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USCD0795 AMRAW.

AMRAW, Risk Assessment Method for Radioactive Waste Management

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1. NAME OR DESIGNATION OF PROGRAM:  AMRAW
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2. COMPUTERS
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Program name Package id Status Status date
AMRAW USCD0795/01 Tested 01-OCT-1979

Machines used:

Package ID Orig. computer Test computer
USCD0795/01 IBM 3033 IBM 3033
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3. DESCRIPTION OF PROBLEM OR FUNCTION

AMRAW performs a sequence of calculations for an inventory of radioactive wastes. It consists of  two programs: AMRAW-A which evaluates release quantities, dispersion to the environment and pathways for dose to man, and AMRAW-B which evaluates health effects and economic costs resulting from dose to man calculated by AMRAW-A.
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4. METHOD OF SOLUTION

AMRAW-A may be run for any of several release scenarios:

a)  probabilistic distribution of events over time;

b)  discrete event at specified time;

c)  several events each at mean time of first occurrence;

d)  dynamic repository simulation;

e)  combinations of these.



Releases as determined by the Release Model are not necessarily directly to the environment. This is particularly true for deep releases to ground water. The first portion of the Environmental Model is therefore the "Transport to Environment" section. This adjusts each release increment obtaining the contribution-to- concentrations in environmental input receptors at various times following release. These receptors are: air, ground surface, surface water, and ground water. The adjustment provides for dispersion into each of the several geographical zones comprising the study region,  and then accounts for dispersion areas or volumes in each zone. The  adjustment also accounts for decay from the time of release to the time being evaluated, transfer between receptors (such as deposition from air onto ground), retardation in ground water flow, and other environmental removal or fixation processes.



The last portion of the Environmental Model covers the pathways from environmental input concentrations to radiation dose to the population, with dose rate calculations for several organs of concern.



Pathways include immersion in air, inhalation, ingestion of ground water and contaminated food and drink (from contaminated ground surface and surface water), submersion in water, and direct surface  exposure.



AMRAW-B: The matrix of local dose rates from AMRAW-A, to individuals in each zone from each radionuclide to each body site (organ) during each time increment, multiplied by the population of each zone and then multiplied by the set of health effect incidence rates for each body site, obtains the health effect incidence rates in each zone. Similarly, nonspecific dose rates from AMRAW-A (dose to a non- specific population) multiplied by health effect incidence rates obtains health effect incidence rates corresponding to nonspecific dose. The damage rates, $/y, are accumulated over nuclides and organs in each zone (and nonspecific) versus time. Total damage rates are also accumulated over zones, organs, and times for each nuclide. Damages during each time increment, $, are then obtained by multiplying rates by the length of each time increment and accumulated over the total time range. Finally, the number of deaths (health effects) during each time increment are obtained by dividing the damage in dollars by $260,000. Results are obtained for both high and low population projections.
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5. RESTRICTIONS ON THE COMPLEXITY OF THE PROBLEM

Maximum of 25 radionuclides, 4 environmental receptors (air, land surface, surface water and ground water), 9 release model events, 2 main environmental pathways for each receptor ( and 6 sub-paths), 8 geographic zones, 8 human organs, 50 time increments.
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6. TYPICAL RUNNING TIME

AMRAW-A 21 minutes; AMRAW-B 270 seconds with  the above dimensioning on the IBM 360/67.
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7. UNUSUAL FEATURES OF THE PROGRAM

All steps in radioactive release and dose to humans linked in a continuous calculation sequence.
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8. RELATED AND AUXILIARY PROGRAMS:
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9. STATUS
Package ID Status date Status
USCD0795/01 01-OCT-1979 Tested at NEADB
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10. REFERENCES

- S. E. Logan and M. C. Berbano:
  "Development and Application of a Risk Assessment Method for
   Radioactive Waste Management",
  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency EPA 520/6-78-005 (1978).
USCD0795/01, included references:
  - S. E. Logan, M. C. Berbano,
    Development and Application of a Risk Assessment Method for
    Radioactive Waste Management,
    Vol. I: Generic Description of AMRAW-A Model, EPA 520/6-78-005,
    July 1978.
  - S. E. Logan, M. C. Berbano,
    Development and Application of a Risk Assessment Method for
    Radioactive Waste Mangement,
    Vol.II: Implementaion for Terminal Storage in Reference
    Repository  and other Applications, EPA 520/6-78-005, July 1978.
  - S. E Logan, W. D. Schulze, S. Ben-David, D. S. Brookshire,
    Development and Application of a Risk Assessment Method for
    Radioactive Waste Management,
    Vol. III: Economic Analysis; Description and Implementaion of
    AMRAW-B Model, EPA 520/6-78-005, July 1978.
  - S. E. Logan,
    Development and Application of a Risk Assessment Method for
    Radioactive Waste Mangement,
    Vol. IV: AMRAW Computer Code User's Manual, EPA 520/6-78-005,
    July 1978.
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11. MACHINE REQUIREMENTS

AMRAW-A: 256 kbytes of core storage, 10 cylinders (1459 kbytes) of          disc storage.
AMRAW-B: 124 kybtes of core, 125 tracks (900 kbytes) of disc storage  for input data, 10 cylinders (200 tracks or 1440 bytes) of          disc storage for intermediate data.
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12. PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE(S) USED

No item found

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13. OPERATING SYSTEM UNDER WHICH PROGRAM IS EXECUTED:
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14. OTHER PROGRAMMING OR OPERATING INFORMATION OR RESTRICTIONS:
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15. NAME AND ESTABLISHMENT OF AUTHOR

          S. E. Logan and M. C. Berbano
          Bureau of Engineering Research
          University of New Mexico
          Albuquerque
          New Mexico 87131
          USA
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16. MATERIAL AVAILABLE
USCD0795/01
File name File description Records
USCD0795_01.001 SOURCE (F4,EBCDIC) 1010
USCD0795_01.002 SAMPLE INPUT DATA 645
USCD0795_01.003 SAMPLE OUTPUT 28864
USCD0795_01.004 AMRAW - JCL 15
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17. CATEGORIES
  • G. Radiological Safety, Hazard and Accident Analysis
  • R. Environmental and Earth Sciences

Keywords: atmospheric precipitations, dose rates, environmental transport, health hazards, radioactivity transport.