Computer Programs

NAME OR DESIGNATION OF PROGRAM, COMPUTER, DESCRIPTION OF PROBLEM OR FUNCTION, METHOD OF SOLUTION, RESTRICTIONS ON THE COMPLEXITY OF THE PROBLEM, TYPICAL RUNNING TIME, UNUSUAL FEATURES OF THE PROGRAM, RELATED AND AUXILIARY PROGRAMS, STATUS, REFERENCES, MACHINE REQUIREMENTS, LANGUAGE, OPERATING SYSTEM UNDER WHICH PROGRAM IS EXECUTED, OTHER PROGRAMMING OR OPERATING INFORMATION OR RESTRICTIONS, NAME AND ESTABLISHMENT OF AUTHOR, MATERIAL, CATEGORIES

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Program name | Package id | Status | Status date |
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BEACON/MOD3 | NESC0767/03 | Tested | 22-OCT-1982 |

Machines used:

Package ID | Orig. computer | Test computer |
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NESC0767/03 | CDC 7600 | CDC 7600 |

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3. DESCRIPTION OF PROBLEM OR FUNCTION

The BEACON series of programs is designed to perform a best-estimate analysis of the flow of a mixture of air, water, and steam in a nuclear reactor containment system under loss-of-coolant accident conditions. The code can simulate two-component, two-phase fluid flow in complex geometries using a combination of two-dimensional, one-dimensional, and lumped- parameter representations for the various parts of the system.

BEACON/MOD3 contains mass and heat transfer models for wall film and for wall conduction, and is suitable for the evaluation of short- term transients in PWR dry containment systems. The capability to examine the details of a two-components, two-phase flow field in one or two dimensions under nonhomogeneous, nonequilibrium conditions (unequal velocities, unequal temperatures between the two phases) allows analysis of such problems as the calculation of jet impact forces of a fluid leaving a pipe break, the motion of a large pressure wave across a compartment, the variation in flow properties as air is displaced from a compartment by steam and water, the water entrainment or deentrainment by a high-speed vapor flow, the flow of a flashing liquid, and many other complex nonequilibrium problems of containment system analyses.

The BEACON series of programs is designed to perform a best-estimate analysis of the flow of a mixture of air, water, and steam in a nuclear reactor containment system under loss-of-coolant accident conditions. The code can simulate two-component, two-phase fluid flow in complex geometries using a combination of two-dimensional, one-dimensional, and lumped- parameter representations for the various parts of the system.

BEACON/MOD3 contains mass and heat transfer models for wall film and for wall conduction, and is suitable for the evaluation of short- term transients in PWR dry containment systems. The capability to examine the details of a two-components, two-phase flow field in one or two dimensions under nonhomogeneous, nonequilibrium conditions (unequal velocities, unequal temperatures between the two phases) allows analysis of such problems as the calculation of jet impact forces of a fluid leaving a pipe break, the motion of a large pressure wave across a compartment, the variation in flow properties as air is displaced from a compartment by steam and water, the water entrainment or deentrainment by a high-speed vapor flow, the flow of a flashing liquid, and many other complex nonequilibrium problems of containment system analyses.

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4. METHOD OF SOLUTION

The basic Eulerian flow solution procedure is based on the K-FIX two-dimensional two-phase numerical method. Each phase is described by its own density, velocity, and temperature as determined by separate sets of mass, momentum, and energy equations. The two phases are coupled by exchange parameters which model the exchange of mass, momentum, and energy between the two phases. The two sets of field equations are solved with a Eulerian finite- difference technique that implicitly treats the phase transitions and interphasic heat transfer in the pressure iteration. The implicit solution is accomplished iteratively without linearization and allows both phases to be compressible. The coupling between the two phases can be very loose, as occurs with separated flow, or very tight as with finely dispersed flow. Computations for single phase gas flow can also be obtained without special treatment. BEACON can handle air as a second vapor component.

The basic Eulerian flow solution procedure is based on the K-FIX two-dimensional two-phase numerical method. Each phase is described by its own density, velocity, and temperature as determined by separate sets of mass, momentum, and energy equations. The two phases are coupled by exchange parameters which model the exchange of mass, momentum, and energy between the two phases. The two sets of field equations are solved with a Eulerian finite- difference technique that implicitly treats the phase transitions and interphasic heat transfer in the pressure iteration. The implicit solution is accomplished iteratively without linearization and allows both phases to be compressible. The coupling between the two phases can be very loose, as occurs with separated flow, or very tight as with finely dispersed flow. Computations for single phase gas flow can also be obtained without special treatment. BEACON can handle air as a second vapor component.

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5. RESTRICTIONS ON THE COMPLEXITY OF THE PROBLEM

BEACON/MOD3 does not have pressure suppression containment models. The Eulerian computational equations have been modified for the variable nodalization of a mesh with the spatial dimensions of each cell stored in row-wide and column-wide arrays. Neither dimension should vary between adjacent cells by more than a factor of two. The centers of adjacent cells must align either in the radial (abscissa) or vertical (ordinate) direction, and no mesh may have more than 50 interior cells in either direction. The coupling of the Eulerian regions must be on a cell-to-cell basis. Due to the array size in the code, maxima of 20 Eulerian regions and 20 lumped-parameter regions are allowed per problem setup. The total number of cells (nodes) in all Eulerian regions is limited to 2184.

BEACON/MOD3 does not have pressure suppression containment models. The Eulerian computational equations have been modified for the variable nodalization of a mesh with the spatial dimensions of each cell stored in row-wide and column-wide arrays. Neither dimension should vary between adjacent cells by more than a factor of two. The centers of adjacent cells must align either in the radial (abscissa) or vertical (ordinate) direction, and no mesh may have more than 50 interior cells in either direction. The coupling of the Eulerian regions must be on a cell-to-cell basis. Due to the array size in the code, maxima of 20 Eulerian regions and 20 lumped-parameter regions are allowed per problem setup. The total number of cells (nodes) in all Eulerian regions is limited to 2184.

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8. RELATED AND AUXILIARY PROGRAMS

The BEACON solution procedure is based on the solution scheme of K-FIX (NESC Abstract 727) developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The wall heat conduction subcode used in the CONTEMPT programs (NESC Abstracts 433 and 818) is also used in BEACON. The program uses the INEL Environmental Library and INEL-IGS graphics software for film plotting. An auxiliary program, PLTBCN, is used to plot a time history of BEACON's fundamental output variables.

The BEACON solution procedure is based on the solution scheme of K-FIX (NESC Abstract 727) developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The wall heat conduction subcode used in the CONTEMPT programs (NESC Abstracts 433 and 818) is also used in BEACON. The program uses the INEL Environmental Library and INEL-IGS graphics software for film plotting. An auxiliary program, PLTBCN, is used to plot a time history of BEACON's fundamental output variables.

NESC0767/03

PLTBCN Program used to plot a time history of BEACON'sfundamental output variables.

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10. REFERENCES

- INEL-IGS, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Integrated Gra-

phics System Programming Guide,

Aerojet Nuclear Company Computer Science Center, March 1976.

- W.C. Rivard and M.D. Torrey,

K-FIX: A Computer Program for Transient Two-Dimensional, Two-Fluid Flow,

LA-NUREG-6623, NRC-4, April 1977.

- F.H. Harlow and A. A. Amsden,

Numerical Calculation of Multiphase Fluid Flow,

Journal of Computational Physics, Vol. 17, pp. 19-52, 1975.

- INEL-IGS, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Integrated Gra-

phics System Programming Guide,

Aerojet Nuclear Company Computer Science Center, March 1976.

- W.C. Rivard and M.D. Torrey,

K-FIX: A Computer Program for Transient Two-Dimensional, Two-Fluid Flow,

LA-NUREG-6623, NRC-4, April 1977.

- F.H. Harlow and A. A. Amsden,

Numerical Calculation of Multiphase Fluid Flow,

Journal of Computational Physics, Vol. 17, pp. 19-52, 1975.

NESC0767/03, included references:

- C.R. Broadus et al:BEACON/MOD3: A Computer Program for Thermal-Hydraulic Analysis of

Nuclear Reactor Containments - User's Manual.

NUREG/CR-1148 EGG-2008 (April 1980).

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11. MACHINE REQUIREMENTS

120,000 (octal) words of SCM and 34,000 (octal) words of LCM for the largest of the eight sample problems.

The LCM required is a function of the program size (i.e., the number of nodes or computational cells) and is dynamically allocated by the BEACON code.

On CDC 7600, storage requirements are 160,000 octal words of SCM and 172,000 octal words of LCM.

120,000 (octal) words of SCM and 34,000 (octal) words of LCM for the largest of the eight sample problems.

The LCM required is a function of the program size (i.e., the number of nodes or computational cells) and is dynamically allocated by the BEACON code.

On CDC 7600, storage requirements are 160,000 octal words of SCM and 172,000 octal words of LCM.

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14. OTHER PROGRAMMING OR OPERATING INFORMATION OR RESTRICTIONS

A few of the INEL environmental library and the IGS graphics routines are written in COMPASS; the remainder of the package is in FORTRAN.

The BEACON/MOD3 program is in CDC UPDATE source form for use with the NOS/BE operating system. Modification for use with the SCOPE 2 operating system requires use of the CDC UPDATE utility. The INEL Environmental Library is in CDC UPDATE source form. Modification for use with either operating system requires use of the CDC UPDATE uti- lity. Since BEACON stores variables in large core memory (LCM) in a LEVEL 2, word-addressable mode, a major programming effort would be required to implement the package in other computer environments.

The Integrated Software System Corporation's proprietary graphics software system, DISSPLA, is used by the PLTBCN plot file post- processor auxiliary program.

NESC replaced subroutine JOBID, which at INEL reads the name from the job card, to allow users to bypass a fatal error. Subroutine JOBLOC in the IGS graphics library contains the same statement (MJ 740B) that caused the JOBID error but was not changed because NESC did not test the plotting package. One can choose the plotting option in all the sample problems except sample problems 3A and 3B by changing NOPLOTS to PLOTS on card number 00150 in each problem set.

A few of the INEL environmental library and the IGS graphics routines are written in COMPASS; the remainder of the package is in FORTRAN.

The BEACON/MOD3 program is in CDC UPDATE source form for use with the NOS/BE operating system. Modification for use with the SCOPE 2 operating system requires use of the CDC UPDATE utility. The INEL Environmental Library is in CDC UPDATE source form. Modification for use with either operating system requires use of the CDC UPDATE uti- lity. Since BEACON stores variables in large core memory (LCM) in a LEVEL 2, word-addressable mode, a major programming effort would be required to implement the package in other computer environments.

The Integrated Software System Corporation's proprietary graphics software system, DISSPLA, is used by the PLTBCN plot file post- processor auxiliary program.

NESC replaced subroutine JOBID, which at INEL reads the name from the job card, to allow users to bypass a fatal error. Subroutine JOBLOC in the IGS graphics library contains the same statement (MJ 740B) that caused the JOBID error but was not changed because NESC did not test the plotting package. One can choose the plotting option in all the sample problems except sample problems 3A and 3B by changing NOPLOTS to PLOTS on card number 00150 in each problem set.

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NESC0767/03

File name | File description | Records |
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NESC0767_03.003 | BEACON/MOD3 INFORMATION FILE | 28 |

NESC0767_03.004 | BEACON/MOD3 SOURCE (FORTRAN-4) | 24430 |

NESC0767_03.005 | INEL ENV. ROUTINES SOURCE UPDATE | 32861 |

NESC0767_03.006 | BEACON/MOD3 INPUT FOR TEST CASE | 314 |

NESC0767_03.007 | PLOTTING PROGRAM SOURCE (FORTRAN-4) | 1467 |

NESC0767_03.008 | BEACON/MOD3 JCL FOR TEST CASE | 116 |

NESC0767_03.009 | BEACON/MOD3 OUTPUT OF TEST CASE | 22722 |

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- G. Radiological Safety, Hazard and Accident Analysis
- H. Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow

Keywords: containment systems, fluid flow, loss-of-coolant accident, one-dimensional, thermodynamics, transients, two-dimensional, two-phase flow.