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CCC-0545 SCALE-4.

SCALE-4, Modular System for Criticality, Shielding, Heat Transfer, Fuel Depletion

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1. NAME OR DESIGNATION OF PROGRAM:  SCALE-4.4a
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2. COMPUTERS
To submit a request, click below on the link of the version you wish to order. Only liaison officers are authorised to submit online requests. Rules for requesters are available here.
No item

Machines used:

No specified machine
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3. DESCRIPTION OF PROGRAM OR FUNCTION

The SCALE system was developed  for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to satisfy a need for a standardized method of analysis for the evaluation of nuclear fuel facility and package designs. In its present form, the system has the capability to perform criticality, shielding, and heat transfer  analyses using well established functional modules tailored to the SCALE system. Spent fuel characteristics for these analyses can be obtained from a module that performs a depletion/decay calculation.  
The CSAS control module contains criticality safety analysis sequences that calculate the neutron multiplication factor  for one-dimensional (XSDRNPM-S) and multidimensional (KENO V.a) system models. The CSAS module also has the capability to perform criticality searches (optimum, minimum, or specified values of k-eff) on geometry dimensions or nuclide concentrations in KENO V.a. The  CSAS6 control module  contains criticality safety analysis sequences using the KENO-VI module for multidimensional models with more complex geometries, including hexagonal arrays. Sequences that provide problem-dependent cross sections for use in stand-alone codes are also available in the CSAS module. Five shielding analysis sequences are  provided. SAS1 analyzes general one-dimensional shielding problems via XSDRNPM-S. SAS3 provides a general procedure for cross-section preparation followed by a shielding analysis using the MORSE-SGC Monte Carlo code. The SAS4 module has been tailored to perform a Monte  Carlo shielding analysis for a cask-type geometry. An automated scheme is incorporated in SAS4 to generate Monte Carlo biasing parameters that enable SAS4 to calculate accurate doses with reasonable efficiency. The SAS2H module uses ORIGEN-S to perform a fuel depletion analysis (to characterize spent fuel and/or generate source terms) and an optional one-dimensional radial shielding  analysis of a cask-type geometry. ORIGEN-ARPis an automated depletion decay sequence for both PCs and workstations. It includes a menu-driven input processor (MS-DOS PC program) for ORIGEN-S and ARP (Automated Rapid Processing), which automatically interpolates cross  sections on enrichment, burnup, and optionally moderator density using a set of standard basic cross-section libraries for four LWR fuel assembly designs. The interpolated cross sections are passed to ORIGEN-S. Utility codes are provided so users can generate their own ORIGEN-ARP basic cross-section libraries via  SAS2H. The QADS module analyzes three-dimensional gamma-ray shielding problems via the point kernel code, QAD-CGGP. HTAS1 uses a single set of input to automatically manipulate a general-purpose conduction module (HEATING7.2) to perform a two-dimensional thermal analysis for a specific class of spent fuel casks during normal, fire, and post-fire conditions.
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4. METHOD OF SOLUTION

The SCALE system consists of easy-to-use analytical sequences which are automated to perform the necessary data processing and manipulation of well-established computer codes  required by the sequence. Thus, the user is able to select an analytical sequence characterized by the type of analysis (criticality, shielding, or heat transfer) to be performed and the geometric complexity of the system being analyzed. The user then prepares a single set of input for the control module corresponding  to this analytical sequence. The control module input is in terms of easily visualized engineering parameters specified in a simplified,  free-form format. The control modules use this information to derive additional parameters and prepare the input for each of the functional modules in the analytical sequence. Provisions have also  been made to allow the user to execute the functional modules on a stand alone basis. The radiation transport codes employ either discrete-ordinates or Monte Carlo methods.
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5. RESTRICTIONS ON THE COMPLEXITY OF THE PROBLEM

The existing control modules allow for automatic resonance processing of only a single pin cell type in a problem. Modeling assumptions that limit or restrict the usefulness or accuracy of the  individual  module are discussed in the documentation.
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6. TYPICAL RUNNING TIME

Running times are extremely problem dependent and depend heavily on the sequence used and the cross-section library selected.  Running times range from less than one minute for a simple one-dimensional criticality problem to more than an hour for a complex shielding problem.
Running all sample problems took approximately 24 hours on an IBM RS/6000 Model 580, 3 hours on a DEC Alpha 500/500, and 2.5 hours under windows on a Pentium III 500 MHz PC.
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7. UNUSUAL FEATURES: UNUSUAL FEATURES OF THE PROGRAM
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8. RELATED AND AUXILIARY PROGRAMS

Previous versions of the SCALE system were: SCALE-3 (CCC-0466); SCALE-2 (CCC-0450); SCALE-1 (CCC-0424); SCALE-0 (CCC-0288).
SCALE-3 (CCC-0446) - DATA LIBRARIES:
  16 group criticality cross section from Hansen-Roach.
  27 group cross sections based on ENDF/B-IV.
  123 group cross sections based on GAM-THERMOS.
  27n, 18g coupled cross sections based on ENDF/B-IV.
  22n, 18g coupled cross sections based on Straker-Morrison.
  18 group photon cross sections based on OGRE data.
  27 group cross sections for use with ORIGEN-S.
  Various cross section, decay, and yield libraries for ORIGEN-S.
SCALE-4.3 DATA LIBRARIES:
  SCALE standard Composition Library
  16-group criticality cross sections from Hansen-Roach
  27-group cross sections based on ENDF/B-IV
  218-group cross sections based on ENDF/B-IV
  44-group cross sections based on ENDF/B-V
  238-group cross sections based on ENDF/B-V
  27n, 18g coupled cross sections based on ENDF/B-IV
  22n, 18g coupled cross sections based on Straker-Morrison
  18-group photon cross sections based on OGRE data
  27-group cross sections for use in depletion analyses
  Various cross-section, decay, and yield libraries for ORIGEN-S
  Albedos and weighting functions for use by KENO
  Heat transfer material properties library
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9. STATUS
No status
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10. REFERENCES

- J. Oppe:
  Improved Calculation of Flux Shapes with the Resonance Shielding
  Code NITAWL
  ECN-I-93-003 (January 1993) (Validation Report)
- B.M. Palmer and C. Crawford:
  Validation of the CSAS25 Module of SCALE
  Part 1: Highly Enriched Uranium Solutions
  WINCO-1116 (July 1991).
- B.M. Palmer and C. Crawford:
  Validation of the CSAS25 Module of SCALE
  Part 2: Highly Enriched Uranium Metal Systems
  WINCO-1111 (September 1991).
- B.M. Palmer and C. Crawford:
  Validation of the CSAS25 Module of SCALE
  Part 3: Highly Enriched Uranium Oxide Systems
  WINCO-1118 (October 1991).
- W.C. Jordan et al.:
  Validation of KENO V.a, Comparison with Critical Experiments
  ORNL/CSD/TM-238 (December 1986)
- M.D. DeHart:
  Scale-4 Analysis of Pressurized Water Reactor Critical
  Configurations:
  Volume 1 - Summary
  ORNL/TM-12294/V1 (March 1995)
- O.W. Hermann et al.:
  Validation of the Scale System for PWR Spent Fuel Isotopic
  Composition Analyses
  ORNL/TM-12667 (March 1995)
- O.W. Hermann et al.:
  Technical Support for a Proposed Decay Heat Guide Using
  SAS2H/ORIGEN-S Data
  NUREG/CR-5625, ORNL-6698 (September 1994)
- M.D.DeHart et al.:
  Validation of the SCALE Broad Structure 44-Group ENDF/B-V Cross-
  Section Library for Use in Criticality Safety Analyses
  NUREG/CR-6102, ORNL/TM-12460 (September 1994)
- C.M. Hopper et al.:
  Criticality Safety Criteria for License Review of Low-Level
  Waste Facilities
  NUREG/CR-6284, ORNL/TM-12845 (March 1995)
- B.L. Broadhead et al.:
  Evaluation of Shielding Analysis Methods in Spent Fuel Cask
  Environments
  EPRI TR-104329, Research Project 3290-02, Final Report, May 1995
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11. MACHINE REQUIREMENTS

The Windows PC version runs on Pentium personal computers with a minimum of 32 MB RAM.  Nominal hard disk requirements are 500 MB for a complete installation, including space for running sample problems.. SCALE runs on Windows 95/98/NT/2000 platforms.  The Unix version of SCALE-4.4a runs on IBM RS/6000, DEC, SUN, HP, and SGI workstations and on Pentium personal computers running Linux.  A minimum of 650 MB is required to create executables and run test cases.
Some problems were unresolved at the time of the release.  On SGI there were problems with test cases for PICTURE, HEATING1 and 1A and KENO-VI case 23.  Under Linux the PBM files were not successfully installed.  The ORIGNARP PC input processor for ORIGEN-ARP does not run on many Pentium II and III PCs, and there does not seem to be a fix.  A new Windows version of ORIGEN-ARP is under development.  See the SCALE web site for updates.
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12. PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE(S) USED
No specified programming language
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13. OPERATING SYSTEM UNDER WHICH PROGRAM IS EXECUTED

Executables included in the PC windows package were created using the Lahey F90 Fortran compiler version 4.00e in a DOS window of Windows NT 4.0.
Makefiles, source files, and batch files are also included in the PC package. It was tested on Pentium PC's running Windows95, WindowsNT 4.0, Windows98 and Windows2000.

Fortran 90 and C compilers are required to install the Unix version. A program to convert the source files between various UNIX computing platforms is included to facilitate code conversion. Makefile configurations are also included to allow the source codes to compile on DEC Alpha OSF/1, IBM/AIX, SUN/Solaris, HP/HP-UX10, and SGI/IRIX workstations. This version was compiled using Digital Fortran 90 V4.1-270 on a DEC Alpha 500/500 workstation under Digital Unix
4.0. The distribution is configured on a DEC Alpha workstation. Note that makefiles are included for creating the executables, installing libraries and running sample problems on Unix. Both binary and BCD formatted AMPX master libraries are included in this distribution. See the README files for more information.

The Unix version of SCALE4.4a was tested on the following systems:

IBM 43P-260, AIX 4.3.3 with XLF 6.1 and XL C 4.4
IBM RS/6000 590, AIX 4.2.1 with XLF and XLF90 5.1.1.0 and C version 4.3
DEC/Alpha 500au, Digital Unix 4.0D with Fortran 77 5.1-8 and Fortran 90 V5.1-594
SUN UltraSparc 60, SunOS 5.6 with f77 5, Fortran 90 2.0 and C version 5.0
HP B1000, HP-UX B.10.20 with Fortran 90 version 1.0 and ANSI C compiler
SGI IRIX 6.5.5 with MIPSPro Fortran 90 7.3 and MIPSPro C 7.3
Pentium III, RedHat Linux 6.1 with The Portland Group, Inc. (PGI) F90 compiler 3.1-3 & gcc.
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14. OTHER PROGRAMMING OR OPERATING INFORMATION OR RESTRICTIONS:
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15. NAME AND ESTABLISHMENT OF AUTHORS

Contributed by:
                Radiation Shielding Information Center
                Oak Ridge National Laboratory
                Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U. S. A.

Developed by:   Oak Ridge National Laboratory
                Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U. S. A.
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16. MATERIAL AVAILABLE
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17. CATEGORIES

Keywords: Bondarenko scheme, Monte Carlo method, albedo, cell calculation, criticality, cross sections, fission products, fuel management, heat conduction, heat transfer, isotope production, modular programming, multiplication factors, neutron transport theory, radioactive decay, resonance absorption, self-shielding, three-dimensional, transmutation.