emergency Exercise: Analysis and Results
English, published: 01/01/95
NEA#101, ISBN: 92-64-14560-5
Ex-sale now free

Other language(s):
- Français: INEX 1 - Exercice international d'urgence en cas d'accident nucléaire : Analyse et résultats 
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Meaning and Application of the Concept of Potential Exposure (The)
English, published: 01/01/95
NEA#228
General Distribution Document Number:
OCDE/GD(95)145
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rp/reports/1995/potential.pdf

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Radiation Protection Today and Tomorrow
A Collective Opinion by the NEA Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health
English, published: 01/01/94
NEA#113
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rp/reports/1994/rp.html

Other language(s):
- Français: Radioprotection aujourd'hui et demain (La) 

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Exposure to Radiation from the Natural Radioactivity in Building Materials
Report by an NEA Group of Experts, May, 1979
English, 34 pages, published: 01/05/79
NEA#6711
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/rp/reports/1979/exposure-to-radiation-1979.pdf

Other language(s):
- Bilingual: Surveillance du Radon Monitoring