Nuclear Development Publications


Alphabetical list of titles
Nuclear Energy Today (2012)
Second Edition
Nuclear Energy and Renewables (2012)
System Effects in Low-carbon Electricity Systems
Nuclear Energy and Renewables – Executive Summary (2012)
System Effects in Low-carbon Electricity Systems
Small Modular Reactors (2016)
Nuclear Energy Market Potential for Near-term Deployment
The Supply of Medical Radioisotopes (2012)
Market Impacts of Converting to Low-enriched Uranium Targets for Medical Isotope Production

Detailed publication list

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Costs of Decommissioning Nuclear Power Plants
English, 256 pages, published: 03/02/16
NEA#7201
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/pubs/2016/7201-costs-decom-npp.pdf

Other language(s):
- English: Costs of Decommissioning Nuclear Power Plants- Executive Summary 
- Français: Coûts de démantèlement - Synthèse 
While refurbishments for the long-term operation of nuclear power plants and for the lifetime extension of such plants have been widely pursued in recent years, the number of plants to be decommissioned is nonetheless expected to increase in future, particularly in the United States and Europe. It is thus important to understand the costs of decommissioning so as to develop coherent and cost-effective strategies, realistic cost estimates based on decommissioning plans from the outset of operations and mechanisms to ensure that future decommissioning expenses can be adequately covered.
This study presents the results of an NEA review of the costs of decommissioning nuclear power plants and of overall funding practices adopted across NEA member countries. The study is based on the results of this NEA questionnaire, on actual decommissioning costs or estimates, and on plans for the establishment and management of decommissioning funds. Case studies are included to provide insight into decommissioning practices in a number of countries.
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Small Modular Reactors
Nuclear Energy Market Potential for Near-term Deployment
English, 73 pages, published: 09/22/16
NEA#7213
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/pubs/2016/7213-smrs.pdf
Recent interest in small modular reactors (SMRs) is being driven by a desire to reduce the total capital costs associated with nuclear power plants and to provide power to small grid systems. According to estimates available today, if all the competitive advantages of SMRs were realised, including serial production, optimised supply chains and smaller financing costs, SMRs could be expected to have lower absolute and specific (per-kWe) construction costs than large reactors. Although the economic parameters of SMRs are not yet fully determined, a potential market exists for this technology, particularly in energy mixes with large shares of renewables.

This report assesses the size of the market for SMRs that are currently being developed and that have the potential to broaden the ways of deploying nuclear power in different parts of the world. The study focuses on light water SMRs that are expected to be constructed in the coming decades and that strongly rely on serial, factory-based production of reactor modules. In a high-case scenario, up to 21 GWe of SMRs could be added globally by 2035, representing approximately 3% of total installed nuclear capacity.
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Uranium 2016: Resources, Production and Demand
English, 548 pages, published: 11/30/16
NEA#7301
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/pubs/2016/7301-uranium-2016.pdf
Uranium is the raw material used to produce fuel for long-lived nuclear power facilities, necessary for the generation of significant amounts of baseload low-carbon electricity for decades to come. Although a valuable commodity, declining market prices for uranium in recent years, driven by uncertainties concerning evolutions in the use of nuclear power, have led to the postponement of mine development plans in a number of countries and to some questions being raised about future uranium supply. This 26th edition of the "Red Book", a recognised world reference on uranium jointly prepared by the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), provides analyses and information from 49 producing and consuming countries in order to address these and other questions. The present edition provides the most recent review of world uranium market fundamentals and presents data on global uranium exploration, resources, production and reactor-related requirements. It offers updated information on established uranium production centres and mine development plans, as well as projections of nuclear generating capacity and reactor-related requirements through 2035, in order to address long-term uranium supply and demand issues.

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Nuclear Energy Data 2015/Données sur l'énergie nucléaire 2015
Bilingual, 106 pages, published: 10/21/15
NEA#7246
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/pubs/2015/7246-ned-2015.pdf
Nuclear Energy Data is the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency's annual compilation of statistics and country reports documenting nuclear power status in the OECD area. Information provided by member country governments includes statistics on installed generating capacity, total electricity produced by all sources and by nuclear power, nuclear energy policies and fuel cycle developments, as well as projected generating capacity and electricity production to 2035, where available. Total electricity generation at nuclear power plants and the share of electricity production from nuclear power plants increased slightly in 2014, by 1.4% and 0.3% respectively, despite Japan's nuclear fleet remaining offline throughout the year. No new reactor was connected to the grid in OECD countries and one, in the United States, was permanently shut down. Governments committed to having nuclear power in the energy mix advanced plans for developing or increasing nuclear generating capacity, with the preparation of new build projects making progress in Finland, Hungary, Turkey and the United Kingdom. Further details on these and other developments are provided in the publication's numerous tables, graphs and country reports.

This publication contains "StatLinks". For each StatLink, the reader will find a URL which leads to the corresponding spreadsheet. These links work in the same way as an Internet link.

Les Données sur l'énergie nucléaire, compilation annuelle de statistiques et de rapports nationaux de l'Agence de l'OCDE pour l'énergie nucléaire, présentent la situation de l'énergie nucléaire dans les pays de l'OCDE. Les informations communiquées par les pouvoirs publics des pays membres de l'OCDE comprennent des statistiques sur la puissance nucléaire installée, la production d'électricité totale et nucléaire, les politiques nucléaires, les évolutions du cycle du combustible ainsi que, lorsqu'elles sont disponibles, des projections jusqu'en 2035 de la puissance nucléaire et de la production d'électricité. En 2014, la production totale d'électricité des centrales nucléaires ainsi que la part du nucléaire dans la production d'électricité ont légèrement augmenté, de 1,4 % et 0,3 % respectivement, et cela même si la totalité des réacteurs japonais est restée à l'arrêt. Aucun nouveau réacteur n'a été connecté au reseau dans les pays de l'OCDE, et un réacteur, aux États-Unis, a été mis définitivement à l'arrêt. Les pays décidés à inclure le nucléaire dans leur bouquet énergétique ont poursuivi leurs projets de développer ou d'augmenter la puissance nucléaire installée, avec des avancées dans de futurs projets de construction en Finlande, en Hongrie, au Royaume-Uni et en Turquie. Le lecteur trouvera de plus amples informations sur ces évolutions et d'autres développements dans les nombreux tableaux, graphiques et rapports nationaux que contient cet ouvrage.

Cette publication contient des < StatLinks >. Fonctionnant comme un lien internet, un StatLink fournit l'accès à la feuille de calcul correspondante.
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Nuclear Energy: Combating Climate Change
English, 19 pages, published: 11/05/15
NEA#7208
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/pubs/2015/7208-climate-change-2015.pdf
The global response to address climate change is a key policy challenge of the 21st century. Many governments around the world have agreed that action should be taken to achieve large cuts in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions over the coming decades, to adapt to the impacts of climate change and to ensure the necessary financial and technical support for developing countries to take action.

There is a growing scientific consensus that global annual GHG emissions will need to be reduced by at least 50% from today’s levels by 2050 if the world is to limit the average temperature increase to 2°C by the end of the century and avoid the worst consequences of global warming. This brochure describes the role that nuclear energy can play in helping to combat climate change, and sets that role in the context of all low-carbon electricity sources, with specific references to renewables.
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Nuclear New Build: Insights into Financing and Project Management
English, 244 pages, published: 07/20/15
NEA#7195
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/pubs/2015/7195-nn-build-2015.pdf

Other language(s):
- English: Nuclear New Build: Insights into Financing and Project Management (Executive Summary)
Nuclear new build has been progressing steadily since the year 2000, with the construction of 94 new reactors initiated and 56 completed reactors connected to the grid. Among these new reactors are some of the first generation III/III+ reactors of their kind. Drawing on a combination of conceptual analysis, expert opinion and seven in-depth case studies, this report provides policymakers and stakeholders with an overview of the principal challenges facing nuclear new build today, as well as ways to address and overcome them.

It focuses on the most important challenges of building a new nuclear power plant, namely assembling the conditions necessary to successfully finance and manage highly complex construction processes and their supply chains. Different projects have chosen different paths, but they nonetheless share a number of features. Financing capital-intensive nuclear new build projects requires, for example, the long-term stabilisation of electricity prices whether through tariffs, power purchase agreements or contracts for difference. In construction, the global convergence of engineering codes and quality standards would also promote both competition and public confidence. In addition, change management, early supply chain planning and "soft issues" such as leadership, team building and trust have emerged over and again as key factors in the new build construction process. This report looks at ongoing trends in these areas and possible ways forward.
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Nuclear New Build: Insights into Financing and Project Management (Executive Summary)
Executive Summary
English, published: 09/07/15
NEA#7196
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/pubs/2015/7196-nn-build-2015-es.pdf

Other language(s):
- English: Nuclear New Build: Insights into Financing and Project Management
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Projected Costs of Generating Electricity - 2015 Edition
English, 212 pages, published: 08/31/15
NEA#7057
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/pubs/2015/7057-proj-costs-electricity-2015.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Coûts prévisionnels de production de l'électricité - Synthèse 
- English: Projected Costs of Generating Electricity - Executive Summary
This joint report by the International Energy Agency (IEA) and the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) is the eighth in a series of studies on electricity generating costs. As policy makers work to ensure that the power supply is reliable, secure and affordable, while making it increasingly clean and sustainable in the context of the debate on climate change, it is becoming more crucial that they understand what determines the relative cost of electricity generation using fossil fuel, nuclear or renewable sources of energy. A wide range of fuels and technologies are presented in the report, including natural gas, coal, nuclear, hydro, solar, onshore and offshore wind, biomass and biogas, geothermal, and combined heat and power, drawing on a database from surveys of investment and operating costs that include a larger number of countries than previous editions.

The analysis of more than 180 plants, based on data covering 22 countries, reveals several key trends, pointing, for example, to a significant decline in recent years in the cost of renewable generation. The report also reveals that nuclear energy costs remain in line with the cost of other baseload technologies, particularly in markets that value decarbonisation. Overall, cost drivers of the different generating technologies remain both market-specific and technology-specific.

Readers will find a wealth of details and analysis, supported by over 200 figures and tables, underlining this report's value as a tool for decision makers and researchers concerned with energy policies, climate change and the evolution of power sectors around the world.
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Projected Costs of Generating Electricity - Executive Summary
English, published: 08/31/15
NEA#7279
Volume of the series: Nuclear Development
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/pubs/2015/7279-proj-costs-electricity-2015-es.pdf
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Technology Roadmap: Nuclear Energy - 2015 Edition
English, 64 pages, published: 01/19/15
NEA#7257
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/pubs/2015/7257-techroadmap-2015.pdf

Other language(s):
- : Technology Roadmap: Nuclear Energy - 2015 Edition (Chinese) 技术路线图 核能 
- : Nuclear Energy 2015 Edition - Roadmap Insights (foldout in publication) 

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Managing Environmental and Health Impacts of Uranium Mining
English, 140 pages, published: 06/04/14
NEA#7062
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/pubs/2014/7062-mehium.pdf

Other language(s):
- English: Perceptions and Realities in Modern Uranium Mining – Extended Summary
- Français: L'extraction d'uranium aujourd'hui : perceptions et réalités – Résumé détaillé 
Uranium mining and milling has evolved significantly over the years. By comparing currently leading approaches with outdated practices, this report demonstrates how uranium mining can be conducted in a way that protects workers, the public and the environment. Innovative, modern mining practices combined with strictly enforced regulatory standards are geared towards avoiding past mistakes committed primarily during the early history of the industry when maximising uranium production was the principal operating consideration. Today?s leading practices in uranium mining aim at producing uranium in an efficient and safe manner that limits environmental impacts to acceptable standards. As indicated in this report, the collection of baseline environmental data, environmental monitoring and public consultation throughout the life cycle of the mine enables verification that the facility is operating as planned, provides early warning of any potentially adverse impacts on the environment and keeps stakeholders informed of developments. Leading practice also supports planning for mine closure before mine production is licensed to ensure that the mining lease area is returned to an environmentally acceptable condition. The report highlights the importance of mine workers being properly trained and well equipped, as well as that of ensuring that their work environment is well ventilated so as to curtail exposure to radiation and hazardous materials and thereby minimise health impacts.
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Nuclear Energy Data 2014/Données sur l'énergie nucléaire 2014
Bilingual, 93 pages, published: 12/08/14
NEA#7197
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/pubs/2014/7197-bb-2014.pdf
Nuclear Energy Data is the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency's annual compilation of statistics and country reports documenting the status of nuclear power in the OECD area. Information provided by member country governments includes statistics on installed generating capacity, total electricity produced by all sources and by nuclear power, nuclear energy policies and fuel cycle developments, as well as projected generating capacity and electricity production to 2035, where available. Total electricity generation at nuclear power plants and the share of electricity production from nuclear power plants remained steady in 2013 despite the progressive shutdown of all reactors in Japan leading up to September and the permanent closure of six reactors in the OECD area. Governments committed to maintaining nuclear power in the energy mix advanced plans for increasing nuclear generating capacity, and progress was made in the development of deep geological repositories for spent nuclear fuel, with Finland expected to have the first such facility in operation in the early 2020s. Further details on these and other developments are provided in the publication's numerous tables, graphs and country reports.

This publication contains "StatLinks". For each StatLink, the reader will find a URL which leads to the corresponding spreadsheet. These links work in the same way as an Internet link.

Les Donnees sur l'energie nucleaire, compilation annuelle de statistiques et de rapports nationaux de l'Agence de l'OCDE pour l'energie nucleaire, presente la situation de l'energie nucleaire dans les pays de l'OCDE. Les informations communiquees par les pouvoirs publics des pays membres de l'OCDE comprennent des statistiques sur la puissance nucleaire installee et sur la production d'electricite totale et nucleaire, les politiques nucleaires et les evolutions du cycle du combustible ainsi que, lorsqu'elles sont disponibles, des projections jusqu'en 2035 de la puissance nucleaire installee et de la production d'electricite. En 2013, la production totale d'electricite des centrales nucleaires ainsi que la part du nucleaire dans la production d'electricite sont restees stables malgre les mises a l'arret de tous les reacteurs japonais, intervenues progressivement jusqu'a septembre, et la mise a l'arret definitif de six reacteurs dans la zone de l'OCDE. Les pays decides a conserver le nucleaire dans leur mix energetique ont poursuivi leurs projets d'augmentation de la puissance nucleaire installee. Le developpement de centres de stockages en couche geologique profonde pour le combustible use a lui aussi progresse, la premiere installation de ce type devant entrer en exploitation en Finlande au debut des annees 2020. Le lecteur trouvera de plus amples informations sur ces evolutions et d'autres developpements dans les nombreux tableaux, graphiques et rapports nationaux que contient cet ouvrage.

Cette publication contient des " StatLinks ". Fonctionnant comme un lien internet, un StatLink fournit l'acces a la feuille de calcul correspondante.
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Perceptions and Realities in Modern Uranium Mining – Extended Summary
English, 19 pages, published: 08/14/14
NEA#7063
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/pubs/2014/7063-mehium-es.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: L'extraction d'uranium aujourd'hui : perceptions et réalités – Résumé détaillé 
- English: Managing Environmental and Health Impacts of Uranium Mining
Producing uranium in a safe and environmentally responsible manner is not only important to the producers and consumers of the product, but also to society at large. Given expectations of growth in nuclear generating capacity and associated uranium demand in the coming decades &ndash; particularly in the developing world &ndash; enhancing awareness of leading practice in uranium mining is important. This extended summary of the report <em>Managing Environmental and Health Impacts of Uranium Mining</em> provides a brief outline of the driving forces behind the significant evolution of uranium mining practices from the time that uranium was first mined for military purposes until today.
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Uranium 2014: Resources, Production and Demand
English, 504 pages, published: 09/09/14
NEA#7209
Volume of the series: Nuclear Development
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/pubs/2014/7209-uranium-2014.pdf

Other language(s):
- English: Uranium 2014: Resources, Production and Demand - Executive Summary
- Français: Uranium 2014 : Ressources, production et demande - Synthèse 
Uranium is the raw material used to fuel over 400 operational nuclear reactors around the world that produce large amounts of electricity and benefit from life cycle carbon emissions as low as renewable energy sources. Although a valuable commodity, declining market prices for uranium since the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident in 2011, driven by uncertainties concerning the future of nuclear power, have led to the postponement of mine development plans in a number of countries and raised questions about continued uranium supply. This 25th edition of the "Red Book", a recognised world reference on uranium jointly prepared by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency, provides analyses and information from 45 producing and consuming countries in order to address these and other questions. It includes data on global uranium exploration, resources, production and reactor-related requirements. It offers updated information on established uranium production centres and mine development plans, as well as projections of nuclear generating capacity and reactor-related requirements through 2035, incorporating policy changes following the Fukushima accident, in order to address long-term uranium supply and demand issues.
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Uranium 2014: Resources, Production and Demand - Executive Summary
English, 12 pages, published: 10/14/14
NEA#7210
Volume of the series: Nuclear Development
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/pubs/2014/7210-uranium-2014-es.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Uranium 2014 : Ressources, production et demande - Synthèse 
- English: Uranium 2014: Resources, Production and Demand
Uranium is the raw material used to fuel over 400 operational nuclear reactors around the world that produce large amounts of electricity and benefit from life cycle carbon emissions as low as renewable energy sources. Although a valuable commodity, declining market prices for uranium since the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident in 2011, driven by uncertainties concerning the future of nuclear power, have led to the postponement of mine development plans in a number of countries and raised questions about continued uranium supply. This 25th edition of the "Red Book", a recognised world reference on uranium jointly prepared by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency, provides analyses and information from 45 producing and consuming countries in order to address these and other questions. It includes data on global uranium exploration, resources, production and reactor-related requirements. It offers updated information on established uranium production centres and mine development plans, as well as projections of nuclear generating capacity and reactor-related requirements through 2035, incorporating policy changes following the Fukushima accident, in order to address long-term uranium supply and demand issues.

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Nuclear Energy Data 2013/Données sur l'énergie nucléaire 2013
Bilingual, 92 pages, published: 12/03/13
NEA#7162
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/pubs/2013/7162-bb-2013.pdf
Nuclear Energy Data is the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency's annual compilation of statistics and country reports documenting the status of nuclear power in the OECD area. Information provided by member country governments includes statistics on installed generating capacity, total electricity produced by all sources and by nuclear power, nuclear energy policies and fuel cycle developments, as well as projected generating capacity and electricity production to 2035, where available. Total electricity generation at nuclear power plants and the share of electricity production from nuclear power plants declined in 2012 as a result of operational issues at some facilities and suspended operation at all but two reactors in Japan. Nuclear safety was further strengthened in 2012 following safety reviews prompted by the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident. Governments committed to maintaining nuclear power in the energy mix pursued initiatives to increase nuclear generating capacity. In Turkey, plans were finalised for the construction of the first four reactors for commercial electricity production. Further details on these and other developments are provided in the publication's numerous tables, graphs and country reports.

This publication contains 'StatLinks'. For each StatLink, the reader will find a URL which leads to the corresponding spreadsheet. These links work in the same way as an Internet link.


Les Données sur l'énergie nucléaire, compilation annuelle de statistiques et de rapports nationaux de l'Agence de l'OCDE pour l'énergie nucléaire, présente la situation de l'énergie nucléaire dans les pays de l'OCDE. Les informations communiquées par les pouvoirs publics des pays membres de l'OCDE comprennent des statistiques sur la puissance nucléaire installée, la production d'électricité totale et nucléaire, les politiques nucléaires, les évolutions du cycle du combustible ainsi que, lorsqu'elles sont disponibles, des projections jusqu'en 2035 de la puissance nucléaire et de la production d'électricité. En 2012, la production totale d'électricité des centrales nucléaires mais aussi la part du nucléaire dans la production d'électricité ont diminué en raison de problèmes d'exploitation rencontres par certaines installations et de la mise à l'arrêt de tous les réacteurs japonais sauf deux. À l'issue des réexamens de la sureté entrepris après l'accident de Fukushima Daichi, la sureté nucléaire s'est renforcée en 2012. Les pays décides à conserver le nucléaire dans leur mix énergétique ont avancé dans leurs projets d'augmentation de la puissance nucléaire installée. La Turquie a mis la dernière main au projet de construction de ses quatre premiers réacteurs destines a la production d'électricité. Le lecteur trouvera de plus amples informations sur ces évolutions et d'autres développements dans les nombreux tableaux, graphiques et rapports nationaux que contient cet ouvrage.

Cette publication contient des < StatLinks >. Fonctionnant comme un lien internet, un StatLink fournit l'acces a la feuille de calcul correspondante.
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The Economics of the Back End of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle
English, 188 pages, published: 10/23/13
NEA#7061
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/pubs/2013/7061-ebenfc.pdf

Other language(s):
- English: The Economics of the Back End of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle - Executive Summary
- Français: Economie de l'aval du cycle du combustible nucléaire - Synthèse 
The feasibility and costs of spent nuclear fuel management and the consequent disposal of ultimate waste continue to be the subject of public debate in many countries, with particular concern often expressed over the lack of progress in implementing final disposal. Uncertainties about back-end costs and the financial risks associated with management of the back end have also been singled out as possible deterrents to investment in new nuclear power plants.

This report offers an appraisal of economic issues and methodologies for the management of spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste from commercial power reactors. It includes a review of different back-end options and current policies and practices, with a focus on the cost estimates for these options and the funding mechanisms in place or under consideration in OECD/NEA countries. A generic economic assessment of high-level estimates of back-end cost impacts on fuel cycle costs is undertaken for selected idealised scenarios, by means of a simple static model. Sensitivity analyses are conducted for the evaluation of uncertainties in major components and the identification of cost drivers. Since factors other than economics are an important part of the decision-making process, an analysis of the influence of key qualitative parameters in the selection of back-end strategies is also presented in this report.
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The Economics of the Back End of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle - Executive Summary
English, 16 pages, published: 10/23/13
NEA#7193
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/pubs/2013/7061-ebenfc-execsum.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Economie de l'aval du cycle du combustible nucléaire - Synthèse 
- English: The Economics of the Back End of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle

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Nuclear Education and Training: From Concern to Capability
English, 200 pages, published: 04/12/12
NEA#6979, ISBN: 978-92-64-17637-9
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/pubs/2012/6979-nuclear-education.pdf
The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) first published in 2000 Nuclear Education and Training: Cause for Concern?, which highlighted significant issues in the availability of human resources for the nuclear industry. Ten years on, Nuclear Education and Training: From Concern to Capability considers what has changed in that time and finds that, while some countries have taken positive actions, in a number of others human resources could soon be facing serious challenges in coping with existing and potential new nuclear facilities. This is exacerbated by the increasing rate of retirement as the workforce ages. This report provides a qualitative characterisation of human resource needs and appraises instruments and programmes in nuclear education and training initiated by various stakeholders in different countries. In this context, it also examines the current and future uses of nuclear research facilities for education and training purposes. Regarding the nuclear training component of workforce competence, it outlines a job taxonomy which could be a basis for addressing the needs of workers across this sector. It presents the taxonomy as a way of enhancing mutual recognition and increasing consistency of education and training for both developed and developing countries.
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Nuclear Education and Training: From Concern to Capability – Executive Summary
English, 12 pages, published: 04/04/12
NEA#7112
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/reports/2012/nuclear-edu-training-ex.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Enseignement et formation dans le domaine nucléaire : moins d'inquiétudes, plus de compétences – Synthèse 
The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) first published in 2000 Nuclear Education and Training: Cause for Concern?, which highlighted significant issues in the availability of human resources for the nuclear industry. Ten years on, Nuclear Education and Training: From Concern to Capability considers what has changed in that time and finds that, while some countries have taken positive actions, in a number of others human resources could soon be facing serious challenges in coping with existing and potential new nuclear facilities. This is exacerbated by the increasing rate of retirement as the workforce ages. This report provides a qualitative characterisation of human resource needs and appraises instruments and programmes in nuclear education and training initiated by various stakeholders in different countries. In this context, it also examines the current and future uses of nuclear research facilities for education and training purposes. Regarding the nuclear training component of workforce competence, it outlines a job taxonomy which could be a basis for addressing the needs of workers across this sector. It presents the taxonomy as a way of enhancing mutual recognition and increasing consistency of education and training for both developed and developing countries.
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Nuclear Energy Data 2012/Données sur l'énergie nucléaire 2012
Bilingual, 84 pages, published: 09/24/12
NEA#7058, ISBN: 978-92-64-17785-7
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/pubs/2012/7058-BB-2012.pdf
Nuclear Energy Data is the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency’s annual compilation of statistics and country reports documenting the status of nuclear power in the OECD area. Information provided by member country governments includes statistics on installed generating capacity, total electricity produced by all sources and by nuclear power, nuclear energy policies, fuel cycle developments, and projected generating capacity and electricity production to 2035, where available. Following the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in March 2011, total nuclear generating capacity and electricity generation declined, principally because of the permanent shutdown of 12 reactors (8 in Germany and 4 in Japan) and the prolonged shutdown of reactors in Japan. The Fukushima Daiichi accident also prompted safety reviews of existing nuclear facilities and led some governments to adopt nuclear phase-out plans. Other governments remained committed to maintaining nuclear power in the energy mix, in some cases pursuing plans to either increase nuclear generating capacity or, as in the cases of Poland and Turkey, to add nuclear generating capacity for the first time. Further details on these and other developments are provided in the publication’s numerous tables, graphs and country reports.
This publication contains “Statlinks”. For each StatLink the reader will find a url which leads to the corresponding spreadsheet. These links work in the same way as an Internet link.

Les Données sur l'énergie nucléaire, la compilation annuelle de statistiques et de rapports nationaux de l’Agence de l’OCDE pour l’énergie nucléaire, présentent des informations communiquées par les gouvernements des pays membres de l'OCDE sur la puissance nucléaire installée, la production d’électricité totale et nucléaire, les politiques nucléaires, les évolutions du cycle du combustible ainsi que, quand elles sont disponibles, des projections jusqu'en 2035 de la puissance nucléaire et de la production d'électricité. Au lendemain de l’accident survenu dans la centrale de Fukushima Daiichi en mars 2011, la puissance installée et la production du parc nucléaire global ont décliné, principalement du fait de la mise hors service de 12 réacteurs (8 en Allemagne et 4 au Japon) et de l’arrêt prolongé d’autres réacteurs au Japon. Cet accident a conduit à réaliser des évaluations de la sûreté des installations et incité certains pays à adopter des plans de sortie du nucléaire. D’autres, en revanche, restent déterminés à conserver le nucléaire dans leur bouquet énergétique, voire à s’équiper de tranches supplémentaires ou, comme la Pologne et la Turquie, de leur premier réacteur de puissance. Le lecteur trouvera de plus amples informations sur ces évolutions et d’autres développements dans les nombreux tableaux, graphiques et rapports nationaux que contient cet ouvrage.
Cette publication contient des « StatLinks ». Fonctionnant comme un lien internet, un StatLink fournit l'accès à la feuille de calcul correspondante.
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Nuclear Energy Today
Second Edition
English, 120 pages, published: 12/21/12
NEA#6885, ISBN: 978-92-64-99204-7
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/pub/nuclearenergytoday/6885-nuclear-energy-today.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: L'énergie nucléaire aujourd'hui 
Meeting the growing demand for energy, and electricity in particular, while addressing the need to curb greenhouse gas emissions and to ensure security of energy supply, is one of the most difficult challenges facing the world’s economies. No single technology can respond to this challenge, and the solution which policy-makers are seeking lies in the diversification of energy sources.

Although nuclear energy currently provides over 20% of electricity in the OECD area and does not emit any carbon dioxide during production, it continues to be seen by many as a controversial technology. Public concern remains over its safety and the management of radioactive waste, and financing such a capital-intensive technology is a complex issue. The role that nuclear power will play in the future depends on the answers to these questions, several of which are provided in this up-to-date review of the status of nuclear energy, as well as on the outcome of research and development on the nuclear fuel cycle and reactor technologies.
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Nuclear Energy and Renewables
System Effects in Low-carbon Electricity Systems
English, 252 pages, published: 11/09/12
NEA#7056, ISBN: 978-92-64-18851-8
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/pubs/2012/7056-system-effects.pdf
This report addresses the increasingly important interactions of variable renewables and dispatchable energy technologies, such as nuclear power, in terms of their effects on electricity systems. These effects add costs to the production of electricity, which are not usually transparent. The report recommends that decision-makers should take into account such system costs and internalise them according to a “generator pays” principle, which is currently not the case. Analysing data from six OECD/NEA countries, the study finds that including the system costs of variable renewables at the level of the electricity grid increases the total costs of electricity supply by up to one-third, depending on technology, country and penetration levels. In addition, it concludes that, unless the current market subsidies for renewables are altered, dispatchable technologies will increasingly not be replaced as they reach their end of life and consequently security of supply will suffer. This implies that significant changes in management and cost allocation will be needed to generate the flexibility required for an economically viable coexistence of nuclear energy and renewables in increasingly decarbonised electricity systems.
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Nuclear Energy and Renewables – Executive Summary
System Effects in Low-carbon Electricity Systems
English, 16 pages, published: 11/05/12
NEA#7066
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/reports/2012/system-effects-exec-sum.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Énergies nucléaire et renouvelables – Synthèse 
This report addresses the increasingly important interactions of variable renewables and dispatchable energy technologies, such as nuclear power, in terms of their effects on electricity systems. These effects add costs to the production of electricity, which are not usually transparent. The report recommends that decision-makers should take into account such system costs and internalise them according to a “generator pays” principle, which is currently not the case. Analysing data from six OECD/NEA countries, the study finds that including the system costs of variable renewables at the level of the electricity grid increases the total costs of electricity supply by up to one-third, depending on technology, country and penetration levels. In addition, it concludes that, unless the current market subsidies for renewables are altered, dispatchable technologies will increasingly not be replaced as they reach their end of life and consequently security of supply will suffer. This implies that significant changes in management and cost allocation will be needed to generate the flexibility required for an economically viable coexistence of nuclear energy and renewables in increasingly decarbonised electricity systems.
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The Economics of Long-term Operation of Nuclear Power Plants
English, 114 pages, published: 12/19/12
NEA#7054, ISBN: 978-92-64-99205-4
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/reports/2012/7054-long-term-operation-npps.pdf
Refurbishment and long-term operation (LTO) of existing nuclear power plants (NPPs) today are crucial to the competitiveness of the nuclear industry in OECD countries as existing nuclear power plants produce baseload power at a reliable cost. A number of nuclear power plants, most notably 73 units in the United States (up to 2012), have been granted lifetime extensions of up to 60 years, a development that is being keenly watched in other OECD countries. In many of these (e.g. France, Switzerland), there is no legal end to the operating licence, but continued operation is based on the outcomes of periodic safety reviews.
This study analyses technical and economic data on the upgrade and lifetime extension experience in OECD countries. A multi-criteria assessment methodology is used considering various factors and parameters reflecting current and future financial conditions of operation, political and regulatory risks, the state of the plants’ equipment and the general role of nuclear power in the country’s energy policy.
The report shows that long-term operation of nuclear power plants has significant economic advantages for most utilities envisaging LTO programmes. In most cases, the continued operation of NPPs for at least ten more years is profitable even taking into account the additional costs of post-Fukushima modifications, and remains cost-effective compared to alternative replacement sources.
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The Role of Nuclear Energy in a Low-carbon Energy Future
English, 92 pages, published: 06/18/12
NEA#6887, ISBN: 978-92-64-99189-7
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/nsd/reports/2012/nea6887-role-nuclear-low-carbon.pdf
This report assesses the role that nuclear energy can play in supporting the transition to a low-carbon energy system. It begins by considering the greenhouse gas emissions from the full nuclear fuel cycle, reviewing recent studies on indirect emissions and assessing the impact that nuclear power could make in reducing greenhouse gas emissions.
The report provides estimates of the construction rates that would be needed to meet the projected expansion of nuclear power foreseen by many energy scenarios published by international organisations. It then assesses the economic, technical, societal and institutional challenges represented by such an expansion to identify the most significant barriers. The capacity of nuclear power plants to operate in an electricity system with a large share of renewables, and the impact of smart grid technologies are also examined. Finally, long-term prospects for nuclear energy are discussed in terms of development of new reactor and fuel cycle technologies, non-electric applications and new operational and regulatory constraints that could arise as a consequence of climate change.
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The Supply of Medical Radioisotopes
Market Impacts of Converting to Low-enriched Uranium Targets for Medical Isotope Production
English, 64 pages, published: 12/18/12
NEA#7129, ISBN: 978-92-64-99197-2
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/reports/2012/7129-leu.pdf
The reliable supply of molybdenum-99 (99Mo) and its decay product, technetium-99m (99mTc), is a vital component of modern medical diagnostic practices. At present, most of the global production of 99Mo is from highly enriched uranium (HEU) targets. However, all major 99Mo-producing countries have recently agreed to convert to using low-enriched uranium (LEU) targets to advance important non-proliferation goals, a decision that will have implications for the global supply chain of 99Mo/99mTc and the long-term supply reliability of these medical isotopes.
This study provides the findings and analysis from an extensive examination of the 99Mo/99mTc supply chain by the OECD/NEA High-level Group on the Security of Supply of Medical Radioisotopes (HLG-MR). It presents a comprehensive evaluation of the potential impacts of converting to the use of LEU targets for 99Mo production on the global 99Mo/99mTc market in terms of costs and available production capacity, and the corresponding implications for long-term supply reliability. In this context, the study also briefly discusses the need for policy action by governments in their efforts to ensure a stable and secure long-term supply of 99Mo/99mTc.
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Uranium 2011: Resources, Production and Demand
English, 488 pages, published: 07/26/12
NEA#7059, ISBN: 978-92-64-17803-8
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/pubs/2012/7059-uranium-2011.pdf
In the wake of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident, questions are being raised about the future of the uranium market, including as regards the number of reactors expected to be built in the coming years, the amount of uranium required to meet forward demand, the adequacy of identified uranium resources to meet that demand and the ability of the sector to meet reactor requirements in a challenging investment climate. This 24th edition of the ?Red Book?, a recognised world reference on uranium jointly prepared by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency, provides analyses and information from 42 producing and consuming countries in order to address these and other questions. It offers a comprehensive review of world uranium supply and demand as well as data on global uranium exploration, resources, production and reactor-related requirements. It also provides substantive new information on established uranium production centres around the world and in countries developing production centres for the first time. Projections of nuclear generating capacity and reactor-related requirements through 2035, incorporating policy changes following the Fukushima accident, are also featured, along with an analysis of long-term uranium supply and demand issues.
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Uranium 2011: Resources, Production and Demand – Executive Summary
English, 8 pages, published: 11/01/12
NEA#7123
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/reports/2012/uranium-2011-exec-summary.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Uranium 2011 : Ressources, production et demande – Synthèse 
- Russian: Yран 2011: запасы, добыча и спрос – Краткий обзор 
In the wake of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident, questions are being raised about the future of the uranium market, including as regards the number of reactors expected to be built in the coming years, the amount of uranium required to meet forward demand, the adequacy of identified uranium resources to meet that demand and the ability of the sector to meet reactor requirements in a challenging investment climate. This 24th edition of the “Red Book”, a recognised world reference on uranium jointly prepared by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency, provides analyses and information from 42 producing and consuming countries in order to address these and other questions. It offers a comprehensive review of world uranium supply and demand as well as data on global uranium exploration, resources, production and reactor-related requirements. It also provides substantive new information on established uranium production centres around the world and in countries developing production centres for the first time. Projections of nuclear generating capacity and reactor-related requirements through 2035, incorporating policy changes following the Fukushima accident, are also featured, along with an analysis of long-term uranium supply and demand issues.

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Trends towards Sustainability in the Nuclear Fuel Cycle
English, 184 pages, published: 12/21/11
NEA#6980, ISBN: 978-92-64-16810-7
Available online at: http://www.oecd-nea.org/ndd/pubs/2011/6980-trends-fuel-cycle.pdf

Other language(s):
- Français: Vers un cycle du combustible nucléaire durable : Évolution et tendances 
Interest in expanding nuclear power to cope with rising demand for energy and potential climate change places increased attention on the nuclear fuel cycle and whether significant moves are being taken towards ensuring sustainability over the long term. Future nuclear power programme decisions will be increasingly based on strategic considerations involving the complete nuclear fuel cycle, as illustrated by the international joint projects for Generation IV reactors. Currently, 90% of installed reactors worldwide operate on a once-through nuclear fuel cycle using uranium-oxide fuel. While closing the fuel cycle has been a general aim for several decades, progress towards that goal has been slow. This report reviews developments in the fuel cycle over the past ten years, potential developments over the next decade and the outlook for the longer term. It analyses technological developments and government actions (both nationally and internationally) related to the fuel cycle, and examines these within a set of sustainability parameters in order to identify trends and to make recommendations for further actions.