Computer Programs

NAME OR DESIGNATION OF PROGRAM, COMPUTER, DESCRIPTION OF PROGRAM OR FUNCTION, METHOD OF SOLUTION, RESTRICTIONS ON THE COMPLEXITY OF THE PROBLEM, TYPICAL RUNNING TIME, FEATURES, RELATED AND AUXILIARY PROGRAMS, STATUS, REFERENCES, MACHINE REQUIREMENTS, LANGUAGE, OPERATING SYSTEM UNDER WHICH PROGRAM IS EXECUTED, OTHER RESTRICTIONS, NAME AND ESTABLISHMENT OF AUTHORS, MATERIAL, CATEGORIES

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Program name | Package id | Status | Status date |
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SKYSHINE-KSU | CCC-0646/03 | Tested | 24-NOV-2000 |

Machines used:

Package ID | Orig. computer | Test computer |
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CCC-0646/03 | IBM PC | PC Pentium III 500,Linux-based PC,IBM RISC6000 WS |

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3. DESCRIPTION OF PROGRAM OR FUNCTION

This package includes the SKYNEUT 1.1, SKYDOSE 2.2 and MCSKY 2.3 codes plus the DLC-0188/ZZ-SKYDATA library to form a comprehensive system for calculating skyshine doses. SKYNEUT evaluates the neutron and neutron-induced secondary gamma-ray skyshine doses from an isotropic, point, neutron source collimated by three simple geometries: an open silo, a vertical black (perfectly absorbing) wall, and a rectangular building. The source may emit monoenergetic neutrons or neutrons with an arbitrary multigroup spectrum of energies.

SKYDOSE evaluates the gamma-ray skyshine dose from an isotropic, monoenergetic, point gamma-photon source collimated by three simple geometries: (1) a source in a silo, 2) a source behind an infinitely long, vertical, black wall, and 3) a source in a

rectangular building. In all three geometries an optional overhead slab shield may be specified. MCSKY evaluates the gamma-ray skyshine dose from an isotropic, monoenergetic, point gamma-photon source collimated into either a vertical cone (i.e. silo geometry) or into a vertically oriented structure with an N-sided polygon cross section. An overhead laminate shield composed of two different materials is assumed, although shield thicknesses of zero may be specified to model an unshielded SKYSHINE source.

This package includes the SKYNEUT 1.1, SKYDOSE 2.2 and MCSKY 2.3 codes plus the DLC-0188/ZZ-SKYDATA library to form a comprehensive system for calculating skyshine doses. SKYNEUT evaluates the neutron and neutron-induced secondary gamma-ray skyshine doses from an isotropic, point, neutron source collimated by three simple geometries: an open silo, a vertical black (perfectly absorbing) wall, and a rectangular building. The source may emit monoenergetic neutrons or neutrons with an arbitrary multigroup spectrum of energies.

SKYDOSE evaluates the gamma-ray skyshine dose from an isotropic, monoenergetic, point gamma-photon source collimated by three simple geometries: (1) a source in a silo, 2) a source behind an infinitely long, vertical, black wall, and 3) a source in a

rectangular building. In all three geometries an optional overhead slab shield may be specified. MCSKY evaluates the gamma-ray skyshine dose from an isotropic, monoenergetic, point gamma-photon source collimated into either a vertical cone (i.e. silo geometry) or into a vertically oriented structure with an N-sided polygon cross section. An overhead laminate shield composed of two different materials is assumed, although shield thicknesses of zero may be specified to model an unshielded SKYSHINE source.

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4. METHOD OF SOLUTION

The SKYNEUT calculation of the skyshine doses uses the integral line-beam method which is based on a newly developed three-parameter approximation of the neutron line-beam response functions.

SKYDOSE is based on the integral line-beam method. For shielded sources, an approximate method is used on exponential attenuation with buildup in the shield.

In MCSKY the skyshine dose calculation is based on a Monte Carlo algorithm to evaluate the gamma-ray transport through the source shields and the integral line-beam method to describe the subsequent transport of gamma photons through the atmosphere.

The SKYNEUT calculation of the skyshine doses uses the integral line-beam method which is based on a newly developed three-parameter approximation of the neutron line-beam response functions.

SKYDOSE is based on the integral line-beam method. For shielded sources, an approximate method is used on exponential attenuation with buildup in the shield.

In MCSKY the skyshine dose calculation is based on a Monte Carlo algorithm to evaluate the gamma-ray transport through the source shields and the integral line-beam method to describe the subsequent transport of gamma photons through the atmosphere.

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5. RESTRICTIONS ON THE COMPLEXITY OF THE PROBLEM

For SKYNEUT source neutron energies must be between 0.01 and 14 MeV. For energies above 1 MeV, source-to-detector distances can be as great as 2500 m. For source energies below 1 MeV, the maximum source-to-detector distance is somewhat less. Fluence-to-dose conversion factors are from ICRP Report 51, but *not* include the factor of 2 increase in the neutron quality factor recommended at the 1985 Paris meeting of the ICRP.

For SKYDOSE the source energy E must be between 0.02 and 100 MeV, except for sources with an overhead shield, for which case 0.02 <= E <= 10 MeV. The maximum source-to-detector distance is 3000 m for E <= 10 MeV and 1500 for higher energies.

For MCSKY the source energy may be any energy between 0.02 and 100 MeV. In the Monte Carlo shield calculation, positron transport and bremsstrahlung production are neglected, although the air transport calculation using the line-beam response function does include these components. Consequently, for heavily shielded sources with energies above about 20 MeV, MCSKY results must be used cautiously especially at detector locations near the source where shield-generated bremsstrahlung may be significant. The maximum source-to-detector distance is 3000 m for E <= 10 MeV and 1500 m for higher source energies.

For SKYNEUT source neutron energies must be between 0.01 and 14 MeV. For energies above 1 MeV, source-to-detector distances can be as great as 2500 m. For source energies below 1 MeV, the maximum source-to-detector distance is somewhat less. Fluence-to-dose conversion factors are from ICRP Report 51, but *not* include the factor of 2 increase in the neutron quality factor recommended at the 1985 Paris meeting of the ICRP.

For SKYDOSE the source energy E must be between 0.02 and 100 MeV, except for sources with an overhead shield, for which case 0.02 <= E <= 10 MeV. The maximum source-to-detector distance is 3000 m for E <= 10 MeV and 1500 for higher energies.

For MCSKY the source energy may be any energy between 0.02 and 100 MeV. In the Monte Carlo shield calculation, positron transport and bremsstrahlung production are neglected, although the air transport calculation using the line-beam response function does include these components. Consequently, for heavily shielded sources with energies above about 20 MeV, MCSKY results must be used cautiously especially at detector locations near the source where shield-generated bremsstrahlung may be significant. The maximum source-to-detector distance is 3000 m for E <= 10 MeV and 1500 m for higher source energies.

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6. TYPICAL RUNNING TIME

SKYNEUT and SKYDOSE run quickly, requiring only a few seconds per detector location and per source energy group.

The McSKY running time depends primarily on computer speed and number of source particle histories to be followed in the shield, and to a lesser extent on the shield thicknesses and the complexity of the source collimation.

SKYNEUT and SKYDOSE run quickly, requiring only a few seconds per detector location and per source energy group.

The McSKY running time depends primarily on computer speed and number of source particle histories to be followed in the shield, and to a lesser extent on the shield thicknesses and the complexity of the source collimation.

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10. REFERENCES

- A.A. Gui:

Response Functions for Neutron Skyshine Analyses, PhD Dissertation Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506 (1994)

- S.K. Shultis and R.E. Faw:

Extensions to the Integral Line-Beam Method for Gamma-Ray Skyshine Analyses

Report SAND94-2019 (1995)

- J.K. Shultis, R.E. Faw and M.S. Bassett:

The Integral Line-Beam Method for Gamma Skyshine Analysis

Nuclear Science Engineering, 107, pp. 228-245 (1991)

- A.A. Gui:

Response Functions for Neutron Skyshine Analyses, PhD Dissertation Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506 (1994)

- S.K. Shultis and R.E. Faw:

Extensions to the Integral Line-Beam Method for Gamma-Ray Skyshine Analyses

Report SAND94-2019 (1995)

- J.K. Shultis, R.E. Faw and M.S. Bassett:

The Integral Line-Beam Method for Gamma Skyshine Analysis

Nuclear Science Engineering, 107, pp. 228-245 (1991)

CCC-0646/03, included references:

- J.K. Shultis, R.E. Faw and F.A. Khan:SKYNEUT: A Code for Neutron Skyshine Calculations Using the

Integral Line-Beam Method

Report 9503 (Revised January 1997)

- J.K. Shultis, R.E. Faw and C Brockhoff:

SKYDOSE: A Code for Gamma Skyshine Calculations Using the

Integral Line-Beam Method

KSU 9502 (Revised January 1998)

- J.K. Shultis, R.E. Faw and M.H. Stedry:

McSKY: A Hybrid Monte-Carlo Line-Beam Code for Shielded Gamma

Skyshine Calculations

KSU 9501 (Revised October 1997)

- J.K. Shultis, R.E. Faw, A.A. Gui and R.C. Brockhoff:

Approximate Beam Response Functions for Gamma-Ray and Neutron

Skyshine Analysis

Report 271 (June 1995)

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Package ID | Computer language |
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CCC-0646/03 | FORTRAN-77, C-LANGUAGE |

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CCC-0646/03

README Information fileHIGHGAM.DAT Line-beam response fn E>10 MeV

LOWGAM.DAT Line-beam response fn E<10 MeV

SILO.INP Input file for "silo geometry"

SQUARE.INP Input for "polygon geometry"

SQUARE.DTA Data file needed for SQUARE.INP

MCSKY.FOR Fortran source code

MCSKY.EXE Executable file for DOS machines

SILO.OUT Output produced with SILO.INP data

SQUARE.OUT Output produced with SQUARE.INP

MCSKY.PS Postscript file

MCSKY.PDF File in PDF format

-README Information file

README.DOC Information file

CBGDEI.DAT sec-gamma CBRF DE 10mm ICRU sph.

CBGDEI.TBL sec-gamma CBRF DE 10mm ICRU sph.

CBGDEP.DAT sec-gamma CBRF DE beam ICRU sph.

CBGDEP.TBL sec-gamma CBRF DE beam ICRU sph.

CBGEDE.DAT sec-gamma CBRF EDE anthrop. ph.

CBGEDE.TBL sec-gamma CBRF EDE anthrop. ph.

CBNDEI.DAT n CBRF DE 10mm in the ICRU sph.

CBNDEI.TBL n CBRF DE 10mm in the ICRU sph.

CBNDEP.DAT n CBRF dose - beam on ICRU sph.

CBNDEP.TBL n CBRF dose - beam on ICRU sph.

CBNEDE.DAT n CBRF EDE anthropomorph phantom

CBNEDE.TBL n CBRF EDE anthropomorph phantom

GCFN1.DAT Param. for neutron GCF_n1

GCFN1.TBL Param. for neutron GCF_n1

GCFN2.DAT Param. for neutron GCF_n2

GCFN2.TBL Param. for neutron GCF_n2

GCFSG.DAT Param. for secondary gamma GCF_p

GCFSG.TBL Param. for secondary gamma GCF_p

HIGHGAM.DAT Gamma LBRF E=20 to 100 MeV

LBGDEI.DAT sec-gamma LBRF DE 10mm ICRU sph.

LBGDEI.TBL sec-gamma LBRF DE 10mm ICRU sph.

LBGDEP.DAT sec-gamma LBRF DE beam ICRU sph.

LBGDEP.TBL sec-gamma LBRF DE beam ICRU sph.

LBGEDE.DAT sec-gamma LBRF EDE anthrop. ph.

LBGEDE.TBL sec-gamma LBRF EDE anthrop. ph.

LBNDEI.DAT n LBRF DE 10mm in the ICRU sph.

LBNDEI.TBL n LBRF DE 10mm in the ICRU sph.

LBNDEP.DAT n LBRF dose - beam on ICRU sph.

LBNDEP.TBL n LBRF dose - beam on ICRU sph.

LBNEDE.DAT n LBRF EDE anthropomorph phantom

LBNEDE.TBL n LBRF EDE anthropomorph phantom

LOWGAM.DAT Gamma LBRF E=0.02 to 15 MeV

HIGHGAM.DAT Line-beam response fn E>10 MeV

LOWGAM.DAT Line-beam response fn E<10 MeV

SKYDOSE.FOR Fortran source code

SKYDOSE.EXE Executable for DOS machines

BOX.INP Input file for "box geometry"

-README Information file

SILO.INP Input file for "silo geometry"

SILO.OUT Output produced with SILO.INP data

WALL.INP Input file for "wall geometry"

WALL.OUT Output produced with WALL.INP data

BOX.OUT Output produced with BOX.INP data

SKYDOSE.DOC ASCII version of User's Manual

SKYDOSE.PS Postscript file

SKYDOSE.PDF File in PDF format

GDEP.DAT Param. for secondary gamma LBRF

GEDE.DAT Param. for secondary gamma LBRF

NDEI.DAT Param. for the neutron LBRF

NDEP.DAT Param. for the neutron LBRF

NEDE.DAT Param. for the neutron LBRF

GDEI.DAT Param. for secondary gamma LBRF

SPEC.DAT Data for srce spectrum used by ex.

BOX1.INP Input file for "box geometry" pb 1

BOX2.INP Input file for "box geometry" pb 2

SILO1.INP Input file for "silo geometry"pb1

SILO2.INP Input file for "silo geometry"pb2

WALL2.INP Input file for "wall geometry"pb2

WALL1.INP Input file for "wall geometry"pb1

BOX1.OUT Output produced with BOX1.INP data

BOX2.OUT Output produced with BOX2.INP data

SILO1.OUT Output produced w/SILO1.INP data

SILO2.OUT Output produced w/SILO2.INP data

WALL1.OUT Output produced w/WALL1.INP data

WALL2.OUT Output produced w/WALL2.INP data

-README Information file

SKYNEUT.FOR Fortran source code

SKYNEUT.EXE Executable for DOS machines

SKYNEUT.PS Postscript file

SKYNEUT.PDF File in PDF format

Keywords: air scattering, gamma radiation, multiple scattering, shielding.