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NESC0546 EMERALD REVISION 1

EMERALD, Radiation Release and Dose after PWR Accident for Design Analysis and Operation Analysis

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1. NAME OR DESIGNATION OF PROGRAM:  EMERALD REVISION 1
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2. COMPUTERS
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Program name Package id Status Status date
EMERALD/REV.1 NESC0546/02 Tested 28-JUL-1988

Machines used:

Package ID Orig. computer Test computer
NESC0546/02 IBM 360 series IBM 3090
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3. DESCRIPTION OF PROBLEM OR FUNCTION

The   EMERALD    program   is
designed for the  calculation of radiation releases  and exposures
resulting from  abnormal operation  of a  large pressurized  water
reactor (PWR).   The approach  used in  EMERALD is  similar to  an
analog simulation of  a real system.  Each component  or volume in
the plant which contains a  radioactive material is represented by
a subroutine which keeps track  of the production, transfer, decay
and absorption of radioactivity in that volume.  During the course
of  the analysis  of  an accident,  activity  is transferred  from
subroutine to subroutine in the program as it would be transferred
from place to place in the plant.  For example, in the calculation
of the doses resulting from a loss-of-coolant accident the program
first calculates  the activity  built up  in the  fuel before  the
accident, then releases  some of this activity  to the containment
volume.  Some of this activity is then released to the atmosphere.
The rates  of transfer, leakage,  production, cleanup,  decay, and
release are read in as input to the program.  Subroutines are also
included  which  calculate  the  on-site  and  off-site  radiation
exposures at various distances for individual isotopes and sums of
isotopes.  The program contains a library of physical data for the
twenty-five isotopes  of most interest in  licensing calculations,
and other  isotopes can be added  or substituted.  Because  of the
flexible nature  of the simulation  approach, the  EMERALD program
can be  used for  most calculations  involving the  production and
release of  radioactive materials during  abnormal operation  of a
PWR.  These include design, operational, and licensing studies.
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4. METHOD OF SOLUTION

Explicit  solutions  of   first-order  linear
differential equations are included.  In addition, a subroutine is
provided  which solves  a  set  of simultaneous  linear  algebraic
equations.
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5. RESTRICTIONS ON THE COMPLEXITY OF THE PROBLEM

Maxima of -
   25 isotopes
    7 time periods
   15 volumes or components
   10 distances
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6. TYPICAL RUNNING TIME

Less than 2 minutes is required to run the sample problems.
NESC0546/02
NEA-DB ran the test cases included in this package on an IBM 3090 computer. CPU times required were 3.7 seconds (case 1);  8.3 seconds (case 2).
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7. UNUSUAL FEATURES OF THE PROGRAM

The use of  FORTRAN IV language,
modular  design, generic  variable names,  and extensive  internal
comments makes EMERALD  easily adaptable to the  user's particular
models and problems.
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8. RELATED AND AUXILIARY PROGRAMS

Subroutine    SIMQ,   which    is
documented in IBM System 360  Scientific Subroutine Package (360A-
CM-30X), Version III, Program Manual H20-0205-3, is included.
   EMERALD  REVISION 1,  is used  to  assess accidental  releases,
while a companion  code, EMERALD-NORMAL, (NESC Abstract  685), has
been developed  to assess  conditions and  releases during  normal
operation of  a PWR.  Both  EMERALD REVISION 1  and EMERALD-NORMAL
are derived from the original EMERALD program.
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9. STATUS
Package ID Status date Status
NESC0546/02 28-JUL-1988 Tested at NEADB
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10. REFERENCES

W.  K.  Brunot, R.  R.  Fray,  and S.  G.  Gillespie,
EMERALD (Revision 1)  - A Program for the  Calculation of Activity
Releases  and Potential  Doses from  a  Pressurized Water  Reactor
Plant, Pacific Gas and Electric Company, March 1974.
             EMERALD  -  A  Program for  the  Calculation  of  PWR
Radiation  Doses, Transactions  of the  American Nuclear  Society,
June 1972.
NESC0546/02, included references:
- W.K. Brunot, R.R. Fray and S.G. Gillespie:
  EMERALD (Revision 1) - A Program for the  Calculation
  of Activity Releases  and Potential  Doses from  a
  Pressurized Water  Reactor Plant.
  Pacific Gas and Electric Company  (March 1974)
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11. MACHINE REQUIREMENTS:  520K bytes of memory are required.
NESC0546/02
To run the test cases included in this package on an IBM 3090 computer, 672K bytes of main storage were required.
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12. PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE(S) USED
Package ID Computer language
NESC0546/02 FORTRAN-IV
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13. OPERATING SYSTEM UNDER WHICH PROGRAM IS EXECUTED:       OS/360,370
(IBM360,370).
NESC0546/02
MVS/XA (IBM 3090).
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14. OTHER PROGRAMMING OR OPERATING INFORMATION OR RESTRICTIONS:
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15. NAME AND ESTABLISHMENT OF AUTHORS

                 W. K. Brunot, R. R. Fray, and S. G. Gillespie
                 Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering Department
                 Pacific Gas and Electric Company
                 77 Beale Street
                 San Francisco, California  94106
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16. MATERIAL AVAILABLE
NESC0546/02
File name File description Records
NESC0546_02.001 INFORMATION FILE 83
NESC0546_02.002 EMERALD SOURCE PROGRAM 4852
NESC0546_02.003 SAMPLE PROBLEM 1 INPUT DATA 2525
NESC0546_02.004 SAMPLE PROBLEM 2 INPUT DATA 2236
NESC0546_02.005 SAMPLE PROBLEM 1 OUTPUT DATA 31857
NESC0546_02.006 SAMPLE PROBLEM 2 OUTPUT DATA 28240
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17. CATEGORIES
  • G. Radiological Safety, Hazard and Accident Analysis

Keywords: accidents, dose rates, fission products, gamma radiation, power plants, pwr reactors, radioactivity.