last modified: 19-MAY-1983 | catalog | categories | new | search |

CCC-0229 KRONIC.

KRONIC, Annual Body Tissue Dose from Continuous Atmospheric Release

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1. NAME OR DESIGNATION OF PROGRAM:  KRONIC.
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2. COMPUTERS
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Program name Package id Status Status date
KRONIC CCC-0229/01 Tested 19-MAY-1983

Machines used:

Package ID Orig. computer Test computer
CCC-0229/01 IBM 370/168 IBM 370/168
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3. DESCRIPTION OF PROBLEM OR FUNCTION

KRONIC calculates the annual external total body tissue dose from chronic release of radionuclides to the atmosphere. The code does not analyse release path phenomena; the release rate is given as a starting parameter. Atmospheric dispersion effects are estimated using data on joint frequency of occurrence of wind speed, wind direction and stability  for a particular site. Each sector is considered to be a plume for which the centre line ground level dose is calculated for specified  downwind distances. The result of the calculation is a table of annual dose rates as a function of direction and distance from the release point.

The beta dose contribution is calculated using a semi-infinite cloud model; the range of beta particles in air is short compared to the dimensions of the plumes. The range of gamma rays is longer and  a space integration over the plume  volume is performed.

The gamma dose is calculated as a tissue dose at the body surface, at 1 cm, and at 5 cm depth. The beta and gamma doses are reported separately or added together, as required.
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4. METHOD OF SOLUTION

The program is divided into two separately executable parts. The first of these, FDOSE, computes gamma dose factors by a numerical volume integration of an espression involving the attenuation of gamma rays in air, modelled by a linear attenuation coefficient and a buildup factor, together with data specifying wind speed and direction, crosswinds, and the height and  rate of radionuclide release. An eight point polynomial technique is used to perform the integration.

These dose rate factors may be stored in a data library for future use, or passed directly to the second part of the program, CHRONI, which combines them with radionuclide decay data to generate doses and air concentrations.

   KRONIC uses three types of data library containing:
- data on radionuclide decay schemes, half lives and beta energy    production
- data on photon production
- dose rate factors, as calculated by FDOSE.
The program includes libraries containing data for nearly 600 nuclides, including fission products and activation products.
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5. RESTRICTIONS ON THE COMPLEXITY OF THE PROBLEM

A maximum of 8 wind  speeds, 6 weather stability types, and 16 angular sectors can be specified.
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6. TYPICAL RUNNING TIME

For a sample problem the second part of KRONIC, i.e. CHRONI, requires 10.3 seconds of IBM 360 CPU time to read the specified nuclide release rates from data libaries, 0.58 seconds to calculate air concentrations, 13.7 seconds for gamma doses and 2.1 seconds for beta and skin doses.
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7. UNUSUAL FEATURES OF THE PROGRAM:
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8. RELATED AND AUXILIARY PROGRAMS:
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9. STATUS
Package ID Status date Status
CCC-0229/01 19-MAY-1983 Tested at NEADB
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10. REFERENCES

-  D.L. Strenge, E.C. Watson:
   KRONIC - A Computer Program for Calculating Annual Average
External Doses from Chronic Atmospheric Releases of Radionuclides    Batelle Report BNWL-B-264 (June 1973)
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11. MACHINE REQUIREMENTS:
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12. PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE(S) USED
Package ID Computer language
CCC-0229/01 FORTRAN+ASSEMBLER
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13. OPERATING SYSTEM UNDER WHICH PROGRAM IS EXECUTED:
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14. OTHER PROGRAMMING OR OPERATING INFORMATION OR RESTRICTIONS:
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15. NAME AND ESTABLISHMENT OF AUTHOR

   D.L. Strenge, E.C. Watson
   Occupational and Environmental Safety Department
   Batelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories
   Richland, Washington 99352, U.S.A.
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16. MATERIAL AVAILABLE
CCC-0229/01
File name File description Records
CCC0229_01.003 KRONIC INFORMATION FILE 67
CCC0229_01.004 FDOSE SOURCE PROGRAM (FORTRAN-4) 802
CCC0229_01.005 FDOSE JCL 8
CCC0229_01.006 FDOSE INPUT DATA 22
CCC0229_01.007 FDOSE OUTPUT 123
CCC0229_01.008 CHRONI SOURCE (FORTRAN-4) 1183
CCC0229_01.009 LOGICALS SOURCE (ASSEMBLER) 158
CCC0229_01.010 MASK SOURCE (ASSEMBLER) 83
CCC0229_01.011 PARTWORD SOURCE (FORTRAN-4) 249
CCC0229_01.012 SHIFTORS SOURCE (ASSEMBLER) 145
CCC0229_01.013 KRONIC JCL 45
CCC0229_01.014 INPUT (AIR CONCENTRATION PROB) 38
CCC0229_01.015 OUTPUT (AIR CONCENTRATION PROB) 78
CCC0229_01.016 INPUT (INVENTORY PROB) 51
CCC0229_01.017 OUTPUT (INVENTORY PROB) 313
CCC0229_01.018 THERM LIBRARY (BCD) 596
CCC0229_01.019 ISOLIB LIBRARY (BCD) 667
CCC0229_01.020 DOSRFL LIBRARY (BCD) 564
CCC0229_01.021 DRFACL LIBRARY (BCD) 1127
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17. CATEGORIES
  • G. Radiological Safety, Hazard and Accident Analysis
  • R. Environmental and Earth Sciences

Keywords: atmospheric precipitations, dose rates, doses, electrons, gamma radiation, radioactive release, tissues.