Nuclear Development Publications


List of titles sorted by date
Nuclear Energy Today (2012)
Second Edition
The Supply of Medical Radioisotopes (2012)
Market Impacts of Converting to Low-enriched Uranium Targets for Medical Isotope Production
Nuclear Energy and Renewables (2012)
System Effects in Low-carbon Electricity Systems
Nuclear Energy and Renewables – Executive Summary (2012)
System Effects in Low-carbon Electricity Systems

Detailed publication list

2014 | 2013 | 2012 | page top

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Uranium 2014: Resources, Production and Demand - Executive Summary
English, 12 pages, published: 10/14/14
NEA#7210
Volume of the series: Nuclear Development
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/pubs/2014/7210-uranium-2014-es.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Uranium 2014 : Ressources, production et demande - Synthèse 
- English: Uranium 2014: Resources, Production and Demand
Uranium is the raw material used to fuel over 400 operational nuclear reactors around the world that produce large amounts of electricity and benefit from life cycle carbon emissions as low as renewable energy sources. Although a valuable commodity, declining market prices for uranium since the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident in 2011, driven by uncertainties concerning the future of nuclear power, have led to the postponement of mine development plans in a number of countries and raised questions about continued uranium supply. This 25th edition of the "Red Book", a recognised world reference on uranium jointly prepared by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency, provides analyses and information from 45 producing and consuming countries in order to address these and other questions. It includes data on global uranium exploration, resources, production and reactor-related requirements. It offers updated information on established uranium production centres and mine development plans, as well as projections of nuclear generating capacity and reactor-related requirements through 2035, incorporating policy changes following the Fukushima accident, in order to address long-term uranium supply and demand issues.
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Uranium 2014: Resources, Production and Demand
English, 504 pages, published: 09/09/14
NEA#7209
Volume of the series: Nuclear Development
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/pubs/2014/7209-uranium-2014.pdf

Other language(s):
- English: Uranium 2014: Resources, Production and Demand - Executive Summary
- Français: Uranium 2014 : Ressources, production et demande - Synthèse 
Uranium is the raw material used to fuel over 400 operational nuclear reactors around the world that produce large amounts of electricity and benefit from life cycle carbon emissions as low as renewable energy sources. Although a valuable commodity, declining market prices for uranium since the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident in 2011, driven by uncertainties concerning the future of nuclear power, have led to the postponement of mine development plans in a number of countries and raised questions about continued uranium supply. This 25th edition of the "Red Book", a recognised world reference on uranium jointly prepared by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency, provides analyses and information from 45 producing and consuming countries in order to address these and other questions. It includes data on global uranium exploration, resources, production and reactor-related requirements. It offers updated information on established uranium production centres and mine development plans, as well as projections of nuclear generating capacity and reactor-related requirements through 2035, incorporating policy changes following the Fukushima accident, in order to address long-term uranium supply and demand issues.
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Perceptions and Realities in Modern Uranium Mining – Extended Summary
English, 19 pages, published: 08/14/14
NEA#7063
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/pubs/2014/7063-mehium-es.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: L'extraction d'uranium aujourd'hui : perceptions et réalités – Résumé détaillé 
- English: Managing Environmental and Health Impacts of Uranium Mining
Producing uranium in a safe and environmentally responsible manner is not only important to the producers and consumers of the product, but also to society at large. Given expectations of growth in nuclear generating capacity and associated uranium demand in the coming decades – particularly in the developing world – enhancing awareness of leading practice in uranium mining is important. This extended summary of the report Managing Environmental and Health Impacts of Uranium Mining provides a brief outline of the driving forces behind the significant evolution of uranium mining practices from the time that uranium was first mined for military purposes until today.
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Managing Environmental and Health Impacts of Uranium Mining
English, 140 pages, published: 06/04/14
NEA#7062
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/pubs/2014/7062-mehium.pdf

Other language(s):
- English: Perceptions and Realities in Modern Uranium Mining – Extended Summary
- Français: L'extraction d'uranium aujourd'hui : perceptions et réalités – Résumé détaillé 
Uranium mining and milling has evolved significantly over the years. By comparing currently leading approaches with outdated practices, this report demonstrates how uranium mining can be conducted in a way that protects workers, the public and the environment. Innovative, modern mining practices combined with strictly enforced regulatory standards are geared towards avoiding past mistakes committed primarily during the early history of the industry when maximising uranium production was the principal operating consideration. Today?s leading practices in uranium mining aim at producing uranium in an efficient and safe manner that limits environmental impacts to acceptable standards. As indicated in this report, the collection of baseline environmental data, environmental monitoring and public consultation throughout the life cycle of the mine enables verification that the facility is operating as planned, provides early warning of any potentially adverse impacts on the environment and keeps stakeholders informed of developments. Leading practice also supports planning for mine closure before mine production is licensed to ensure that the mining lease area is returned to an environmentally acceptable condition. The report highlights the importance of mine workers being properly trained and well equipped, as well as that of ensuring that their work environment is well ventilated so as to curtail exposure to radiation and hazardous materials and thereby minimise health impacts.

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Nuclear Energy Data 2013/Données sur l'énergie nucléaire 2013
Bilingual, 92 pages, published: 12/03/13
NEA#7162
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/pubs/2013/7162-bb-2013.pdf
Nuclear Energy Data is the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency's annual compilation of statistics and country reports documenting the status of nuclear power in the OECD area. Information provided by member country governments includes statistics on installed generating capacity, total electricity produced by all sources and by nuclear power, nuclear energy policies and fuel cycle developments, as well as projected generating capacity and electricity production to 2035, where available. Total electricity generation at nuclear power plants and the share of electricity production from nuclear power plants declined in 2012 as a result of operational issues at some facilities and suspended operation at all but two reactors in Japan. Nuclear safety was further strengthened in 2012 following safety reviews prompted by the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident. Governments committed to maintaining nuclear power in the energy mix pursued initiatives to increase nuclear generating capacity. In Turkey, plans were finalised for the construction of the first four reactors for commercial electricity production. Further details on these and other developments are provided in the publication's numerous tables, graphs and country reports.

This publication contains 'StatLinks'. For each StatLink, the reader will find a URL which leads to the corresponding spreadsheet. These links work in the same way as an Internet link.


Les Donnees sur l'energie nucleaire, compilation annuelle de statistiques et de rapports nationaux de l'Agence de l'OCDE pour l'energie nucleaire, presente la situation de l'energie nucleaire dans les pays de l'OCDE. Les informations communiquees par les pouvoirs publics des pays membres de l'OCDE comprennent des statistiques sur la puissance nucleaire installee, la production d'electricite totale et nucleaire, les politiques nucleaires, les evolutions du cycle du combustible ainsi que, lorsqu'elles sont disponibles, des projections jusqu'en 2035 de la puissance nucleaire et de la production d'electricite. En 2012, la production totale d'electricite des centrales nucleaires mais aussi la part du nucleaire dans la production d'electricite ont diminue en raison de problemes d'exploitation rencontres par certaines installations et de la mise a l'arret de tous les reacteurs japonais sauf deux. A l'issue des reexamens de la surete entrepris apres l'accident de Fukushima Daiichi, la surete nucleaire s'est renforcee en 2012. Les pays decides a conserver le nucleaire dans leur mix energetique ont avance dans leurs projets d'augmentation de la puissance nucleaire installee. La Turquie a mis la derniere main au projet de construction de ses quatre premiers reacteurs destines a la production d'electricite. Le lecteur trouvera de plus amples informations sur ces evolutions et d'autres developpements dans les nombreux tableaux, graphiques et rapports nationaux que contient cet ouvrage.

Cette publication contient des < StatLinks >. Fonctionnant comme un lien internet, un StatLink fournit l'acces a la feuille de calcul correspondante.
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The Economics of the Back End of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle
English, 188 pages, published: 10/23/13
NEA#7061
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/pubs/2013/7061-ebenfc.pdf

Other language(s):
- English: The Economics of the Back End of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle - Executive Summary
- Français: Economie de l'aval du cycle du combustible nucléaire - Synthèse 
The feasibility and costs of spent nuclear fuel management and the consequent disposal of ultimate waste continue to be the subject of public debate in many countries, with particular concern often expressed over the lack of progress in implementing final disposal. Uncertainties about back-end costs and the financial risks associated with management of the back end have also been singled out as possible deterrents to investment in new nuclear power plants.

This report offers an appraisal of economic issues and methodologies for the management of spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste from commercial power reactors. It includes a review of different back-end options and current policies and practices, with a focus on the cost estimates for these options and the funding mechanisms in place or under consideration in OECD/NEA countries. A generic economic assessment of high-level estimates of back-end cost impacts on fuel cycle costs is undertaken for selected idealised scenarios, by means of a simple static model. Sensitivity analyses are conducted for the evaluation of uncertainties in major components and the identification of cost drivers. Since factors other than economics are an important part of the decision-making process, an analysis of the influence of key qualitative parameters in the selection of back-end strategies is also presented in this report.
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The Economics of the Back End of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle - Executive Summary
English, 16 pages, published: 10/23/13
NEA#7193
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/pubs/2013/7061-ebenfc-execsum.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Economie de l'aval du cycle du combustible nucléaire - Synthèse 
- English: The Economics of the Back End of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle

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Nuclear Energy Today
Second Edition
English, 120 pages, published: 12/21/12
NEA#6885, ISBN: 978-92-64-99204-7
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/pub/nuclearenergytoday/6885-nuclear-energy-today.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: L'énergie nucléaire aujourd'hui 
Meeting the growing demand for energy, and electricity in particular, while addressing the need to curb greenhouse gas emissions and to ensure security of energy supply, is one of the most difficult challenges facing the world’s economies. No single technology can respond to this challenge, and the solution which policy-makers are seeking lies in the diversification of energy sources.

Although nuclear energy currently provides over 20% of electricity in the OECD area and does not emit any carbon dioxide during production, it continues to be seen by many as a controversial technology. Public concern remains over its safety and the management of radioactive waste, and financing such a capital-intensive technology is a complex issue. The role that nuclear power will play in the future depends on the answers to these questions, several of which are provided in this up-to-date review of the status of nuclear energy, as well as on the outcome of research and development on the nuclear fuel cycle and reactor technologies.
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The Economics of Long-term Operation of Nuclear Power Plants
English, 114 pages, published: 12/19/12
NEA#7054, ISBN: 978-92-64-99205-4
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/reports/2012/7054-long-term-operation-npps.pdf
Refurbishment and long-term operation (LTO) of existing nuclear power plants (NPPs) today are crucial to the competitiveness of the nuclear industry in OECD countries as existing nuclear power plants produce baseload power at a reliable cost. A number of nuclear power plants, most notably 73 units in the United States (up to 2012), have been granted lifetime extensions of up to 60 years, a development that is being keenly watched in other OECD countries. In many of these (e.g. France, Switzerland), there is no legal end to the operating licence, but continued operation is based on the outcomes of periodic safety reviews.
This study analyses technical and economic data on the upgrade and lifetime extension experience in OECD countries. A multi-criteria assessment methodology is used considering various factors and parameters reflecting current and future financial conditions of operation, political and regulatory risks, the state of the plants’ equipment and the general role of nuclear power in the country’s energy policy.
The report shows that long-term operation of nuclear power plants has significant economic advantages for most utilities envisaging LTO programmes. In most cases, the continued operation of NPPs for at least ten more years is profitable even taking into account the additional costs of post-Fukushima modifications, and remains cost-effective compared to alternative replacement sources.
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The Supply of Medical Radioisotopes
Market Impacts of Converting to Low-enriched Uranium Targets for Medical Isotope Production
English, 64 pages, published: 12/18/12
NEA#7129, ISBN: 978-92-64-99197-2
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/reports/2012/7129-leu.pdf
The reliable supply of molybdenum-99 (99Mo) and its decay product, technetium-99m (99mTc), is a vital component of modern medical diagnostic practices. At present, most of the global production of 99Mo is from highly enriched uranium (HEU) targets. However, all major 99Mo-producing countries have recently agreed to convert to using low-enriched uranium (LEU) targets to advance important non-proliferation goals, a decision that will have implications for the global supply chain of 99Mo/99mTc and the long-term supply reliability of these medical isotopes.
This study provides the findings and analysis from an extensive examination of the 99Mo/99mTc supply chain by the OECD/NEA High-level Group on the Security of Supply of Medical Radioisotopes (HLG-MR). It presents a comprehensive evaluation of the potential impacts of converting to the use of LEU targets for 99Mo production on the global 99Mo/99mTc market in terms of costs and available production capacity, and the corresponding implications for long-term supply reliability. In this context, the study also briefly discusses the need for policy action by governments in their efforts to ensure a stable and secure long-term supply of 99Mo/99mTc.
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Nuclear Energy and Renewables
System Effects in Low-carbon Electricity Systems
English, 252 pages, published: 11/09/12
NEA#7056, ISBN: 978-92-64-18851-8
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/pubs/2012/7056-system-effects.pdf
This report addresses the increasingly important interactions of variable renewables and dispatchable energy technologies, such as nuclear power, in terms of their effects on electricity systems. These effects add costs to the production of electricity, which are not usually transparent. The report recommends that decision-makers should take into account such system costs and internalise them according to a “generator pays” principle, which is currently not the case. Analysing data from six OECD/NEA countries, the study finds that including the system costs of variable renewables at the level of the electricity grid increases the total costs of electricity supply by up to one-third, depending on technology, country and penetration levels. In addition, it concludes that, unless the current market subsidies for renewables are altered, dispatchable technologies will increasingly not be replaced as they reach their end of life and consequently security of supply will suffer. This implies that significant changes in management and cost allocation will be needed to generate the flexibility required for an economically viable coexistence of nuclear energy and renewables in increasingly decarbonised electricity systems.
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Nuclear Energy and Renewables – Executive Summary
System Effects in Low-carbon Electricity Systems
English, 16 pages, published: 11/05/12
NEA#7066
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/reports/2012/system-effects-exec-sum.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Énergies nucléaire et renouvelables – Synthèse 
This report addresses the increasingly important interactions of variable renewables and dispatchable energy technologies, such as nuclear power, in terms of their effects on electricity systems. These effects add costs to the production of electricity, which are not usually transparent. The report recommends that decision-makers should take into account such system costs and internalise them according to a “generator pays” principle, which is currently not the case. Analysing data from six OECD/NEA countries, the study finds that including the system costs of variable renewables at the level of the electricity grid increases the total costs of electricity supply by up to one-third, depending on technology, country and penetration levels. In addition, it concludes that, unless the current market subsidies for renewables are altered, dispatchable technologies will increasingly not be replaced as they reach their end of life and consequently security of supply will suffer. This implies that significant changes in management and cost allocation will be needed to generate the flexibility required for an economically viable coexistence of nuclear energy and renewables in increasingly decarbonised electricity systems.
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Uranium 2011: Resources, Production and Demand – Executive Summary
English, 8 pages, published: 11/01/12
NEA#7123
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/reports/2012/uranium-2011-exec-summary.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Uranium 2011 : Ressources, production et demande – Synthèse 
- Russian: Yран 2011: запасы, добыча и спрос – Краткий обзор 
In the wake of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident, questions are being raised about the future of the uranium market, including as regards the number of reactors expected to be built in the coming years, the amount of uranium required to meet forward demand, the adequacy of identified uranium resources to meet that demand and the ability of the sector to meet reactor requirements in a challenging investment climate. This 24th edition of the “Red Book”, a recognised world reference on uranium jointly prepared by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency, provides analyses and information from 42 producing and consuming countries in order to address these and other questions. It offers a comprehensive review of world uranium supply and demand as well as data on global uranium exploration, resources, production and reactor-related requirements. It also provides substantive new information on established uranium production centres around the world and in countries developing production centres for the first time. Projections of nuclear generating capacity and reactor-related requirements through 2035, incorporating policy changes following the Fukushima accident, are also featured, along with an analysis of long-term uranium supply and demand issues.